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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928235/testosterone-protects-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-castrated-male-rats-mainly-via-modulating-er-stress
#2
Yue Jia, Jennifer Kuang Yee, Christina Wang, Liana Nikolaenko, Maruja Diaz-Arjonilla, Joshua N Cohen, Samuel W French, Peter Y Liu, YanHe Lue, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Ronald S Swerdloff
We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement)...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924478/a-rare-cause-of-metabolic-acidosis-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-lactating-woman
#3
Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali, Jonathan Webster
Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924074/postprandial-glucose-surges-after-extremely-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-healthy-adults
#4
Koji Kanamori, Noriko Ihana-Sugiyama, Ritsuko Yamamoto-Honda, Tomoka Nakamura, Chie Sobe, Shigemi Kamiya, Miyako Kishimoto, Hiroshi Kajio, Kimiko Kawano, Mitsuhiko Noda
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915665/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#5
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883241/ketoacidosis-due-to-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-an-elderly-woman-with-dementia-and-abnormal-eating-behavior
#6
Hitoshi Iwata, Seiichiro Tsuzuki, Mitsunaga Iwata, Teruhiko Terasawa
Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877764/perilipin-2-modulates-dietary-fat-induced-microbial-global-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-mouse-intestine
#7
Xuejian Xiong, Elise S Bales, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, James L McManaman, Daniel N Frank, John Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota are critical determinants of obesity and metabolic disease risk. In previous work, we showed that deletion of the cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD) protein perilipin-2 (Plin2) modulates gut microbial community structure and abrogates long-term deleterious effects of a high-fat (HF) diet in mice. However, the impact of Plin2 on microbiome function is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we used metatranscriptomics to identify differences in microbiome transcript expression in WT and Plin2-null mice following acute exposure to high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HF) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LF) diets...
September 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877457/a-ketogenic-diet-extends-longevity-and-healthspan-in-adult-mice
#8
Megan N Roberts, Marita A Wallace, Alexey A Tomilov, Zeyu Zhou, George R Marcotte, Dianna Tran, Gabriella Perez, Elena Gutierrez-Casado, Shinichiro Koike, Trina A Knotts, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Kyoungmi Kim, Kevork Hagopian, Fawaz G Haj, Keith Baar, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey, Jose Alberto Lopez-Dominguez
Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877343/transition-to-agriculture-in-south-eastern-arabia-insights-from-oral-conditions
#9
Olivia Munoz
OBJECTIVES: In Southeast (SE) Arabia, agriculture is supposed to expand around 3000 BC, but its tempo and its actual role in populations' subsistence is still debated by archaeologists. Here, we compare dental health conditions of 11 skeletal samples from coastal and inland sites, dated from the Late Neolithic (ca. 4500-3100 BC) to the Early Bronze Age (EBA), conventionally divided into Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BC) and Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2700-2000 BC). The goal is to assess long-term trends in subsistence patterns and regional variability during the local transition to agriculture...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876395/oral-insulin-improves-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#10
Leandro C Lipinski, Louise B Kmetiuk, Paulo C F Mathias, Ananda Malta, Giovani M Favero, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Alceu Toledo, Mario R Montemor Netto, Marcos R S Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION/AIM: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855275/dynamic-proteome-profiling-of-individual-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-resistance-exercise
#11
Donny M Camera, Jatin G Burniston, Mark A Pogson, William J Smiles, John A Hawley
It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise...
August 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845625/impact-of-carbohydrate-restriction-on-healthy-adolescent-development
#12
Hannah M Richmond, David M Duriancik
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription...
September 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841772/prop-nontaster-women-lose-more-weight-following-a-low-carbohydrate-versus-a-low-fat-diet-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Brenda Burgess, Hollie A Raynor, Beverly J Tepper
OBJECTIVE: Taste blindness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) associates with increased fat preference and intake. No studies have matched a diet to a woman's PROP phenotype to improve weight loss. This study investigated (1) whether PROP nontaster (NT) women would lose more weight following a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet than a low-fat (LF) diet, and (2) whether PROP supertaster (ST) women would lose more weight following a LF diet than a LC diet. METHODS: One hundred seven women (BMI = 34...
August 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822907/leaf-carbohydrates-influence-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-nocturnal-carboxylation-and-starch-degradation-in-the-facultative-cam-plant-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum
#14
Tahar Taybi, John C Cushman, Anne M Borland
Nocturnal degradation of transitory starch is a limiting factor for the optimal function of crassulacean acid metabolism and must be coordinated with phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)-mediated CO2 uptake to optimise carbon gain over the diel cycle. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that nocturnal carboxylation is coordinated with starch degradation in CAM via a mechanism whereby the products of these pathways regulate diel transcript abundance and enzyme activities for both processes. To test this hypothesis, a starch and CAM-deficient mutant of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was compared with wild type plants under well-watered and saline (CAM-inducing) conditions...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814394/dynamics-of-intrapericardial-and-extrapericardial-fat-tissues-during-long-term-dietary-induced-moderate-weight-loss
#15
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791253/potential-role-of-metabolic-intervention-in-the-management-of-advanced-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#16
Sri Harsha Tella, Anuhya Kommalapati, Mary Angelynne Esquivel, Ricardo Correa
Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy that has an excellent prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of about 98%. However, approximately 50% of the patients with DTC who present with distant metastases (advanced DTC) die from the disease within 5 years of initial diagnosis even after getting the appropriate therapy. Apart from recent advancements in chemotherapy agents, the potential role of metabolic interventions, including the use of metformin, ketogenic diet, and high-dose vitamin C in the management of advanced cancers have been investigated as a less toxic co-adjuvant therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778055/the-effect-of-the-ketogenic-diet-on-the-developing-skeleton
#17
Peter J Simm, Jillian Bicknell-Royle, Jock Lawrie, Judy Nation, Kellie Draffin, Karen G Stewart, Fergus J Cameron, Ingrid E Scheffer, Mark T Mackay
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a medically supervised, high fat, low carbohydrate and restricted protein diet which has been used successfully in patients with refractory epilepsy. Only one published report has explored its effect on the skeleton. We postulated that the KD impairs skeletal health parameters in patients on the KD. Patients commenced on the KD were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study, with monitoring of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone parameters including bone mineral content and density (BMD)...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764104/co-fermentation-of-sewage-sludge-with-ryegrass-for-enhancing-hydrogen-production-performance-evaluation-and-kinetic-analysis
#18
Guang Yang, Jianlong Wang
The low C/N ratio and low carbohydrate content of sewage sludge limit its application for fermentative hydrogen production. In this study, perennial ryegrass was added as the co-substrate into sludge hydrogen fermentation with different mixing ratios for enhancing hydrogen production. The results showed that the highest hydrogen yield of 60mL/g-volatile solids (VS)added was achieved when sludge/perennial ryegrass ratio was 30:70, which was 5 times higher than that from sole sludge. The highest VS removal of 21...
July 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759939/effects-of-a-low-calorie-low-carbohydrate-soy-containing-diet-on-systemic-inflammation-among-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-parallel-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Ali Hashemi Kani, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Peyman Adibi, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Leila Azadbakht
Few studies have focused on the effects of a soy containing diet on inflammation and serum leptin level among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of such a diet in patients with NAFLD. Forty-five patients with NAFLD participated in this parallel randomized clinical trial for 8 weeks. Patients were randomly allocated to these 3 groups: 1) a low-calorie diet, 2) low-calorie low-carbohydrate diet, and 3) low-calorie low-carbohydrate soy containing diet...
July 31, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752977/-correlation-between-dietary-nutrition-and-premature-ovarian-failure
#20
Hui Chen, Ran Cheng, Liang-Zhi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between dietary nutrition and premature ovarian failure (POF). METHODS: A case control study was undertaken in 294 patients recruited from the reproductive endocrine clinic of our hospital over the period from November 2015 to January 2017. The POF group included women with premature ovarian failure , and women with normal menstruation were included as control group. The dietary and nutritional status of these patients were analyzed and compared...
July 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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