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Moira S Lewitt, Emma Strage, David Church
BACKGROUND: Achieving insulin independence is emerging as a realistic therapeutic goal in the management of feline diabetes mellitus. CASE PRESENTATION: The management of an 11-year-old spayed female Burmese cat presenting with diabetes mellitus after corticosteroid administration is described. Remission was achieved after the frequency of insulin administration was increased to four times a day, and supported by intensive home blood glucose monitoring and a high protein, low carbohydrate diet...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Alessandra Lodi, Bettina Karsten, Gerardo Bosco, Manuel Gómez-López, Paula Paraguassú Brandão, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli
: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
N Guess
BACKGROUND: Diets reduced or low in carbohydrates are becoming increasingly popular. The replacement foods and their accompanying nutrients determine the health effects of such diets. However, little is known about the dietary intake of people consuming reduced or low carbohydrate diets. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake of individuals aged 16-75 years consuming less than 40% of energy from carbohydrate (n = 430) was compared with individuals consuming equal to or more than 40% energy from carbohydrate (n = 1833) using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Parvin Mirmiran, Golaleh Asghari, Hossein Farhadnejad, Ghazaleh Eslamian, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Fereidoun Azizi
This cohort study was conducted to examine the association of low carbohydrate diet (LCD) score with risk of incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components after 3.6 years of follow-up in 2044 healthy adults within framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The LCD was calculated according to intakes of carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids, refined grains, vegetable protein, fiber, n3/n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio and glycemic load (GL), using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Teresa Esposito, Jean Marc Lobaccaro, Maria Grazia Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Antonietta Messina, Giuseppe Paolisso, Bruno Varriale, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs) in patients with high amounts of Abs...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Camila Rubio-Patiño, Jozef P Bossowski, Elodie Villa, Laura Mondragón, Barbara Zunino, Emma Proïcs, Johanna Chiche, Frédéric Bost, Els Verhoeyen, Jean-Ehrland Ricci
Overexpression of Mcl-1 is implicated in resistance of several cancers to chemotherapeutic treatment, therefore identifying a safe way to decrease its expression in tumor cells represents a central goal. We investigated if a modulation of the diet could impact on Mcl-1 expression using a Myc-driven lymphoma model. We established that a partial reduction of caloric intake by 25% represents an efficient way to decrease Mcl-1 expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, using isocaloric custom diets, we observed that carbohydrates (CHO) are the main regulators of Mcl-1 expression within the food...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Sofia Ahola, Mari Auranen, Pirjo Isohanni, Satu Niemisalo, Niina Urho, Jana Buzkova, Vidya Velagapudi, Nina Lundbom, Antti Hakkarainen, Tiina Muurinen, Päivi Piirilä, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Anu Suomalainen
Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate "modified Atkins" diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1...
September 19, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Anja Mikic, Cara E Pietrolungo
There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
María Eugenia Orqueda, Marisa Rivas, Iris Catiana Zampini, María Rosa Alberto, Sebastian Torres, Soledad Cuello, Jorge Sayago, Samanta Thomas-Valdes, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, María Inés Isla
The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
S D Pointer, J Rickstrew, J C Slaughter, M F Vaezi, H J Silver
BACKGROUND: Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. AIM: To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yoriko Heianza, Wenjie Ma, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yan Zheng, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is involved in regulation of energy balance and adipose metabolism. Our previous genome-wide association study identified genetic variants in the FGF21 region associated with macronutrient intake preference. We investigated whether the FGF21 genotype modified effects of weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on changes in adiposity in a 2-year randomized diet intervention trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped FGF21 rs838147 in 715 overweight or obese individuals who were assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient contents...
August 31, 2016: Diabetes Care
Tristan Chalvon-Demersay, Patrick C Even, Daniel Tomé, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Claire Gaudichon, Dalila Azzout-Marniche
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a polypeptide secreted by the liver and involved in several metabolic processes such as thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. The nutritional mechanisms controlling FGF21 production are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how dietary carbohydrates and proteins impact FGF21 production and how in turn, FGF21 is involved in the metabolic adaptation to changes in the carbohydrate and protein contents of the diet. For that purpose, we fed 25 male C57BL/6 mice diets composed of different protein and carbohydrate contents (normal-protein and carbohydrate diet (N=9, NPNC), low-protein high-carbohydrate diet (N=8, LPHC), high-protein low-carbohydrate diet (N=8, HPLC) for 3 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Anita S Elidottir, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir, Alfons Ramel
BACKGROUND/AIM: Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months...
2016: PloS One
Christopher Smyl
Research of the last two decades showed that chronic low-grade inflammation, elevated blood glucose and insulin levels may play role in the onset of a number of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. Regular exercise and fasting can ameliorate high blood glucose and insulin levels as well as increase the concentration of plasma ketone bodies. These, in consequence, may lead to reduction of inflammation. Exercise or severe restriction of caloric intake is not always advisable for patients, in particular those suffering from cancer...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
A Campanati, E Molinelli, G Ganzetti, K Giuliodori, I Minetti, M Taus, M Catani, E Martina, L Conocchiari, A Offidani
OBJECTIVE: TNF alpha inhibitors are usually associated with anthropometric changes over the time, however whether and how the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is involved in this phenomenon, still remains unclear. Aim of the study is to evaluate if the increases in trunk fat percentage (TF%) and VAT are directly involved in anthropometric changes occurring during treatment, and whether and how a calorie restricted diet could prevent these changes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients receiving TNF-alpha inhibitors for psoriasis was evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 24 weeks of therapy (T24), and then compared with 25 patients receiving a combined treatment based on TNF alpha inhibitors and low-carbohydrates calorie-restricted diet...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Richelle Mychasiuk, Jong M Rho
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hallmark behavioral features. The spectrum of disorders that fall within the ASD umbrella encompass a distinct but overlapping symptom complex that likely results from an array of molecular and genetic aberrations rather than a single genetic mutation. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat low-carbohydrate anti-seizure and neuroprotective diet that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ASD-like behaviors in animal and human studies...
August 16, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Andrew J Murray, Nicholas S Knight, Mark A Cole, Lowri E Cochlin, Emma Carter, Kirill Tchabanenko, Tica Pichulik, Melanie K Gulston, Helen J Atherton, Marie A Schroeder, Robert M J Deacon, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Robert Pawlosky, J Nicholas P Rawlins, Damian J Tyler, Julian L Griffin, Jeremy Robertson, Richard L Veech, Kieran Clarke
Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels...
August 15, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Megan L Gow, Sarah P Garnett, Louise A Baur, Natalie B Lister
Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high...
2016: Nutrients
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