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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441523/carbohydrates-and-gibberellins-relationship-in-potato-tuberization
#1
Hana Ševčíková, Petra Mašková, Danuše Tarkowská, Tomáš Mašek, Helena Lipavská
Potato represents the third most important crop worldwide and therefore to understand regulations of tuber onset is crucial from both theoretical and practical points of view. Photosynthesis and related carbohydrate status along with phytohormone balance belong to the essential factors in regulation of plant development including storage organ formation. In our work we used potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Lada and its spontaneously tuberizing mutant (ST plants) grown in vitro under low carbohydrate availability (non-inductive conditions)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438412/an-acute-intake-of-theobromine-does-not-change-postprandial-lipid-metabolism-whereas-a-high-fat-meal-lowers-chylomicron-particle-number
#2
Lotte Smolders, Ronald P Mensink, Jogchum Plat
Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal...
April 2, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434208/dietary-interventions-for-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Suetonia C Palmer, Jasjot K Maggo, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, David W Johnson, Bernadet Sutanto, Marinella Ruospo, Allison Tong, Giovanni Fm Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Dietary changes are routinely recommended in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the basis of randomised evidence in the general population and non-randomised studies in CKD that suggest certain healthy eating patterns may prevent cardiovascular events and lower mortality. People who have kidney disease have prioritised dietary modifications as an important treatment uncertainty. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluated the benefits and harms of dietary interventions among adults with CKD including people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424480/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-hepatopathy-in-mouse-model-of-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-caused-by-a-bcs1l-mutation
#4
Janne Purhonen, Jayasimman Rajendran, Matthias Mörgelin, Kristiina Uusi-Rauva, Shintaro Katayama, Kaarel Krjutskov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Vidya Velagapudi, Juha Kere, Matti Jauhiainen, Vineta Fellman, Jukka Kallijärvi
Mitochondrial disorders are among the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism but largely lack treatments and have poor outcomes. High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) have shown beneficial effects in mouse models of mitochondrial myopathies, with induction of mitochondrial biogenesis as the suggested main mechanism. We fed KD to mice with respiratory chain complex III (CIII) deficiency and progressive hepatopathy due to mutated BCS1L, a CIII assembly factor. The mutant mice became persistently ketotic and tolerated the KD for up to 11 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421806/diet-and-liver-apoptosis-in-rats-a-particular-metabolic-pathway
#5
Maria Emilia Lopes Monteiro, Analucia Rampazzo Xavier, Vilma Blondet Azeredo
INTRODUCTION: Various studies have indicated an association between modifi cation in dietary macronutrient composition and liver apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: To explain how changes in metabolic pathways associated with a high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diet causes liver apoptosis. METHODS: Two groups of rats were compared. An experimental diet group (n = 8) using a high-protein (59.46%), high-fat (31.77%), and low-carbohydrate (8.77%) diet versus a control one (n = 9) with American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93-M diet...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397413/endocrine-and-metabolic-consequences-due-to-restrictive-carbohydrate-diets-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-an-illustrative-case-series
#6
Martin de Bock, Kristine Lobley, Donald Anderson, Elizabeth Davis, Kim Donaghue, Marcelle Pappas, Aris Siafarikas, Yoon Hi Cho, Timothy Jones, Carmel Smart
Low carbohydrate diets for the management of type 1 diabetes have been popularised by social media. The promotion of a low carbohydrate diet in lay media is in contrast to published pediatric diabetes guidelines that endorse a balanced diet from a variety of foods for optimal growth and development in children with type 1 diabetes. This can be a source of conflict in clinical practice. We describe a series of 6 cases where adoption of a low carbohydrate diet in children impacted growth and cardiovascular risk factors with potential long-term sequelae...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396939/fat-and-carbohydrate-content-in-the-diet-induces-drastic-changes-in-gene-expression-in-young-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs
#7
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Annika M J Lex, Dorte Bratbo Sørensen, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
In human health, there is interest in developing specific diets to reduce body weight. These studies are mainly focused on phenotypic changes induced in blood measurements, i.e., triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and insulin, and on physical changes, i.e., body weight and BMI. To evaluate the biological impact of diet interventions, it is very important to investigate the molecular mechanisms driving the diet-induced phenotypic changes in relevant tissues. However, studying these effects in humans is difficult due to ethical concerns in doing interventions and obtaining tissue samples and good animal models are therefore needed...
April 10, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#8
Bryan R Helm, Garett Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#9
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394459/ergogenic-properties-of-metformin-in-simulated-high-altitude
#10
Rebecca L Scalzo, Hunter L Paris, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Joseph W Beals, Christopher L Melby, Gary J Luckasen, Matthew S Hickey, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell
Metformin augments glucose/glycogen regulation and may acutely promote fatigue resistance during high-intensity exercise. In hypobaric environments, such as high altitude, the important contribution of carbohydrates to physiological function is accentuated as glucose/glycogen dependence is increased. Because hypoxia/hypobaria decreases insulin sensitivity, replenishing skeletal muscle glycogen in high altitude becomes challenging and subsequent physical performance may be compromised. We hypothesized that in conditions where glycogen repletion was critical to physical outcomes, metformin would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in exercise performance...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393204/inverse-relationship-between-insulin-receptor-expression-and-progression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Makoto Takahashi, Takamitsu Inoue, Mingguo Huang, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Mitsuru Saito, Atsushi Maeno, Eijiro Nakamura, Shintaro Narita, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Tomonori Habuchi
We investigated the relationship among serum insulin level, insulin receptor (IR) expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and outcomes in patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomy. We also explored the role of insulin signaling in RCC progression in a murine RCC allograft RENCA model using metformin to treat hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Clinically, the IR expression level in RCC tissue was significantly lower in patients with tumor stage pT2-4 and/or distant metastases. The IR expression level in RCC tissue was significantly lower in patients with preoperative serum C-peptide levels greater than or equal to the median than in patients with levels less than the median...
April 5, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389243/characterization-of-fat-metabolism-in-the-fatty-liver-caused-by-a-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-a-study-under-equal-energy-conditions
#12
Yuka Kurosaka, Yoko Shiroya, Hideki Yamauchi, Hiromi Kitamura, Kumiko Minato
The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group...
May 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377375/practices-should-be-able-to-keep-money-saved-from-putting-patients-on-low-carbohydrate-diet-gp-says
#13
Jane Feinmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376869/differential-circulating-concentrations-of-adipokines-glucagon-and-adropin-in-a-clinical-population-of-lean-overweight-and-diabetic-cats
#14
Rizaldy C Zapata, Melissa D Meachem, Natalia Cavalca Cardoso, Susan O Mehain, Chantal J McMillan, Elisabeth R Snead, Prasanth K Chelikani
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia, dysregulated adipokine secretion and alteration in glucagon and adropin concentrations are important obesity-related factors in the pathophysiology of human Type 2 diabetes; however, their roles in the pathophysiology of feline diabetes mellitus are relatively unknown. Here, we determined the concentrations of circulating leptin, adiponectin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, glucagon, adropin, triglycerides, and cholesterol, in non-diabetic lean and overweight cats and newly diagnosed diabetic cats...
April 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366810/a-nutritional-perspective-of-ketogenic-diet-in-cancer-a-narrative-review
#15
Camila L P Oliveira, Stephanie Mattingly, Ralf Schirrmacher, Michael B Sawyer, Eugene J Fine, Carla M Prado
The predominant use of glucose anaerobically by cancer cells (Warburg effect) may be the most important characteristic the majority of these cells have in common and, therefore, a potential metabolic pathway to be targeted during cancer treatment. Because this effect relates to fuel oxidation, dietary manipulation has been hypothesized as an important strategy during cancer treatment. As such, the concept of a ketogenic diet (KD) in cancer emerged as a metabolic therapy (ie, targeting cancer cell metabolism) rather than a dietary approach...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361745/short-term-impact-of-a-classical-ketogenic-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-a-3-month-prospective-observational-study
#16
Anna Tagliabue, Cinzia Ferraris, Francesca Uggeri, Claudia Trentani, Simona Bertoli, Valentina de Giorgis, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Marina Elli
BACKGROUND&AIMS: The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. METHODS: Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359101/treatment-of-pediatric-obesity-an-umbrella-systematic-review
#17
Tamim Rajjo, Khaled Mohammed, Mouaz Alsawas, Ahmed T Ahmed, Wigdan Farah, Noor Asi, Jehad Almasri, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
Objective: Multiple interventions are available to reduce excess body weight in children. We appraised the quality of evidence supporting each intervention and assessed the effectiveness on different obesity-related outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating pediatric obesity interventions applied for ≥6 months. We assessed the quality of evidence for each intervention using GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345762/short-term-effects-of-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-glycaemic-parameters-and-cardiovascular-risk-markers-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-randomised-open-label-cross-over-trial
#18
A Ranjan, S Schmidt, C Damm-Frydenberg, J Holst, S Madsbad, K Nørgaard
The objective was to compare effects of high carbohydrate diet (HCD) versus low carbohydrate diet (LCD) on glycaemic parameters and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (4 women, insulin pump-treated, median±SD age: 48 ± 10 years, HbA1c: 53 ± 6 mmol/mol (7.0 ± 0.6%)) followed one week of isocaloric HCD (≥250 g/day) and one week of isocaloric LCD (≤50 g/day) in random order. After each week, we downloaded pump and sensor data and collected fasting blood and urine samples...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338608/impact-of-high-carbohydrate-diet-on-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Chan-Hee Jung, Kyung Mook Choi
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322630/energy-macronutrient-and-water-intake-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon-event-the-influence-of-distance
#20
Sonia Martinez, Antoni Aguilo, Lluis Rodas, Leticia Lozano, Carlos Moreno, Pedro Tauler
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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