Read by QxMD icon Read

Plant function* struct* model*

Muhammad Abdullah, Yunpeng Cao, Xi Cheng, Awais Shakoor, Xueqiang Su, Junshan Gao, Yongping Cai
The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species ( Fragaria vesca , Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume , respectively)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Bing Zhang, Yunfeng Yang
Understanding diversity and assembly patterns of microbial communities in activated sludge (AS) is pivotal for addressing fundamental ecological questions and wastewater treatment engineering. Recent applications of molecular methods especially next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the explosion of information about AS community diversity, including the identification of uncultured taxa, and characterization of low-abundance but environmentally important populations such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Marika Ziesack, Nathan Rollins, Aashna Shah, Brendon Dusel, Gordon Webster, Pamela A Silver, Jeffrey C Way
Medium-chain fatty acids are commodity chemicals. Increasing and modifying the activity of thioesterases (TEs) on medium chain fatty acyl-ACP esters may enable high yield microbial production of these molecules. The plant Cuphea palustris harbors two distinct TEs: Cp FatB1 (C8 -specificity, lower activity) and Cp FatB2 (C14 -specificity, higher activity) with 78% sequence identity. We combined structural features from these two enzymes to create several chimeric TEs, some of which showed non-natural fatty acid production as measured by an enzymatic assay and GC-MS...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Raffaele Rani, Konrad Abramowicz, Daniel S Falster, Frank Sterck, Åke Brännström
Allocation of carbohydrates between competing organs is fundamental to plant development, growth and productivity. Carbohydrates are synthesized in mature leaves and distributed via the phloem vasculature to developing buds where they are consumed to produce new biomass. The distribution and mass-allocation processes within the plant remain poorly understood and may involve complex feedbacks between different plant functions, with implications for the emergent structure of the plant. Here, we investigate how the order in which dormant buds are flushed affects the development of tree size and reproductive output during the first 20 years of growth in full light and shaded canopy environments...
March 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Cyril Hamiaux, Revel S M Drummond, Zhiwei Luo, Hui Wen Lee, Prachi Sharma, Bart J Janssen, Nigel B Perry, William A Denny, Kimberley C Snowden
The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signalling, and transport offer many opportunities for discovering new plant growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14) and Arabidopsis (AtD14)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stefan A Rensing
The key structures and functions of land plants are most often studied in flowering plant models. However, the evolution of these traits (character states) is often difficult to infer, because we lack an accurate phylogenetic frame of reference. The potential branching order of the earliest land plants has now been further condensed, narrowing down potential reference frameworks for comparative studies.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shinnosuke Kagiya, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Atsushi J Nagano, Shunsuke Utsumi
Understanding how genetic variation within a foundation species determines the structure of associated communities and ecosystem processes has been an emerging frontier in ecology. Previous studies in common gardens identified close links between intraspecific variation and multispecies community structure, and these findings are now being evaluated directly in the complex natural ecosystem. In this study, we examined to what extent genomic variation in a foundation tree species explains the structure of associated arthropod communities in the field, comparing with spatial, temporal and environmental factors...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jean-François Barczi, Hervé Rey, Sébastien Griffon, Christophe Jourdan
Background and Aims: Many studies exist in the literature dealing with mathematical representations of root systems, categorized, for example, as pure structure description, partial derivative equations or functional-structural plant models. However, in these studies, root architecture modelling has seldom been carried out at the organ level with the inclusion of environmental influences that can be integrated into a whole plant characterization. Methods: We have conducted a multidisciplinary study on root systems including field observations, architectural analysis, and formal and mathematical modelling...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Botany
Malathy Palayam, Jagadeesan Ganapathy, Kanal Elamparithi Balu, Gautam Pennathur, Gunasekaran Krishnasamy
Protease inhibitors from plants play major role in defensive mechanism against various pathogenic organisms. AMTIN from the tubers of Alocasia macrorrhiza has been purified and characterized as multi-functional Kunitz type protease inhibitor. AMTIN is varied from other KTIs by having three different loops specific for binding to trypsin/amylase and subtilisin that are located approximately 30 Ǻ away from one another as evidenced from crystallographic efforts. Biochemical studies on AMTIN reveal simultaneous binding of protease/amylase and have been cross validated using in-silico tools to model Amylase - AMTIN - Trypsin complex without any steric clashes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Rabih Darwiche, Selam Gebremedhin, Geert Smant, Jose L Lozano-Torres, Claire Drurey, Jeroen Pollet, Rick M Maizels, Roger Schneiter, Ruud H P Wilbers
Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri is a model parasitic hookworm used to study animal and human helminth diseases. During infection, the parasite releases excretory/secretory (ES) products that modulate the immune system of the host. The most abundant protein family in ES products comprises the venom allergen-like proteins (VALs), which are members of the SCP/TAPS (Sperm-coating protein / Tpx / antigen 5 / pathogenesis related-1 / Sc7) superfamily. There are >30 secreted Heligmosomoides polygyrus VAL proteins (HpVALs) and these proteins are characterized by having either one or two 15 kDa CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) / antigen 5 / pathogenesis related-1) domains...
March 2, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Guorui Li, Jinguang Huang, Jun Yang, Dan He, Chao Wang, Xiaoxuan Qi, Ian A Taylor, Junfeng Liu, You-Liang Peng
Magnaporthe oryzae is a model fungal plant pathogen employed for studying plant-fungi interactions. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses revealed that this fungal pathogen has more than 12,000 protein-coding genes with 65% of the genes remaining functionally un-annotated. Here, we determine the structure of the hypothetical protein, MGG_01005 and show that it is the Magnaporthe oryzae Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (dynlt1/3), demonstrated by its structural similarity to other orthologous dynlt1 proteins and its conserved interaction with the N-terminus of the Magnaporthe oryzae dynein intermediate chain, MoDyn1I2...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yunfang Meng, Yumeng Fan, Wanqing Liao, Xiaorong Lin
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. Like many dimorphic fungal pathogens, C. neoformans can undergo morphological transition from the yeast form to the hypha form and its morphotype is tightly linked to its virulence. Although some genetic factors controlling morphogenesis have been identified, little is known about the epigenetic regulation in this process. Proteins with the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger, a structurally conserved domain in eukaryotes, are first identified in plants and are known to be involved in reading and effecting chromatin modification...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Swati Sharma, Vinita Hooda
Catalase is an essential antioxidant enzyme that is well characterized from microbial and animal sources. The structure of plant catalase is unknown. Therefore, it is of interest to understand the functional and structural characteristics of catalase from an Indian gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica (or Emblica officinalis). Hence, catalase from P. emblica was cloned in pUC18 plasmid, sequenced and submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers "MF979112" and "ATO98311.1". InterProScan showed that the coding sequence is monofunctional and haem-dependent catalase-like superfamily...
2018: Bioinformation
Eamonn F Healy, Luis Cervantes, Barret Nabona, Jacob Williams
The polyketide synthases found in a variety of plants and fungi provide a varied source of biologically active compounds of pharmacological and medicinal interest. Stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase catalyze the formation of a common tetraketide intermediate, but use different cyclization mechanisms to produce distinct and separate natural products. While key structural differences have been identified to explain this functional diversity, a fuller explication of the factors responsible for this mechanistic disparity is required...
February 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wangdan Xiong, Jianyu Fu, Tobias G Köllner, Xinlu Chen, Qidong Jia, Haobo Guo, Ping Qian, Hong Guo, Guojiang Wu, Feng Chen
Microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) genes are a type of terpene synthase genes only recently identified in plants. In contrast to typical plant terpene synthase genes, which are ubiquitous in land plants, MTPSL genes appear to occur only in nonseed plants. Our knowledge of catalytic functions of MTPSLs is very limited. Here we report biochemical characterization of the enzymes encoded by MTPSL genes from two closely related species of hornworts, Anthoceros punctatus and Anthoceros agrestis. Seven full-length MTPSL genes were identified in A...
February 26, 2018: Phytochemistry
Gabriel R Smith, Brian S Steidinger, Thomas D Bruns, Kabir G Peay
Findings of immense microbial diversity are at odds with observed functional redundancy, as competitive exclusion should hinder coexistence. Tradeoffs between dispersal and competitive ability could resolve this contradiction, but the extent to which they influence microbial community assembly is unclear. Because fungi influence the biogeochemical cycles upon which life on earth depends, understanding the mechanisms that maintain the richness of their communities is critically important. Here, we focus on ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are microbial plant mutualists that significantly affect global carbon dynamics and the ecology of host plants...
February 28, 2018: ISME Journal
Jorge Durán, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Andrew J Dougill, Reginald T Guuroh, Anja Linstädter, Andrew D Thomas, Fernando T Maestre
The relationship between the spatial variability of soil multifunctionality (i.e. the capacity of soils to conduct multiple functions; SVM) and major climatic drivers, such as temperature and aridity, has never been assessed globally in terrestrial ecosystems. We surveyed 236 dryland ecosystems from six continents to evaluate the relative importance of aridity and mean annual temperature, and of other abiotic (e.g., texture) and biotic (e.g., plant cover) variables as drivers of SVM, calculated as the averaged coefficient of variation for multiple soil variables linked to nutrient stocks and cycling...
February 27, 2018: Ecology
Adam R Martin, Christine E Hale, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, William A Gough, Jens Kattge, Cairan K F Tirona
Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Gary Loughran, Andrew E Firth, John F Atkins, Ivaylo P Ivanov
The efficiency of start codon selection during ribosomal scanning in eukaryotic translation initiation is influenced by the context or flanking nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. The levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factors 1 (eIF1) and 5 (eIF5) play critical roles in controlling the stringency of translation start site selection. The basic leucine zipper and W2 domain-containing proteins 1 and 2 (BZW1 and BZW2), also known as eIF5-mimic proteins, are paralogous human proteins containing C-terminal HEAT domains that resemble the HEAT domain of eIF5...
2018: PloS One
Mohamed A Attia, Cassandra E Nelson, Wendy A Offen, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Jeffrey G Gardner, Harry Brumer
Background: Xyloglucan (XyG) is a ubiquitous and fundamental polysaccharide of plant cell walls. Due to its structural complexity, XyG requires a combination of backbone-cleaving and sidechain-debranching enzymes for complete deconstruction into its component monosaccharides. The soil saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus has emerged as a genetically tractable model system to study biomass saccharification, in part due to its innate capacity to utilize a wide range of plant polysaccharides for growth...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"