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Plant model* function*

Frederic Strobl, Anita Anderl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Diploid transgenic organisms are either hemi- or homozygous. Genetic assays are, therefore, required to identify the genotype. Our AGameOfClones vector concept uses two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs. Cre-mediated recombination leads to hemizygous individuals that carry only one marker. In the following generation, heterozygous descendants are identified by the presence of both markers and produce homozygous progeny that are selected by the lack of one marker...
March 15, 2018: ELife
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Xue Yong, Xuehua Xie, Yu Han, Yushu Li, Lidan Sun, Qixiang Zhang
The survival in freezing temperature for woody plants is exclusively dependent on the perception of coldness and induction of dormancy. CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factors join cold-response conduits and the DAM genes, especially PmDAM6, are well-known regulators of dormancy. Despite the immense importance, little is documented on the association between CBF proteins and the complexity of the promoter region in PmDAM6 with the function of bud dormancy in P. mume. Therefore, this study was based on the cloning of PmDAM6 and six PmCBFs to evaluate their integral roles in the process of bud development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Christina Maria Franck, Jens Westermann, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls protecting them from a myriad of environmental challenges. For successful habitat adaptation, extracellular cues are perceived at the cell wall and relayed to downstream signaling constituents to mediate dynamic cell wall remodeling and adapted intracellular responses. Plant malectin-like receptor kinases, also known as Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like proteins (CrRLK1Ls), take part in these perception and relay processes. CrRLK1Ls are involved in many different plant functions...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Raffaele Rani, Konrad Abramowicz, Daniel S Falster, Frank Sterck, Åke Brännström
Allocation of carbohydrates between competing organs is fundamental to plant development, growth and productivity. Carbohydrates are synthesized in mature leaves and distributed via the phloem vasculature to developing buds where they are consumed to produce new biomass. The distribution and mass-allocation processes within the plant remain poorly understood and may involve complex feedbacks between different plant functions, with implications for the emergent structure of the plant. Here, we investigate how the order in which dormant buds are flushed affects the development of tree size and reproductive output during the first 20 years of growth in full light and shaded canopy environments...
March 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
S Kapil Arasu, J Prakash
In this work, the authors have designed and implemented predictor-corrector approach based control schemes for a single input-single output nonlinear system. The controller output is computed in two steps. The first step explicitly uses a non-linear model or multiple-linear models weighted using fuzzy membership function to compute the value of the controller output. The second step is based on the measurement, where the value of the controller output computed in first step is updated. The extensive simulation studies show that the set-point tracking and disturbance rejection capability of the proposed control schemes are found to be satisfactory in the absence and presence of Model-plant mismatch...
March 9, 2018: ISA Transactions
Lai-Sheng Meng, Meng-Ke Xu, Wen Wan, Jing-Yi Wang
In higher plants, seed mass is an important to evolutionary fitness. In this context, seedling establishment positively correlates with seed mass under conditions of environmental stress. Thus, seed mass constitutes an important agricultural trait. Here, we show loss-of-function of YODA (YDA), a MAPKK Kinase, decreased seed mass and lead to susceptibility to drought. Furthermore, we demonstrate that yda disrupts sugar metabolisms but not the gaseous plant hormone, ethylene. Our data suggest that the transcription factor EIN3 (ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3), integral to both sugar and ethylene metabolisms, physically interacts with YDA...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zixiang Wen, Ruijuan Tan, Shichen Zhang, Paul J Collins, Jiazheng Yuan, Wenyan Du, Cuihua Gu, Shujun Ou, Qijian Song, Yong-Qiang Charles An, John F Boyse, Martin I Chilvers, Dechun Wang
White mold of soybean, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a necrotrophic fungus capable of infecting a wide range of plants. To dissect the genetic architecture of resistance to white mold, a high-density customized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (52,041 SNPs) was used to genotype two soybean diversity panels. Combined with resistance variation data observed in the field and greenhouse environments, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance against white mold...
March 12, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sri I Pulungan, Ryoichi Yano, Yoshihiro Okabe, Takuji Ichino, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
Leaves are the major plant organs with a primary function for photosynthesis. Auxin controls various aspects of plant growth and development, including leaf initiation, expansion, and differentiation. Unique and intriguing auxin features include its polar transport, which is mainly controlled by the AUX1/LAX and PIN gene families as influx and efflux carriers, respectively. The role of AUX1/ LAX genes in root development is well documented, but the role of these genes in leaf morphogenesis remains unclear. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, while studies in tomato are still scarce...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Cyril Hamiaux, Revel S M Drummond, Zhiwei Luo, Hui Wen Lee, Prachi Sharma, Bart J Janssen, Nigel B Perry, William A Denny, Kimberley C Snowden
The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signalling, and transport offer many opportunities for discovering new plant growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14) and Arabidopsis (AtD14)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carlos H Trasviña-Arenas, Noe Baruch-Torres, Francisco J Cordoba-Andrade, Víctor M Ayala-García, Paola L García-Medel, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Antolín Peralta-Castro, José Juan Ordaz-Ortiz, Luis G Brieba
Plant mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes encode essential proteins for oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis. For proper cellular function, plant organelles must ensure genome integrity. Although plant organelles repair damaged DNA using the multi-enzyme Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway, the details of this pathway in plant organelles are largely unknown. The initial enzymatic steps in BER produce a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (5'-dRP) moiety that must be removed to allow DNA ligation and in plant organelles, the enzymes responsible for the removal of a 5'-dRP group are unknown...
February 27, 2018: DNA Repair
Jing Yu, Gan Ai, Danyu Shen, Chunyue Chai, Yuling Jia, Wenjing Liu, Daolong Dou
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, one of the largest transcription factor groups in plants, regulates many critical developmental processes. However, their functions in plant defense have not been extensively studied in Nicotiana benthamiana, an important model plant species for phytopathology. Here, we identified N. benthamiana bHLH genes (NbbHLHs) using a whole-genome searching approach, and found that the NbbHLHs are highly enriched and some subfamilies are selectively expanded in N. benthamiana...
March 6, 2018: Genomics
Edit Németh, Zoltán Nagy, Attila Pécsváradi
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is of central interest as the main route of ammonia assimilation in plants, and as a connection point between the organic and inorganic worlds. Even though GS activity is critical for producing high yields of crop plants, the autoregulation of substrate consumption of wheat GS remained unknown until now. Here we show kinetic evidence, that the chloroplast localized GS isoform (GS2) of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jubilejnaja-50) takes place at the carbon-nitrogen metabolic branch point, where it is a mediator, and its enzymatic activity is regulated in a negatively cooperative allosteric manner...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Angel Fernandez I Marti, Christopher A Saski, George A Manganaris, Ksenija Gasic, Carlos H Crisosto
It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gertrud Wiedemann, Nico van Gessel, Fabian Köchl, Lisa Hunn, Katrin Schulze, Lina Maloukh, Fabien Nogué, Eva L Decker, Frank Hartung, Ralf Reski
RecQ DNA helicases are genome surveillance proteins found in all kingdoms of life. They are characterized best in humans, as mutations in RecQ genes lead to developmental abnormalities and diseases. To better understand RecQ-functions in plants we concentrated on Arabidopsis thaliana and Physcomitrella patens, the model species predominantly used for studies on DNA repair and gene targeting. Phylogenetic analysis of the six P. patens RecQ genes revealed their orthologs in humans and plants. Because A. thaliana and P...
March 7, 2018: Plant Cell
Jesús Martínez-Cruz, Diego F Romero, Fernando de la Torre, Dolores Fernández-Ortuño, Juan Antonio Torés, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Perez-Garcia
Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew disease in cucurbits. In a previous study, we determined that P. xanthii expresses approximately 50 Podosphaera effector candidates (PECs), identified based on the presence of a predicted signal peptide and the absence of functional annotation. In this work, we used host-induced gene silencing (HIGS), employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector for the delivery of the silencing constructs (ATM-HIGS), to identify genes involved in early plant-pathogen interaction...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Rahul V Patel, Bhupendra M Mistry, Riyaz Syed, Anuj K Rathi, Young-Soo Keum
Flavonoids are allocated among various vegetations and in foodstuffs; consequently, they represent an inevitable part of the diet. Historical and epidemiological proof recommend that diet plans loaded with flavonoids such as quercetin have positive health benefits, especially on the heart. Flavonoids have been proven to have potential action towards hypertension, inflammation, diabetes and vascular disease. Their results on LDL lowering, platelet aggregation and vasodilatation recommend an ability to expel the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque formation...
March 5, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Barbara L F Kaplan
Cannabinoid compounds refer to a group of more than 60 plant-derived compounds in Cannabis sativa, more commonly known as marijuana. Exposure to marijuana and cannabinoid compounds has been increasing due to increased societal acceptance for both recreational and possible medical use. Cannabinoid compounds suppress immune function, and while this could compromise one's ability to fight infections, immune suppression is the desired effect for therapies for autoimmune diseases. It is critical, therefore, to understand the effects and mechanisms by which cannabinoid compounds alter immune function, especially immune responses induced in autoimmune disease...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Stefan A Rensing
The key structures and functions of land plants are most often studied in flowering plant models. However, the evolution of these traits (character states) is often difficult to infer, because we lack an accurate phylogenetic frame of reference. The potential branching order of the earliest land plants has now been further condensed, narrowing down potential reference frameworks for comparative studies.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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