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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925232/estimating-the-sensitivity-of-stomatal-conductance-to-photosynthesis-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Grace L Miner, William L Bauerle, Dennis D Baldocchi
A common approach for estimating fluxes of CO2 and water in canopy models is to couple a model of photosynthesis (An ) (e.g., Farquhar et al., 1980) to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance (gs ) such as the widely validated and utilized Ball-Berry (BB) model (e.g., Ball et al., 1987). This coupling provides an effective way of predicting transpiration at multiple scales. However, the designated value of the slope parameter (m) in the BB model impacts transpiration estimates. There is a lack of consensus regarding how m varies among species or plant functional types (PFTs) or in response to growth conditions...
December 6, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924044/plamom-a-comprehensive-database-compiles-plant-mobile-macromolecules
#3
Daogang Guan, Bin Yan, Christoph Thieme, Jingmin Hua, Hailong Zhu, Kenneth R Boheler, Zhongying Zhao, Friedrich Kragler, Yiji Xia, Shoudong Zhang
In plants, various phloem-mobile macromolecules including noncoding RNAs, mRNAs and proteins are suggested to act as important long-distance signals in regulating crucial physiological and morphological transition processes such as flowering, plant growth and stress responses. Given recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, numerous mobile macromolecules have been identified in diverse plant species from different plant families. However, most of the identified mobile macromolecules are not annotated in current versions of species-specific databases and are only available as non-searchable datasheets...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923473/real-time-tracking-control-of-electro-hydraulic-force-servo-systems-using-offline-feedback-control-and-adaptive-control
#4
Gang Shen, Zhencai Zhu, Jinsong Zhao, Weidong Zhu, Yu Tang, Xiang Li
This paper focuses on an application of an electro-hydraulic force tracking controller combined with an offline designed feedback controller (ODFC) and an online adaptive compensator in order to improve force tracking performance of an electro-hydraulic force servo system (EHFS). A proportional-integral controller has been employed and a parameter-based force closed-loop transfer function of the EHFS is identified by a continuous system identification algorithm. By taking the identified system model as a nominal plant model, an H∞ offline design method is employed to establish an optimized feedback controller with consideration of the performance, control efforts, and robustness of the EHFS...
December 3, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922614/molecular-mechanisms-at-the-core-of-the-plant-circadian-oscillator
#5
REVIEW
Maria A Nohales, Steve A Kay
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping networks that allow organisms to align their physiology with their changing environment and to perform biological processes at the most relevant times of the day and year. Initial feedback-loop models of the oscillator have been enriched by emerging evidence highlighting the increasing variety of factors and mechanisms that contribute to the generation of rhythms. In this Review, we consider the two major input pathways that connect the circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to its environment and discuss recent advances in understanding of how transcriptional, post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to clock function...
December 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922098/comparison-of-432-pseudomonas-strains-through-integration-of-genomic-functional-metabolic-and-expression-data
#6
Jasper J Koehorst, Jesse C J van Dam, Ruben G A van Heck, Edoardo Saccenti, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap
Pseudomonas is a highly versatile genus containing species that can be harmful to humans and plants while others are widely used for bioengineering and bioremediation. We analysed 432 sequenced Pseudomonas strains by integrating results from a large scale functional comparison using protein domains with data from six metabolic models, nearly a thousand transcriptome measurements and four large scale transposon mutagenesis experiments. Through heterogeneous data integration we linked gene essentiality, persistence and expression variability...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919557/trend-shifts-in-satellite-derived-vegetation-growth-in-central-eurasia-1982-2013
#7
Hao-Jie Xu, Xin-Ping Wang, Tai-Bao Yang
Central Eurasian vegetation is critical for the regional ecological security and the global carbon cycle. However, climatic impacts on vegetation growth in Central Eurasia are uncertain. The reason for this uncertainty lies in the fact that the response of vegetation to climate change showed nonlinearity, seasonality and differences among plant functional types. Based on remotely sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the years 1982-2013, in conjunction with the latest land cover type product, we analyzed how vegetation growth trend varied across different seasons and evaluated vegetation response to climate variables at regional, biome and pixel scales...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919081/m-6-a-potentiates-sxl-alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-for-robust-drosophila-sex-determination
#8
Irmgard U Haussmann, Zsuzsanna Bodi, Eugenio Sanchez-Moran, Nigel P Mongan, Nathan Archer, Rupert G Fray, Matthias Soller
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins. The mammalian mRNA m(6)A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir). In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917017/determination-of-coefficient-defining-leaf-area-development-in-different-genotypes-plant-types-and-planting-densities-in-peanut-arachis-hypogeae-l
#9
Oumarou Halilou, Halime Mahamat Hissene, José A Clavijo Michelangeli, Falalou Hamidou, Thomas R Sinclair, Afshin Soltani, Saadou Mahamane, Vincent Vadez
Rapid leaf area development may be attractive under a number of cropping conditions to enhance the vigor of crop establishment and allow rapid canopy closure for maximizing light interception and shading of weed competitors. This study was undertaken to determine (1) if parameters describing leaf area development varied among ten peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) genotypes grown in field and pot experiments, (2) if these parameters were affected by the planting density, and (3) if these parameters varied between Spanish and Virginia genotypes...
December 2016: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#10
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914200/assembling-the-tat-protein-translocase
#11
Felicity Alcock, Phillip J Stansfeld, Hajra Basit, Johann Habersetzer, Matthew Ab Baker, Tracy Palmer, Mark I Wallace, Ben C Berks
The twin-arginine protein translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts. The Tat transporter is assembled from multiple copies of the membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC. We combine sequence co-evolution analysis, molecular simulations, and experimentation to define the interactions between the Tat proteins of Escherichia coli at molecular-level resolution. In the TatBC receptor complex the transmembrane helix of each TatB molecule is sandwiched between two TatC molecules, with one of the inter-subunit interfaces incorporating a functionally important cluster of interacting polar residues...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913751/new-fungal-defensin-like-peptides-provide-evidence-for-fold-change-of-proteins-in-evolution
#12
Yucheng Wu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Defensins containing a consensus cystine framework, Cys[1]..Cys[2]X3Cys[3]..Cys[4]..Cys[5]X1Cys[6] ("X", any amino acids normally except Cys; "...", variable residue numbers), are extensively distributed in a variety of multicellular organisms (plants, fungi and invertebrates) and essentially involved in immunity as microbicidal agents. This framework is a prerequisite for forming a cystine-stabilized α-helix and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold, in which the two invariant motifs, Cys[2]X3Cys[3]/Cys[5]X1Cys[6], are key determinants of fold formation...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913746/anti-trachea-inflammatory-effects-of-diosgenin-from-dioscorea-nipponica-through-interactions-with-glucocorticoid-receptor-%C3%AE
#13
Yang Junchao, Wang Zhen, Wang Yuan, Xu Liying, Jiang Libin, Zhu Yuanhong, Zhao Wei, Chen Ruilin, Zhai Lu
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by symptoms of chronic inflammation and airway structural and functional changes. It affects about 300 million people worldwide and causes 250 000 deaths annually, but its symptoms can be greatly relieved by regular use of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs exert their function through interacting with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Diosgenin is a naturally occurring steroidal saponin abundantly present in many medicinal plants, including Dioscorea nipponica, which shares a similar steroidal structure with GC...
December 2, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#14
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911919/few-ant-species-play-a-central-role-linking-different-plant-resources-in-a-network-in-rupestrian-grasslands
#15
Fernanda V Costa, Marco A R Mello, Judith L Bronstein, Tadeu J Guerra, Renata L Muylaert, Alice C Leite, Frederico S Neves
Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911469/comprehensive-identification-and-clustering-of-clv3-esr-related-cle-genes-in-plants-finds-groups-with%C3%A2-potentially-shared-function
#16
David M Goad, Chuanmei Zhu, Elizabeth A Kellogg
CLV3/ESR (CLE) proteins are important signaling peptides in plants. The short CLE peptide (12-13 amino acids) is cleaved from a larger pre-propeptide and functions as an extracellular ligand. The CLE family is large and has resisted attempts at classification because the CLE domain is too short for reliable phylogenetic analysis and the pre-propeptide is too variable. We used a model-based search for CLE domains from 57 plant genomes and used the entire pre-propeptide for comprehensive clustering analysis. In total, 1628 CLE genes were identified in land plants, with none recognizable from green algae...
December 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911400/visualizing-stromule-frequency-with-fluorescence-microscopy
#17
Jacob O Brunkard, Anne M Runkel, Patricia Zambryski
Stromules, or "stroma-filled tubules", are narrow, tubular extensions from the surface of the chloroplast that are universally observed in plant cells but whose functions remain mysterious. Alongside growing attention on the role of chloroplasts in coordinating plant responses to stress, interest in stromules and their relationship to chloroplast signaling dynamics has increased in recent years, aided by advances in fluorescence microscopy and protein fluorophores that allow for rapid, accurate visualization of stromule dynamics...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910040/generation-of-efficient-mirna-inhibitors-using-tough-decoy-constructs
#18
Jimeen Yoo, Roger J Hajjar, Dongtak Jeong
Over the last decade a previously unappreciated mechanism of gene regulation has been uncovered that is mediated by a large class of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs), and this mechanism is utilized by organisms ranging from plants to humans. MiRNAs are important downregulators of gene expression and are seen to be dysregulated in disease development. Thus inhibition of aberrantly upregulated miRNAs as a therapeutic approach has become a promising field.Many models of miRNA inhibitors currently exist, with decoy models being the most successful in current research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902342/functional-analysis-of-a-viroid-rna-motif-mediating-cell-to-cell-movement-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
Dongmei Jiang, Meng Wang, Shifang Li
Cell-to-cell trafficking through different cellular layers is a key process for various RNAs including those of plant viruses and viroids, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are still not fully elucidated and good model systems are important. Here, we analyze the function of a simple RNA motif (termed "loop19") in Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which is required for trafficking in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Northern blotting, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that unlike wild type PSTVd, which was present in the nuclei in all cell types, the trafficking-defective loop19 mutants were visible only in the nuclei of upper epidermal and palisade mesophyll cells, which shows that PSTVd loop19 plays a role in mediating RNA trafficking from palisade to spongy mesophyll cells in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901131/porous-silicon-based-biosensors-towards-real-time-optical-detection-of-target-bacteria-in-the-food-industry
#20
Naama Massad-Ivanir, Giorgi Shtenberg, Nitzan Raz, Christel Gazenbeek, Dries Budding, Martine P Bos, Ester Segal
Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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