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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159693/betahistine-dihydrochloride-transdermal-delivery-via-optimized-thermosensitive-gels-percutaneous-absorption-evaluation-using-rat-growth-as-a-biomarker
#1
Mohammed Hassan Elkomy, Shahira F El-Menshawe, Adel Ahmed Ali, Abdelkhalik Ali Halawa, Ahmed S G Srag El-Din
The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a betahistine dihydrochloride (BH) thermoreversible bioadhesive gel intended for transdermal delivery. The gels were obtained via cold method. A full factorial design was employed to investigate the joint effect of Poloxamer 407 concentration (18 and 20%), adhesive polymer type (Polyvinyl pyrolidone, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and Carbopol 934), and adhesive polymer concentration (0.5 and 1.5%) on gelling temperature, viscosity at 37 °C, and adhesion strength...
November 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158739/human-admc-derived-adipocyte-thermogenic-capacity-is-regulated-by-il-4-receptor
#2
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158401/kinesin-dependent-mechanism-for-controlling-triglyceride-secretion-from-the-liver
#3
Priyanka Rai, Mukesh Kumar, Geetika Sharma, Pradeep Barak, Saumitra Das, Siddhesh S Kamat, Roop Mallik
Despite massive fluctuations in its internal triglyceride content, the liver secretes triglyceride under tight homeostatic control. This buffering function is most visible after fasting, when liver triglyceride increases manyfold but circulating serum triglyceride barely fluctuates. How the liver controls triglyceride secretion is unknown, but is fundamentally important for lipid and energy homeostasis in animals. Here we find an unexpected cellular and molecular mechanism behind such control. We show that kinesin motors are recruited to triglyceride-rich lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver by the GTPase ARF1, which is a key activator of lipolysis...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156939/phenolic-compounds-as-natural-and-multifunctional-anti-obesity-agents-a-review
#4
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, María Del Mar Contreras
Prevalence of obesity worldwide has reached pandemic proportions. Despite the increasing evidence in the implication of phenolic compounds in obesity management, the real effect is not completely understood. The available in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the implication of phenolic compounds in: lowering food intake, decreasing lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis, stimulating fatty acids β-oxidation, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and growth, attenuating inflammatory responses and suppress oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156484/-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children
#5
Robert Sümpelmann
The objective of this consensus-based S1 Guideline for perioperative fluid therapy in children is to maintain or re-establish the child's homeostasis. Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. For the intraoperative background infusion a physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1 - 2.5% glucose is recommended to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155266/chronic-dexamethasone-exposure-markedly-decreased-the-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-growing-goats
#6
Qu Chen, Liqiong Niu, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress seriously threatens welfare and health in animals and humans. Consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used to mimic chronic stress previously. In order to investigate the effect of chronic stress on hepatic lipids metabolism, in this study, 10 healthy male goats were randomly allocated into two groups, one received a consecutive injection of Dex via intramuscularly for 3 weeks (Dex group), the other received the same volume of saline as the control group (Con group). Hepatic health and triglyceride (TG) metabolism were analyzed and compared between two groups...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155039/perinatal-nicotine-exposure-increases-obesity-susceptibility-by-peripheral-leptin-resistance-in-adult-female-rat-offspring
#7
Wan-Xia Zhang, Yin-Ping Li, Jie Fan, Hui-Jian Chen, Gai-Ling Li, Yan-Qiong Ouyang, You-E Yan
Maternal nicotine (NIC) exposure causes overweight, hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders in adult offspring. Our study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of perinatal NIC exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult female rat offspring. In our model, we found that adult NIC-exposed females presented higher body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass, as well as larger adipocytes, while no change was found in food intake. Serum profile showed a higher serum glucose, insulin and leptin levels in NIC-exposed females...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153750/family-history-of-diabetes-is-associated-with-enhanced-adipose-lipolysis-evidence-for-the-implication-of-epigenetic-factors
#8
I Dahlman, M Ryden, P Arner
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance, adipose hypertrophy and increased lipolysis. The heritability of these traits has been determined by associating them with a family history of diabetes. METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained from 581 subjects in a cross-sectional study. Fat cells were isolated, and the difference between measured and expected fat-cell volume was used to determine adipose morphology (degree of hypertrophy or hyperplasia)...
November 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151917/downregulation-of-lipolysis-stimulated-lipoprotein-receptor-promotes-cell-invasion-via-claudin-1-mediated-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-human-endometrial-cancer
#9
Hiroshi Shimada, Seiro Satohisa, Takayuki Kohno, Takumi Konno, Ken-Ichi Takano, Syunta Takahashi, Tsubasa Hatakeyama, Chihiro Arimoto, Tsuyoshi Saito, Takashi Kojima
Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is a novel molecule present at tricellular contacts which recruits tricellulin (TRIC), a molecular component of tricellular tight junctions (tTJs). LSR and TRIC are colocalized with the bicellular tight junction (bTJ) protein claudin (CLDN)-1-based tight junction strands at tricellular corners. Knockdown of LSR in normal epithelial cells affects tTJ formation and the epithelial barrier function. In cancer cells knockdown of LSR has been demonstrated to increase cell invasion...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148037/growth-performance-fatty-acid-composition-lipid-deposition-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-related-gene-expression-in-juvenile-pond-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-fed-diets-with-different-dietary-soybean-oil-levels
#10
Y Li, Z Jia, X Liang, D Matulic, M Hussein, J Gao
A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary soybean oil (SO) levels on growth performance, fatty-acid composition and lipid deposition in viscera, histology and histochemistry of liver, intestine and hepatic-lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus juveniles. Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (mean ± s.d. mass 0·40 ± 0·01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing SO at different concentrations: 0, 20, 32, 56 and 100% SO and a diet containing 100% fish oil (100% FO)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147968/effects-of-fasting-on-the-activities-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-hormone-sensitive-lipase-hsl-and-fatty-acid-synthetase-fas-in-spotted-seabass-lateolabrax-maculatus
#11
Hongli Huang, Yu Zhang, Mingyue Cao, Liangyi Xue, Weiliang Shen
To investigate the effects of fasting on lipid metabolism in spotted seabass muscle and liver tissues, we analyzed mRNA levels and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and the relationship among fat content, mRNA level, and enzyme activity during fasting of 35 days. The results showed that expressions of all the three genes were ubiquitous. During the fasting experiment, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and fat content of muscle and liver tissues significantly decreased before 5 days of fasting (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145541/variations-in-adipor1-but-not-adipor2-are-associated-with-hypertriglyceridemia-and-diabetes-in-an-admixed-latin-american-population
#12
Gustavo Gustavo Mora-García, María S Ruiz-Díaz, Fabian Espitia-Almeida, Doris Gómez-Camargo
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It regulates glycolysis and lipolysis and is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and related disorders. Its activity is mainly mediated by the transmembrane receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are encoded by ADIPOR1 (1q32.1) and ADIPOR2 (12p13.33) genes, respectively. In genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near these genes have been associated with metabolic alterations. However, these relationships are still controversial...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137992/ir-spectroscopy-analysis-of-pancreatic-lipase-related-protein-2-interaction-with-phospholipids-3-monitoring-dppc-lipolysis-in-mixed-micelles
#13
Eduardo Mateos-Diaz, Priscila Sutto-Ortiz, Moulay Sahaka, Jorge A Rodriguez, Frédéric Carrière
Usual methods for the continuous assay of lipolytic enzyme activities are mainly based on the titration of free fatty acids, surface pressure monitoring or spectrophotometry using substrates labeled with specific probes. These approaches only give a partial information on the chemistry of the lipolysis reaction and additional end-point analyses are often required to quantify both residual substrate and lipolysis products. We used transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopy to monitor simultaneously the hydrolysis of phospholipids by guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (GPLRP2) and the release of lipolysis products...
November 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132115/comparative-interfacial-in-vitro-digestion-of-protein-and-polysaccharide-oil-water-films
#14
Fernando A Bellesi, Víctor M Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa, Julia Maldonado-Valderrama, Teresa Del Castillo Santaella, Ana M R Pilosof
The behaviour of proteins (β-lactoglobulin (βlg) and soy protein isolate (SPI)) and a surface active polysaccharide (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) o/w interfacial films under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using the interfacial tensiometer Octopus were compared and related to the performance of the emulsions (using the same emulsifiers) under in vitro digestion. The evolution of interfacial tension (γ) was used to investigate the effect of gastrointestinal fluids on o/w interfacial films. Clear differences were observed among these emulsifiers...
November 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129983/the-impact-of-oat-structure-and-%C3%AE-glucan-on-in-vitro-lipid-digestion
#15
Myriam M L Grundy, Janina Quint, Anne Rieder, Simon Ballance, Cécile A Dreiss, Kathryn L Cross, Robert Gray, Balazs H Bajka, Peter J Butterworth, Peter R Ellis, Peter J Wilde
Oat β-glucan has been shown to play a positive role in influencing lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, the mechanisms behind these beneficial effects are not fully understood. The purpose of the current work was to investigate some of the possible mechanisms behind the cholesterol lowering effect of oat β-glucan, and how processing of oat modulates lipolysis. β-Glucan release, and the rate and extent of lipolysis measured in the presence of different sources of oat β-glucan, were investigated during gastrointestinal digestion...
November 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127820/waterborne-zn-influenced-zn-uptake-and-lipid-metabolism-in-two-intestinal-regions-of-juvenile-goby-synechogobius-hasta
#16
Shi-Cheng Ling, Zhi Luo, Guang-Hui Chen, Dian-Guang Zhang, Xu Liu
The present study explored the influence of Zn addition in the water on Zn transport and lipid metabolism of two intestinal regions in goby Synechogobius hasta. Zn contents in water were 0.004 (control), 0.181 and 0.361mg Zn L(-1), respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. TG and Zn contents, mRNA contents of genes of Zn transport and lipid metabolism, and enzyme activity from anterior and mid-intestine tissues were analyzed. In anterior intestine, Zn addition in the water increased Zn contents, and mRNA concentrations of ZIP4, ZIP5, ATGL, PPARα, ZNF202 and KLF7, decreased TG contents, 6PGD and G6PD activities, and mRNA contents of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS, PPARγ, ICDH and KLF4...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118433/visualization-of-lipid-directed-dynamics-of-perilipin-1-in-human-primary-adipocytes
#17
Jesper S Hansen, Sofia de Maré, Helena A Jones, Olga Göransson, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
Perilipin 1 is a lipid droplet coating protein known to regulate lipid metabolism in adipocytes by serving as a physical barrier as well as a recruitment site for lipases to the lipid droplet. Phosphorylation of perilipin 1 by protein kinase A rapidly initiates lipolysis, but the detailed mechanism on how perilipin 1 controls lipolysis is unknown. Here, we identify specific lipid binding properties of perilipin 1 that regulate the dynamics of lipolysis in human primary adipocytes. Cellular imaging combined with biochemical and biophysical analyses demonstrate that perilipin 1 specifically binds to cholesteryl esters, and that their dynamic properties direct segregation of perilipin 1 into topologically distinct micro domains on the lipid droplet...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118419/melatonin-promotes-triacylglycerol-accumulation-via-mt2-receptor-during-differentiation-in-bovine-intramuscular-preadipocytes
#18
Wucai Yang, Keqiong Tang, Yaning Wang, Yingying Zhang, Linsen Zan
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a derivative of tryptophan which is produced and secreted mainly by the pineal gland and regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions. To examine the potential effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs), BIPs were incubated with different concentrations of melatonin. Melatonin supplementation at 1 mM significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, and C/EBPα expression and promoted the differentiation of BIPs into adipocytes with large lipid droplets and high cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117542/what-ignites-ucp1
#19
Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
We thought we knew how the heat-producing uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue was activated: by fatty acids released upon lipid droplet breakdown in the brown adipocytes. However, two studies in this issue (Schreiber et al., 2017; Shin et al., 2017) imply that this classical model may not be valid: heat can be produced in brown fat without intracellular lipolysis.
November 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113798/fucoxanthin-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-fl83b-hepatocytes-through-regulated-sirt1-ampk-signaling-pathway
#20
Yi-Hsien Chang, Ya-Ling Chen, Wen-Chung Huang, Chian-Jiun Liou
The fucoxanthin, isolated from brown algae, was reported to have multiple biological functions to anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and ameliorated obesity in mice. In this study we investigated whether fucoxanthin could inhibit lipids accumulation in FL83B hepatocytes. FL83B cells were induced as fatty liver cell model by 0.5 mM oleic acid for 48 h, and treated with various concentration of fucoxanthin for 24 h. The results demonstrated that fucoxanthin significantly suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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