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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#1
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548386/design-and-synthesis-of-atglistatin-derivatives-as-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-inhibitors
#2
Jiyu Jin, Suling Huang, Lei Wang, Ying Leng, Wei Lu
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that mobilizes fatty acids from cellular triglyceride stores. Metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of abnormalities that occur together and increase the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, type-2 diabetes, and cachexia, can be treated using ATGL-specific inhibitors. Atglistatin (1) is the first small-molecule inhibitor of ATGL. In this study, we designed and synthesized 29 Atglistatin derivatives and evaluated their inhibition of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as an indicator of their potential to inhibit ATGL in adipose tissues...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#4
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528102/cheese-milk-low-homogenization-enhanced-early-lipolysis-and-volatiles-compounds-production-in-hard-cooked-cheeses
#5
María A Vélez, Erica R Hynes, Carlos A Meinardi, Verónica I Wolf, María C Perotti
Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527945/targeting-lipid-metabolism-of-cancer-cells-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-for-cancer
#6
Qiuping Liu, Qing Luo, Alexander Halim, Guanbin Song
One of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is deregulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, enhancing de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, increasing lipid uptake and lipolysis have also been considered as means of FA acquisition in cancer cells. FAs are involved in various aspects of tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Therefore, targeting lipid metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy for human cancer. Recent studies have shown that reprogramming lipid metabolism plays important roles in providing energy, macromolecules for membrane synthesis, and lipid signals during cancer progression...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523512/reduced-adipogenesis-after-lung-tumor-exosomes-priming-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#7
Shihua Wang, Xiaoxia Li, Meiqian Xu, Jing Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
A key feature of cancer cachexia is the loss of adipose tissue, mainly due to increased lipolysis and an impairment of adipogenesis. Recent findings have shown that cancer exosomes promoted lipolysis in adipose tissue. However, effects of cancer exosomes on adipogenesis were not reported. In this study, we found that lung cancer exosomes could be internalized by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) and significantly inhibited hAD-MSC adipogenesis as demonstrated by Oil Red O staining and decreased expression of adipogenic-specific genes...
May 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515885/evaluating-morphometric-and-metabolic-markers-of-body-condition-in-a-small-cetacean-the-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena
#8
Joanna L Kershaw, Meredith Sherrill, Nicholas J Davison, Andrew Brownlow, Ailsa J Hall
Mammalian body condition is an important individual fitness metric as it affects both survival and reproductive success. The ability to accurately measure condition has key implications for predicting individual and population health, and therefore monitoring the population-level effects of changing environments. No consensus currently exists on the best measure to quantitatively estimate body condition in many species, including cetaceans. Here, two measures of body condition were investigated in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515432/high-salt-intake-negatively-regulates-fat-deposition-in-mouse
#9
Huanxian Cui, Shuyan Yang, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
High-salt (HS) intake contributes to hypertension and cardiopathy, but the effect of HS on fat deposition is controversial. Feed intake, fat mass, the percentage of abdominal fat, heat production, rate of oxygen consumption and the respiratory exchange ratio of mice on a HS diet were significantly decreased (P < 0.01 or 0.05) compared with mice on a normal-salt (NS) diet. An in vitro experiment with differentiating pre-adipocytes showed reduced fat deposition in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (>0...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515388/nitric-oxide-is-critical-for-avoiding-hepatic-lipid-overloading-via-il6-induction-during-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#10
Yue Yu, Miho Tamai, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa
Nitric oxide (NO), generated from L-arginine by three different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is a pleiotropic factor to regulate physiological functions in almost every organ and tissue. Each knockout mouse of iNOS or eNOS has been used to suggest that NO has a crucial role in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), for NO may inhibit caspase 3 activity and is required for EGFR signaling. In previous reports, defective mitochondrial β-oxidation was observed in eNOS KO mice, and hepatic steatosis was often correlated to deficient liver regeneration, so we focused on metabolic perspective and hypothesized that NO depletion in PH mice would affect hepatocytic lipolysis and impair hepatocytes proliferation...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515323/%C3%AE-adrenergic-induction-of-lipolysis-in-hepatocytes-is-inhibited-by-ethanol-exposure
#11
Micah B Schott, Karuna Rasineni, Shaun G Weller, Ryan J Schulze, Arthur C Sletten, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
In liver steatosis i.e., fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid-storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514198/piceatannol-reduces-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Kee-Hong Kim, Yeonhwa Park
Excess fat accumulation and abnormal metabolism are involved in numerous diseases and thus the research on identification of compounds that can regulate energy homeostasis could significantly facilitate the current effort to prevent and/or treat metabolic disorders. Piceatannol, one of the natural stilbenes, was previously found to decrease lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, its role in fat metabolism in vivo is not known. Thus, Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model was used in the current study to determine the effect of piceatannol on fat accumulation and its underlying mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502512/metreleptin-therapy-lowers-plasma-angiopoietin-like-protein-3-in-patients-with-generalized-lipodystrophy
#13
Ranganath Muniyappa, Brent S Abel, Asha Asthana, Mary F Walter, Elaine K Cochran, Alan T Remaley, Monica C Skarulis, Phillip Gorden, Rebecca J Brown
BACKGROUND: Reduced triglyceride clearance due to impaired lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis contributes to severe hypertriglyceridemia in lipodystrophy. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) impair clearance of triglycerides by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. Whether circulating ANGPTL3/4 levels are altered in lipodystrophy and the effects of leptin replacement on these ANGPTLs are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine if ANGPTL3/4 levels are elevated in patients with generalized lipodystrophy and assess the effects of leptin replacement on these ANGPTLs...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501436/identification-of-the-bovine-hsl-gene-expression-profiles-and-its-association-with-fatty-acid-composition-and-fat-deposition-traits
#14
Xibi Fang, Zhihui Zhao, Ping Jiang, Haibin Yu, Hang Xiao, Runjun Yang
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular neutral lipase capable of hydrolysing a variety of esters and is considered to be a candidate gene affecting fat deposition traits. Gene expression profiles of HSL were analysed in various adipose tissues of cattle, and the effect of HSL on lipid metabolism genes was analysed by a PCR array. Novel polymorphisms were identified within the HSL regulatory domain by sequencing, and the relationship between HSL variants and fat deposition traits was analysed. HSL mRNA was highly expressed in the subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle...
May 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493474/effects-of-heat-stress-and-probiotic-supplementation-on-protein-functionality-and-oxidative-stability-of-ground-chicken-leg-meat-during-display-storage
#15
Hyun-Wook Kim, Ji-Han Kim, Feifei Yan, Heng-Wei Cheng, Yuan H Brad Kim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day(-1) ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg(-1) Bacillus subtilis) factorial design...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493278/the-bicellular-tensile-force-sorts-the-localization-of-lsrs-in-bicellular-and-tricellular-junctions
#16
Takayuki Kohno, Shin Kikuchi, Takafumi Ninomiya, Takashi Kojima
Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptors (LSRs) localize to tricellular tight junctions. Recent studies have shown that changes in the localization and expression profiles of LSRs are associated with malignancy of endometrial carcinomas, although the precise mechanisms by which malignant progression induces changes in the localization of LSRs are still unknown. In this study, we found that changes in cell tension correlated with alterations in the junctional localization of LSRs in endometrial cancer Sawano cells...
May 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490610/mechanisms-of-insulin-resistance-in-primary-and-secondary-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#17
Tomas Jelenik, Kirti Kaul, Gilles Séquaris, Ulrich Flögel, Esther Phielix, Jörg Kotzka, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Stefan Lehr, Anna Lena Reinbeck, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Irene Esposito, Gerald I Shulman, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and may result primarily from increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (PRIM) or secondarily from adipose-tissue lipolysis (SEC). We studied mice with hepatocyte- or adipocyte-specific sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) overexpression as models of PRIM and SEC. PRIM mice featured increased lipogenic gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. Their selective, liver-specific insulin resistance was associated with increased C18:1-diacylglycerol (DAG) content and protein kinase C (PKC)ε translocation...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488828/effects-of-active-recovery-during-interval-training-on-plasma-catecholamines-and-insulin
#18
Harutiun M Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Masaki Takeda
BACKGROUND: Active recovery has been used as a method to accelerate the recovery during intense exercise. It also has been shown to improve performance in subsequent exercises, but little is known about its acute effects on the hormonal and metabolic profile. The aim of this research was to study the effects of active recovery on plasma catecholamines and plasma insulin during a high-intensity interval exercise. METHODS: 7 subjects performed two high-intensity interval training protocols which consisted of three 30 s high-intensity bouts (constant intensity), separated by a recovery of 4 minutes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488768/mild-mitochondrial-uncoupling-induces-hsl-atgl-independent-lipolysis-relying-on-a-form-of-autophagy-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#19
Stéphane Demine, Silvia Tejerina, Benoît Bihin, Marc Thiry, Nagabushana Reddy, Patricia Renard, Martine Raes, Michel Jadot, Thierry Arnould
Obesity is characterized by an excessive triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipocytes. Various mechanisms allowing the tight regulation of triacylglycerol storage and mobilization by lipid droplet-associated proteins as well as lipolytic enzymes have been identified. Increasing energy expenditure by inducing a mild uncoupling of mitochondria in adipocytes might represent a putative interesting anti-obesity strategy as it reduces the adipose tissue triacylglycerol content (limiting alterations caused by cell hypertrophy) by stimulating lipolysis through yet unknown mechanisms, limiting the adverse effects of adipocyte hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487438/the-niemann-pick-c1-gene-interacts-with-a-high-fat-diet-to-promote-weight-gain-through-differential-regulation-of-central-energy-metabolism-pathways
#20
Joseph J Castillo, David Jelinek, Hao Wei, Nicholas P Gannon, Roger A Vaughan, L John Horwood, F John Meaney, Randi Garcia-Smith, Kristina A Trujillo, Randall A Heidenreich, David Meyre, Robert A Orlando, Renee C LeBoeuf, William S Garver
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported that common variation in the human Niemann-Pick C1 gene (NPC1) is associated with morbid adult obesity. This study was confirmed using our BALB/cJ Npc1 mouse model, whereby heterozygous mice (Npc1(+/-)) with decreased gene dosage were susceptible to weight gain when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to homozygous normal mice (Npc1(+/+)) fed the same diet. The objective for our current study was to validate this Npc1 gene-diet interaction using statistical modeling with fitted growth trajectories, conduct body weight analyses for different measures, and define the physiological basis responsible for weight gain...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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