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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778908/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-2-signaling-in-obese-women-changes-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Natalia Yumi Noronha, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wilson Salgado, Wilson Araujo da Silva, Doroteia Rossi Silva Souza, Julio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
OBJECTIVES: After bariatric surgery, modifications to signaling pathway networks including those of the metabolic regulator called mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to molecular alterations related to energy source availability, systemic nutrients, and catabolic and anabolic cellular processes. This study aimed to identify gene expression changes with regard to the mTOR complex 2 subunit signaling pathway in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery...
March 21, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777802/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-ucp1-reporter-human-es-cell-line
#2
Suranjit Mukherjee, Tuo Zhang, Lauretta A Lacko, Lei Tan, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Jason M Butler, Shuibing Chen
Interest in human brown fat as a novel therapeutic target to tackle the growing obesity and diabetes epidemic has increased dramatically in recent years. While much insight into brown fat biology has been gained from murine cell lines and models, few resources are available to study human brown fat in vitro, which makes the need for new ways to derive and study human brown adipocytes imperative. Human ES cell based reporter systems present an excellent tool to identify, mark, and purify cell populations of choice...
April 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772023/prepartum-supplementation-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-cla-increased-milk-energy-output-and-decreased-serum-fatty-acids-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-early-lactation-dairy-cows
#3
Rafael Caputo Oliveira, Ryan S Pralle, Lucas C de Resende, Carlos Henrique P C Nova, Valentina Caprarulo, Joshua A Jendza, Arnulf Troescher, Heather M White
Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768196/loss-of-abhd15-impairs-the-anti-lipolytic-action-of-insulin-by-altering-pde3b-stability-and-contributes-to-insulin-resistance
#4
Wenmin Xia, Ariane R Pessentheiner, Dina C Hofer, Melina Amor, Renate Schreiber, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Thomas O Eichmann, Evelyn Walenta, Bianca Itariu, Gerhard Prager, Hubert Hackl, Thomas Stulnig, Dagmar Kratky, Thomas Rülicke, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767718/prediction-of-treatment-outcomes-for-neck-rejuvenation-utilizing-a-unique-classification-system-of-treatment-approach-using-a-1440-nm-side-firing-laser
#5
Gabriella A DiBernardo, Barry E DiBernardo
Background: The appearance of a youthful neck is lost with age causing excessive skin laxity, a loss of subcutaneous fat, prominence of platysmal banding, and jowling. In view of the success obtained with laser treatment for neck rejuvenation, the authors have recently taken an algorithmic approach to developing a 7-category classification system of the aging conditions throughout the anatomic spectrum of three areas: skin, fat, and muscle. This system will correlate with specific treatment options...
May 15, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764990/ire1%C3%AE-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-by-processing-and-promoting-the-degradation-of-select-micrornas
#6
Jie-Mei Wang, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Qingwen Qian, Qinghua Sun, Chunbin Zhang, Lei Yin, Deyu Fang, Sung Hong Back, Randal J Kaufman, Ling Yang, Kezhong Zhang
Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764424/long-non-coding-rna-neat1-modulated-abnormal-lipolysis-via-atgl-drives-hepatocellular-carcinoma-proliferation
#7
Xirui Liu, Yingjian Liang, Ruipeng Song, Guangchao Yang, Jihua Han, Yaliang Lan, Shangha Pan, Mingxi Zhu, Yao Liu, Yan Wang, Fanzheng Meng, Yifeng Cui, Jiabei Wang, Bo Zhang, Xuan Song, Zhaoyang Lu, Tongsen Zheng, Lianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: Abnormal metabolism, including abnormal lipid metabolism, is a hallmark of cancer cells. Some studies have demonstrated that the lipogenic pathway might promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of the lipolytic pathway in HCC has not been elucidated. METHODS: We compared levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in human HCC and healthy liver tissues by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. We measured diacylglycerol(DAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in HCC cells driven by the NEAT1-ATGL axis and in HCC tissues...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762040/orally-bioavailable-and-effective-buparvaquone-lipid-based-nanomedicines-for-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Lindsay A Smith, Dolores Remedios Serrano, Marion Mauger, Francisco Bolás-Fernández, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Aikaterini Lalatsa
Nano-enabled lipid based drug delivery systems offer a platform to overcome challenges encountered with current failed leads in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases. When prepared with FDA or EMA approved excipients, they can be readily translated without the need for further toxicological studies, while they remain affordable and amenable to scale-up. Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynapthoquinone with in vitro activity in the nanomolar range, failed to clinically translate as a viable treatment for visceral leishmaniasis due to its poor oral bioavailability limited by its poor aqueous solubility (BCS Class II drug)...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752569/widespread-expression-of-perilipin-5-in-normal-human-tissues-and-in-diseases-is-restricted-to-distinct-lipid-droplet-subpopulations
#9
Merita Hashani, Hagen Roland Witzel, Lena Maria Pawella, Judith Lehmann-Koch, Jens Schumacher, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, Martina Schnölzer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Beate Katharina Straub
Diseases associated with the accumulation of lipid droplets are increasing in western countries. Lipid droplet biogenesis, structure and degradation are regulated by proteins of the perilipin family. Perilipin 5 has been shown to regulate basal lipolysis in oxidative tissues. We examine perilipin 5 in normal human tissues and in diseases using protein biochemical and microscopic techniques. Perilipin 5 was constitutively located at small lipid droplets in skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes and brown adipocytes...
May 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752428/angiopoietin-like-protein-3-angptl3-deficiency-and-familial-combined-hypolipidemia
#10
Tarugi Patrizia, Bertolini Stefano, Calandra Sebastiano
Three members of the angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family-ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8- are important regulators of plasma lipoproteins. They inhibit the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which plays a key role in the intravascular lipolysis of triglycerides present in some lipoprotein classes. This review focuses on the role of ANGPTL3 as emerged from the study of genetic variants of Angptl3 gene in mice and humans. Both loss of function genetic variants and inactivation of Angptl3 gene in mice are associated with a marked reduction of plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and an increased activity of lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751903/pectin-influences-the-kinetics-of-in-vitro-lipid-digestion-in-oil-in-water-emulsions
#11
S H E Verkempinck, L Salvia-Trujillo, S Denis, A M Van Loey, M E Hendrickx, T Grauwet
Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with 5% (w/v) carrot-enriched olive oil and stabilized with Tween 80 (TW), phosphatidylcholine (PC), citrus pectin (CP) or a combination of these emulsifiers. Additionally, the methylesterification degree (DM) of citrus pectin was modified, resulting in three different studied pectin structures: CP82, CP38 and CP10. All initial emulsions presented small initial oil droplet sizes and were submitted to an in vitro simulated gastric and small intestinal phase. The latter was executed in a kinetic way to determine the time dependency of the lipolysis reaction, micelle formation and carotenoid bioaccessibility...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751356/exploring-novel-pharmacotherapeutic-applications-and-repurposing-potential-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Tushar Madaan, Ibraheem Husain, Mohamad Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs with a distinctive mechanism of action focusing on renal absorption ofglucose. Apart from its anti-hyperglycemic effects, a multitude of research studies on this classhave revealed that these drugs have far more versatile and comprehensive pharmacologicaleffects than previously believed. Approximately 30% of FDA approved drugs are repurposedand used for indications other than those they were initially intended for...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748675/catechin-supplemented-in-a-fos-diet-induces-weight-loss-by-altering-cecal-microbiota-and-gene-expression-of-colonic-epithelial-cells
#13
Jianming Luo, Lulu Han, Liu Liu, Lijuan Gao, Bin Xue, Yong Wang, Shiyi Ou, Michael Miller, Xichun Peng
Our previous study showed that catechin controlled rats' body weights and changed gut microbiota composition when supplemented into a high-fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) diet. This experiment is devised to further confirm the relationship between specific bacteria in the colon and body weight gain, and to investigate how specific bacteria impact body weight by changing the expression of colonic epithelial cells. Forty obese rats were divided into four groups: three catechin-supplemented groups with a high-FOS diet (100, 400, and 700 mg kg-1 d-1 catechin, orally administered) and one group with a high-FOS diet only...
May 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748608/hepatic-steatosis-associated-with-decreased-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-mitochondrial-function-contributes-to-cell-damage-in-obese-mice-after-thermal-injury
#14
Li Diao, Christopher Auger, Hisato Konoeda, Ali-Reza Sadri, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G Jeschke
Severely burned patients who are morbidly obese have poor clinical outcomes with aggravated metabolic consequences, a higher incidence of multiple organ dysfunction/failure, and significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of these adverse outcomes are essentially unknown. Since the liver is one of the central metabolic organs, we hypothesized that thermal injury in obese patients leads to substantially increased lipolysis, hepatic fat infiltration, resulting in profound hepatic cellular and organellar alterations, consequently causing liver damage and severely augmented metabolic dysfunction...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744695/bovine-lactoferrin-promotes-energy-expenditure-via-the-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-human-reprogrammed-brown-adipocytes
#15
Kanae Nakamura, Tsunao Kishida, Akika Ejima, Riho Tateyama, Satoru Morishita, Tomoji Ono, Michiaki Murakoshi, Keikichi Sugiyama, Hoyoku Nishino, Osam Mazda
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein in mammalian milk. We previously reported that enteric-coated bovine LF reduced the visceral fat in a double-blind clinical study. We further demonstrated that bovine LF (bLF) inhibited adipogenesis and promoted lipolysis in white adipocytes, but the effect of bLF on brown adipocytes has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of bLF on energy expenditure and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway using human reprogrammed brown adipocytes generated by gene transduction...
May 9, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742696/acute-starvation-ketoacidosis-in-pregnancy-with-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-a-case-report
#16
Li Hui, Li Shuying
RATIONALE: Pregnant women are more prone to ketosis due to the relative insulin resistance, accelerated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a pregnant woman with hyperlipidemia, who experienced severe metabolic acidosis after a short period of starvation. DIAGNOSES: Based on her clinical symptoms, exclusion diagnosis and therapeutic diagnosis, her condition was diagnosed as starvation ketoacidosis. INTERVENTIONS: An emergency caesarean section under general anesthesia was implemented 2 hours after her admission...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737155/phospholipid-tailored-titanium-carbide-nanosheets-as-a-novel-fluorescent-nanoprobe-for-activity-assay-and-imaging-of-phospholipase-d
#17
Xiaohua Zhu, Lin Fan, Shigong Wang, Chunyang Lei, Yan Huang, Zhou Nie, Shouzhuo Yao
As one of emerging inorganic graphene analogues, two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2) nanosheets have attracted extensive attention in recent years due to their remarkably structural and electronic properties. Herein, a sensitive and selective nanoprobe for fluorescent probing the phospholipase D activity was developed based on ultrathin Ti3C2 nanosheets-mediated fluorescence quenching effect. Ultrathin Ti3C2 nanosheets with ~1.3 nm in thickness were synthesized from bulk Ti3AlC2 powder by a two-step exfoliation procedure, and further modified by natural phospholipid that doped with rhodamine B-labeled phospholipid (RhB-PL-Ti3C2)...
May 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733968/molecular-characterization-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-6-elovl6-genes-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-and-their-potential-roles-in-adaptation-to-cold-temperature
#18
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732475/effects-of-acute-nefa-manipulation-on-incretin-induced-insulin-secretion-in-participants-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#19
Brenno Astiarraga, Valéria B Chueire, Aglécio L Souza, Ricardo Pereira-Moreira, Sarah Monte Alegre, Andrea Natali, Andrea Tura, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Elza Muscelli
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Incretin effect-the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release induced by the oral vs the i.v. route-is impaired in dysglycaemic states. Despite evidence from human islet studies that NEFA interfere with incretin function, little information is available about the effect in humans. We tested the impact of acute bidirectional NEFA manipulation on the incretin effect in humans. METHODS: Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and ten non-diabetic volunteers had a 3 h OGTT, and, a week later, an i...
May 7, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731739/single-gene-congenic-strain-reveals-the-effect-of-zbtb16-on-dexamethasone-induced-insulin-resistance
#20
Michaela Krupková, František Liška, Ludmila Kazdová, Lucie Šedová, Adéla Kábelová, Drahomíra Křenová, Vladimír Křen, Ondřej Šeda
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent therapeutic agents frequently used for treatment of number of conditions, including hematologic, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. Both their therapeutic and adverse effects display significant interindividual variation, partially attributable to genetic factors. We have previously isolated a seven-gene region of rat chromosome 8 sensitizing to dexamethasone (DEX)-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) of skeletal muscle. Using two newly derived congenic strains, we aimed to investigate the effect of one of the prime candidates for this pharmacogenetic interaction, the Zbtb16 gene...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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