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Tuberculosis hepatic

Hozeifa M Hassan, Bashir A Yousef, Hongli Guo, Liu Xiaoxin, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases that affected humankind and remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases that could be considered as global emergency, but the discovery and development of isoniazid (INH) in the 1950s paved the way to an effective single and/or combined first-line anti-TB therapy. However, administration of INH induces severe hepatic toxicity in some patients. Previously, we establish a rat model of INH hepatotoxicity utilizing the inflammatory stress theory, in which bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potentially enhanced INH toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wenwen Pang, Pengcheng Shang, Qingfeng Li, Jiao Xu, Lei Bi, Jing Zhong, Xiaofang Pei
Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different climates and socio-economic conditions. We, therefore, carried out the retrospective study at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of OIs, predictors of OIs, and risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV-infected patients. Sichuan in West China is characterized by the largest population living with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) across China...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Janneke P Bil, Peter Ag Schrooders, Maria Prins, Peter M Kouw, Judith He Klomp, Maarten Scholing, Lutje Phm Huijbregts, Gerard Jb Sonder, Toos Chfm Waegemaekers, Henry Jc de Vries, Wieneke Meijer, Freke R Zuure, Alma Tostmann
We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Samar Zaki, Asma Usman, Swaleha Tariq, Sameena Shah, Iqbal Azam, Waris Qidwai, Kashmira Nanji
Objective The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with adult immunization in patients visiting family medicine clinics at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to March 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants more than 18 years were invited to participate in the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information. Data were entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 19...
January 17, 2018: Curēus
J M Carrascosa, E Del-Alcazar
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. This review covers injection site reactions, infections, cardiovascular events, demyelinating disorders, tumours, class effects secondary adverse events, immunogenicity, safety in pregnancy and vaccines efficacy...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Chris Beyrer
Transgender people experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and incarceration. Discrimination, victimization, poverty, and poor mental health drive vulnerability to HIV and related infections, as well as risk of arrest, detention, and incarceration. In this paper, we systematically review published data on HIV, sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis among incarcerated transgender people; describe potential structural determinants of HIV risk and transmission; identify gaps in the literature; and make recommendations for research and interventions to address this neglected population...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Shu-Ruei Wu, Hsiao-Ching Kuo, Wei-Chun Huang, Yung-Feng Huang, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Yu-Hsiang Chang, Bao-Ren Nong
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated disease; it has been reported to be associated with several diseases. The data on ITP in patients with hepatitis B, tuberculosis, or thyroid diseases are relatively scarce. In addition, these diseases are not rare in Taiwan, together with hepatitis C and Helicobacter pylori which are also related to ITP. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 1223 ITP patients and characterized these patients between 2000 and 2013 from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
March 2, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Neha V Bhilare, Suneela S Dhaneshwar, Kakasaheb R Mahadik
Morphological and metabolic aberrations in the liver caused by long-term use of anti-tubercular agent isoniazid (INH) have been an issue of great concern in tuberculosis treatment. To resolve this issue, a novel hepatoprotective prodrug strategy was developed by combining the antioxidant property of phenolic acids with INH moiety for probable synergistic effect. In this work, INH was conjugated with phenolic antioxidants using Schotten-Baumann reaction through biocleavable amide linkage. Synthesized prodrugs were characterized by spectral analysis and in vitro release studies were carried out using HPLC...
March 1, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
L Ryom, C Boesecke, M Bracchi, J Ambrosioni, A Pozniak, J Arribas, G Behrens, Pgm Mallon, M Puoti, A Rauch, J M Miro, O Kirk, C Marzolini, J D Lundgren, M Battegay
BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management...
March 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
Martina Penazzato, Linda Lewis, Melynda Watkins, Vineet Prabhu, Fernando Pascual, Martin Auton, Wesley Kreft, Sébastien Morin, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, David Jamieson, George K Siberry
INTRODUCTION: Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Ilia Lozev, Irina Yungareva, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov, Georgi Tchernev
It is well-established that drugs could be leading cause of occurrence of numerous diseases, including pemphigus, being either inducer or triggering factor of the autoimmunity. Despite medications, it should be kept in mind that chronic or acute infections are also capable of being a trigger in various types of cutaneous eruptions, including pemphigus. The rapidly obtained and uncompleted history for accompanied medication leads to general mistakes in the subsequent treatment approach, as the first step in such cases is discontinuation of the drug-inductor...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Naveed Zafar Janjua, Nazrul Islam, Margot Kuo, Amanda Yu, Stanley Wong, Zahid A Butt, Mark Gilbert, Jane Buxton, Nuria Chapinal, Hasina Samji, Mei Chong, Maria Alvarez, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: Large linked healthcare administrative datasets could be used to monitor programs providing prevention and treatment services to people who inject drugs (PWID). However, diagnostic codes in administrative datasets do not differentiate non-injection from injection drug use (IDU). We validated algorithms based on diagnostic codes and prescription records representing IDU in administrative datasets against interview-based IDU data. METHODS: The British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ∼1...
February 23, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Amanda Willig, Lauri Wright, Theresa A Galvin
Nutrition is an integral component of medical care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports integration of medical nutrition therapy into routine care for this population. Fewer PLWHA experience wasting and undernutrition, while the prevalence of obesity and other chronic diseases has increased significantly. Improved understanding of HIV infection's impact on metabolism and chronic inflammation has only increased the complexity of managing chronic HIV infection...
March 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Samantha P Williams, Kenneth L Bryant
BACKGROUND: Homelessness significantly affects health and well-being. Homeless adults often experience co-occurring and debilitating physical, psychological, and social conditions. These determinants are associated with disproportionate rates of infectious disease among homeless adults, including tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis. Less is known about sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among homeless adults. METHODS: We systematically searched three databases, and reviewed the 2000-2016 literature on STI prevalence among homeless adults in the U...
January 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
J W Baddley, F Cantini, D Goletti, J J Gómez-Reino, E Mylonakis, R San-Juan, M Fernández-Ruiz, J Torre-Cisneros
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Stuart A Kinner, Kathryn Snow, Andrea L Wirtz, Frederick L Altice, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years)...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Mark Reinwald, Jose T Silva, Nicolas J Mueller, Jesús Fortún, Christian Garzoni, Johan W de Fijter, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Paolo Grossi, Jose María Aguado
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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