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Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
James D O'Leary, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan, Yvonne M Nolan
The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze...
March 8, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Arvind G Kulkarni, Shashidhar Bangalore Kantharajanna, Abhilash N Dhruv
Study Design: Retrospective case series. Purpose: To compare minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) outcomes in primary and revision surgeries. Overview of Literature: Revision spinal fusion is often associated with an increased risk of approach-related complications. Patients can potentially benefit from the decreased approach-related morbidity associated with MI-TLIF. Methods: Sixty consecutive MI-TLIF patients (20 failed back [Fa group], 40 primary [Pr group]) who underwent surgery between January 2011 and May 2012 were reviewed after Institutional Review Board approval to compare operative times, blood loss, complications, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain before surgery and at the last follow-up...
February 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Mats Hallgren, Victoria Andersson, Örjan Ekblom, Sven Andréasson
BACKGROUND: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults. METHODS: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention...
February 14, 2018: Trials
Erica Schvirtz, Laurent Bensoussan, Bertrand Tourret Couderc, Jean-Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Marjorie Kerzoncuf
BACKGROUND: Surfing with transfemoral knee prosthesis requires flexion of the hip, knee, and ankle and balance between flexibility and stiffness of the prosthetic limb. We report on Mr D, a transfemoral amputee, who wanted to surf again. Case Description and Methods: Technical specifications were based on Mr D's complaint. The prosthesis is salt water resistant and combines a shock absorber associated with elastic tendons to permit the knee to bend easily and to facilitate eccentric braking...
February 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
David A Brent, Robert D Gibbons, Paul Wilkinson, Bernadka Dubicka
In this paper, we summarise and critique a network meta-analysis (NMA) of antidepressant efficacy and tolerability for paediatric depression and an accompanying editorial. Although we agree that many of the extant studies are flawed, this meta-analysis showed clear efficacy of fluoxetine in the NMA, and for sertraline and escitalopram in pairwise analyses. Consequently, these papers underestimate the benefits of antidepressants for paediatric depression, and provide support for current practice guideline, which recommends the use of an antidepressant if the patient does not respond to psychotherapy...
February 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Catharine Siân MacRae, Duncan Critchley, Jeremy S Lewis, Adam Shortland
Objective: Differences in postural control and gait have been identified between people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, many previous studies present data from small samples, or have used methodologies with questionable reliability. This study, employing robust methodology, hypothesised that there would be a difference in postural control, and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in people with CLBP compared with asymptomatic individuals. Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study age-matched and gender-matched 16 CLBP and 16 asymptomatic participants...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Evangelia Demou, Shanley Smith, Abita Bhaskar, Daniel F Mackay, Judith Brown, Kate Hunt, Sergio Vargas-Prada, Ewan B Macdonald
OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence (SA) among healthcare workers is associated with occupational and non-occupational risk factors and impacts employee health, healthcare delivery and patient health. At the same time, healthcare is one of the employment sectors with the highest rates of work-related ill health in the UK. Musculoskeletal (MSK) and mental health (MH) issues are leading causes of SA, but there is a lack of research on how certain MSK/MH conditions impact on SA duration. The study aim is to determine differences in SA duration by MH and MSK disorders in healthcare employees...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Overuse injuries are responsible for most lost training days and attrition from combat training in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) as in armies around the world. The purpose of this study is to understand the rates, types, and mechanism of occurrence of overuse injuries in the IDF in order to provide the IDF's commanders a detailed updated situation report in order to enable commanders decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue...
January 22, 2018: Military Medicine
A Greystoke, P Mulvenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Arjen Johannes Smits, Jaap Deunk, Agnita Stadhouder, Mark Cornelis Altena, Diederik Hendrik Ruth Kempen, Frank Willem Bloemers
INTRODUCTION: The most common surgical treatment of traumatic spine fractures is through a posterior approach using pedicle screws and rods. Postoperative treatment protocols including the use of postoperative orthoses however differ between hospitals and surgeons. A three-point hyperextension orthosis is designed to support proper posture and unload the anterior column. Some motion remains when wearing an orthosis, and its main value in postoperative treatment is therefore believed to be pain relief and patient confidence...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
S Vajapeyam, D Brown, P R Johnston, K I Ricci, M W Kieran, H G W Lidov, T Y Poussaint
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accurate tumor grading is essential for treatment planning of pediatric brain tumors. We hypothesized that multiparametric analyses of a combination of permeability metrics and ADC histogram metrics would differentiate high- and low-grade tumors with high accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging using T1-mapping with flip angles of 2°, 5°, 10°, and 15°, followed by a 0.1-mmol/kg body weight gadolinium-based bolus was performed on all patients in addition to standard MR imaging...
January 4, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Cristina Demian, Bruce Barron, Anthony Almudevar
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between New York State Workers' Compensation Medical Treatment Guidelines (Guidelines) adherence and return-to-work after occupational low back injuries. Assess adherence to Guidelines by examining diagnostic and treatment utilization. METHOD: Retrospective chart review of cases. Outcomes of interest were lost time duration and diagnostic/treatment utilization rates. Time to event analyses performed using Kaplan Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard model...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jennifer Cleland
Medical schools typically assess how good their selection process is using metrics such as students' assessment performance and the academic success of alumni on later indicators of academic ability and clinical competence, such as Royal College of Physicians or specialty board examinations. To address global issues with the maldistribution of doctors and increasing numbers of new medical school graduates choosing not to work in a clinical context requires different measurements of medical school admissions processes, like those related to graduates' career outcomes (e...
December 19, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Daniel Grabo, Aaron Strumwasser, Kyle Remick, Susan Briggs
BACKGROUND: A well-defined means of organizing surgeons based on functional capabilities in disaster response has been lacking. We sought to create a pilot registry of surgeons, organized by functional capacities, available to respond to disasters in conjunction with the American College of Surgeons Operation Giving Back and to better understand their participation in disaster medicine training. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey of the members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma aimed at establishing a pilot registry of qualified trauma surgeons available to respond to disasters...
February 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Satvinder Mudan, Jayant Kumar, Neves C Mafalda, Tomokazu Kusano, Isabella Reccia, Artur Zanallato, Angus Dalgleish, Nagy Habib
RATIONALE: An isolated splenic metastasis is a rare phenomenon noted in advanced stage melanoma. We report the role of radiofrequency (RF) -based splenic-preserving splenectomy in a patient with a solitary splenic metastasis from advanced stage melanoma that was managed with checkpoint inhibitors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with multiple lung metastases and a solitary splenic metastasis with advanced stage melanoma following excision of primary from his trunk 2...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jonas J de Paula, Danielle S Costa, Débora M de Miranda, Marco A Romano-Silva
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments and experiencing difficulty concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology, both in clinical and research settings, it has not been adapted for use in Brazil. Our objective was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for the Brazilian reality and assess its validity and reliability...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Omar E Aly
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in oncological outcomes in colo-rectal surgery, rates of anastomotic leak have not improved. The precise mechanisms of anastomotic leak remain poorly understood. Current research has focused on anastomotic reinforcement to tackle anastomotic leak with little success. The 'Angle of Sorrow', the corner of the anastomosis is prone to anastomotic leak, but remains a persistent feature in the gastrointestinal anastomosis. The tendency for stress forces to concentrate in the vulnerable 'Angle of Sorrow' prompts the need for anastomotic design research...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Hannah Makin
Happy New Year to all of our readers! Welcome to volume 9 of Therapeutic Delivery. We would like to take the opportunity to look back over 2017, which was another excellent year for us. We thank all our readers, reviewers, authors and Editorial Board members for their continued support and very much look forward to working with all our contributors again in 2018.
January 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
Simran Ds Maggo, Eng Wee Chua, Paul Chin, Simone Cree, John Pearson, Matthew Doogue, Martin A Kennedy
A multitude of factors can affect drug response in individuals. It is now well established that variations in genes, especially those coding for drug metabolising enzymes, can alter the pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic profile of a drug, impacting on efficacy and often resulting in drug-induced toxicity. The UDRUGS study is an initiative from the Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics to biobank DNA and store associated clinical data from patients who have suffered rare and/or serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
December 1, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
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