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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777938/austrian-firearm-legislation-and-its-effects-on-suicide-and-homicide-mortality-a-natural-quasi-experiment-amidst-the-global-economic-crisis
#1
Daniel König, Patrick Swoboda, Robert J Cramer, Christoph Krall, Vita Postuvan, Nestor D Kapusta
BACKGROUND: Restriction of access to suicide methods has been shown to effectively reduce suicide mortality rates. AIMS: To examine how the global economic crisis of 2008 and the firearm legislation reform of 1997 affected suicide and homicide mortality rate within Austria. METHODS: Official data for the years 1985-2016 for firearm certificates, suicide, homicide, unemployment rates and alcohol consumption were examined using auto regressive error and Poisson regression models...
May 16, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771757/teaching-mental-health-first-aid-in-the-school-setting-a-novel-approach-to-improving-outcomes-for-common-adolescent-mental-disorders
#2
Laura M Hart, Georgina R Cox, Lucy Lees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Common adolescent mental disorders, such as depression, often go untreated and severely impact health and educational outcomes. The purpose of this review is to describe what is currently known about school-based mental health interventions and to describe a new intervention, Mental Health First Aid training. RECENT FINDINGS: Universal and selective prevention and treatment programmes have been widely evaluated, though population-level dissemination remains elusive...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769367/similarities-between-military-and-medical-service-stigma-of-seeking-mental-health-assistance
#3
EDITORIAL
Fergus Gardiner, E C Gardiner
Studies have identified that there are many barriers to treatment of mental health illnesses in military populations, including the negative-associated stigma. One such barrier includes perceptions of weakness, leading to concerns about leadership and competency and being seen as malingering. Furthermore, similarities can be seen in civilian health professionals, where concerns of negative perceptions can limit reporting and treatment of mental health illnesses. Despite the frequency of stressful events, military and health professionals do not become immune to stress and are often ill prepared to cope with acute stressors that can often build on each other until emotional exhaustion and/or crisis point...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748993/use-of-crisis-management-interventions-among-suicidal-patients-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Craig J Bryan, Alexis M May, David C Rozek, Sean R Williams, Tracy A Clemans, Jim Mintz, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch
BACKGROUND: Previous research supports the efficacy of the crisis response plan (CRP) for the reduction of suicidal behaviors as compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Patient perspectives and use of the CRP, and their relationship to later suicidal thoughts, remain unknown. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial comparing a standard CRP (S-CRP), a CRP enhanced with reasons for living (E-CRP), and TAU in a sample of 97 active-duty U.S. Army personnel was conducted...
May 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727798/sex-and-age-modify-the-relationship-between-life-circumstances-and-use-of-a-firearm-in-suicide-deaths-across-17-u-s-states
#5
Bindu Kalesan, Laura Ann Sampson, Yi Zuo, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Suicides are of growing public health concern in the United States. Although the demographics of firearm suicides are well established, the sex and age differences in the role that life circumstances play in the risk for firearm suicide are not known. METHODS: We used suicide deaths from the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2011 in 17 U.S. states to assess the difference in the relation between six life circumstances and risk of firearm versus non-firearm suicides across sex and age groups...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727316/gun-violence-two-medical-students-hometown-connection-to-this-public-health-crisis
#6
Nicholas O Kuhl, Monica P Lieberman
The school shooting in Parkland, Florida in February 2018 left 17 people dead and countless other children and teachers with physical and psychological trauma that will require decades of healing. As Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School alumni and current medical students, the authors of this Invited Commentary contend that they are in a unique position to advocate on behalf of their neighbors, classmates, and future patients. Since the authors began medical school in 2015, there have been 19 mass shootings in the United States resulting in 253 deaths...
May 2, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721331/the-development-of-an-occupational-therapy-intervention-for-adults-with-a-diagnosed-psychotic-disorder-following-discharge-from-hospital
#7
Mary Birken, Claire Henderson, Mike Slade
Background: A deterioration in mental health and admission to an acute mental health unit can result in skill loss and decreased participation in daily life. Furthermore, discharge from hospital is associated with high risks of social isolation and suicide. This intervention development study aims to describe the rationale, methods and processes of developing an intervention for adults with a diagnosed psychotic disorder following discharge from hospital. The intervention aims to increase participation in self-care and leisure, wellbeing and quality of life and reduce crisis service use...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704853/postmortem-blood-alcohol-content-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-suicide-decedents-associations-with-suicide-precipitating-risk-factors-means-and-other-drug-toxicology
#8
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: This study examined blood alcohol content (BAC) among suicide decedents aged 50+ and its associations with suicide precipitating/risk factors, means, and other drug toxicology. METHODS: The National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2015, provided data (N = 56,118 for all suicide decedents and N = 29,115 with alcohol test results). We used logistic regression models, with BAC > 0.0 (BAC positive) and BAC > = 0.08 (intoxication) as the dependent variables...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702452/decision-making-performance-of-depressed-patients-within-72-h-following-a-suicide-attempt
#9
Klára M Hegedűs, Andrea Szkaliczki, Bernadett I Gál, Bálint Andó, Zoltán Janka, Péter Z Álmos
BACKGROUND: The significance of decision-making in suicidal behaviour is often highlighted; however, the performance of persons in suicide crisis is unknown. This study aimed to explore the comprehensive decision-making profile of depressed patients following a suicide attempt. METHODS: Decision-making was measured by reward- ("ABCD") and punishment- ("EFGH") sensitive versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 59 medication-free depressed patients within 72 h after a suicide attempt and in 46 healthy control subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690628/the-impact-of-caller-gender-on-telephone-crisis-helpline-workers-interpretation-of-suicidality-in-caller-vignettes
#10
Tara Hunt, Coralie J Wilson, Peter Caputi, Ian Wilson, Alan Woodward
Telephone crisis-line workers (TCWs) are trained in a variety of techniques and skills to facilitate the identification of suicidal callers. One factor that may influence the implementation of these skills is gender. This study used an experimental design to explore whether helpline callers being identified as male or female is associated with TCWs’ ratings of callers’ potential for suicide risk and TCWs’ intention to use support- or intervention-oriented skills with callers. Data were collected using an online self-report survey in an Australian sample of 133 TCWs...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682773/mortality-data-from-the-european-adrenal-insufficiency-registry-patient-characterization-and-associations
#11
Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Pinggao Zhang, Andrea M Isidori, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Mortality from primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI; PAI and SAI, respectively) is 2-3-fold higher than in the general population. Mortality relates to cardiovascular disease, acute adrenal crisis (AC), cancer and infections; however, there has been little further characterization of patients who have died. DESIGN/METHODS: We analysed real-world data from 2034 patients (801 PAI, 1233 SAI) in the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR; NCT01661387)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673272/critical-issues-in-men-s-mental-health
#12
Dan Bilsker, Andrea S Fogarty, Matthew A Wakefield
This narrative review highlights key issues in men's mental health and identifies approaches to research, policy and practice that respond to men's styles of coping. Issues discussed are: 1) the high incidence of male suicide (80% of suicide deaths in Canada, with a peak in the mid-50 s age group) accompanied by low public awareness; 2) the perplexing nature of male depression, manifesting in forms that are poorly recognised by current diagnostic approaches and thus poorly treated; 3) the risky use of alcohol among men, again common and taking a huge toll on mental and physical health; 4) the characteristic ways in which men manage psychological suffering, the coping strengths to be recognised, and the gaps to be addressed; 5) the underutilization of mental health services by men, and the implication for clinical outcomes; and 6) male-specific approaches to service provision designed to improve men's accessing of care, with an emphasis on Canadian programs...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673270/men-s-mental-health-social-determinants-and-implications-for-services
#13
William Affleck, Victoria Carmichael, Rob Whitley
Numerous scholars have stated that there is a silent crisis in men's mental health. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of core issues in the field of men's mental health, including a discussion of key social determinants as well as implications for mental health services. Firstly, we review the basic epidemiology of mental disorders with a high incidence and prevalence in men, including suicide and substance use disorder. Secondly, we examine controversies around the low reported rates of depression in men, discussing possible measurement and reporting biases...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659211/ketamine-for-depression-6-effects-on-suicidal-ideation-and-possible-use-as-crisis-intervention-in-patients-at-suicide-risk
#14
Chittaranjan Andrade
A growing body of literature suggests that ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, has early-onset antidepressant action in patients with severe and even treatment-refractory depression. Many case reports, open-label studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that ketamine may have dramatic antisuicidal effects, as well. This article examines the benefits of ketamine in patients with suicidal ideation with particular focus on the findings of recent RCTs and meta-analyses. Important findings are that a single dose of ketamine is associated with antisuicidal benefits that emerge within an hour of administration and persist for up to a week...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648857/associations-of-patient-rated-emotional-bond-and-vocally-encoded-emotional-arousal-among-clinicians-and-acutely-suicidal-military-personnel
#15
Craig J Bryan, Brian R Baucom, Alex O Crenshaw, Zac Imel, David C Atkins, Tracy A Clemans, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch, Jim Mintz, M David Rudd
OBJECTIVE: To determine if synchrony in emotional arousal and affective regulation between patients and clinicians reflect emotional bonding during emergency behavioral health appointments. METHOD: Audio recordings of suicide risk assessment interviews and crisis intervention planning with 54 suicidal active duty soldiers presenting to an emergency department or behavioral health clinic were analyzed. Emotional arousal was assessed using mean fundamental frequency...
April 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624792/circumstances-of-suicide-among-individuals-with-a-history-of-cancer
#16
Greta M Massetti, Kristin Holland, Shane P D Jack, Kathleen R Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford
OBJECTIVE: Cancer can trigger psychological distress, which may be associated with risk of suicide. We explored precipitating circumstances of suicides among decedents with and without a history of cancer. METHODS: Coroner or medical examiner and law enforcement narratives of adult suicides were coded from 17 participating states in CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System during 2004-2013. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined associations between cancer history and factors that precipitated suicide...
April 6, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587223/hallmarks-of-alzheimer-disease-are-evolving-relentlessly-in-metropolitan-mexico-city-infants-children-and-young-adults-apoe4-carriers-have-higher-suicide-risk-and-higher-odds-of-reaching-nft-stage-v-at-%C3%A2-40-years-of-age
#17
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Delgado-Chávez, Partha S Mukherjee, Randy J Kulesza, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, José Ávila-Ramírez, Rodolfo Villarreal-Ríos
Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM2.5 and O3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM2...
July 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580906/post-traumatic-psychiatric-disorders-ptsd-is-not-the-only-diagnosis
#18
Yann Auxéméry
Traumatic events and their consequences are often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the post-traumatic stress disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc.). Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains the most widely known disorder, chronic post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are many and varied. After a trauma, the practitioner has to check for the different clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological consequences: PTSD is not the only diagnosis...
March 23, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580702/-methods-to-improve-suicidal-adolescents-compliance-to-care-after-emergency-discharge-a-literature-review
#19
J Lachal, S Grandclerc, M Spodenkiewicz, M R Moro
OBJECTIVES: Suicidal adolescents admitted in an Emergency Department (ED) present a high risk of suicidal reattempts. Poor observance of follow-up in this particular group imped the efficacity of the treatment. We propose to summarize the international literature on ED interventions promoting suicidal adolescents' adherence to care. METHOD: We carried out a comprehensive review of papers listed in PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINHAL databases using keywords about adolescence, suicide, and ED...
March 23, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565844/characteristics-of-and-precipitating-circumstances-surrounding-suicide-among-persons-aged-10-17-years-utah-2011-2015
#20
Francis B Annor, Marissa L Zwald, Amanda Wilkinson, Mike Friedrichs, Anna Fondario, Angela Dunn, Allyn Nakashima, Leah K Gilbert, Asha Z Ivey-Stephenson
In 2015, suicide was the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-17 years (1), and in Utah, the age-adjusted suicide rate was consistently higher than the national rate during the past decade (2). In January 2017, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) invited CDC to assist with an epidemiologic investigation of suicides among youths aged 10-17 years during 2011-2015 to identify precipitating factors. CDC analyzed data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS), National Vital Statistics System, and additional information collected in the field...
March 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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