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J Manji, A Thamboo, M Tacey, C Garnis, N K Chadha
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal disease is a common feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and can cause significant morbidity in these patients. Our objective was to determine if CF individuals with concomitant nasal polyposis (NP) express a unique profile of inflammation and if so, whether these inflammatory cytokine mediators have predictive value in identifying these individuals for prompt management by an Otolaryngologist. METHODOLOGY: Nasal lavage samples and clinical outcomes of disease severity were obtained from thirty-eight pediatric CF individuals...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Judith M Scholing, Margreet R Olthof, Femkje Am Jonker, Tanja Gm Vrijkotte
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate maternal micronutrient status during pregnancy can lead to short- and long-term health risks for mother and offspring. The present study investigated the association between pre-pregnancy weight status and micronutrient status during pregnancy. DESIGN: Maternal blood samples were collected during early pregnancy (median 13, interquartile range 12-15 weeks) and were assayed for serum folate, ferritin, Fe and vitamin B12. Regression modelling was used to assess the association between pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity, and micronutrient levels, as well as the odds for deficiencies...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Meili Xu, Jie Wu, Chunlian Wang, Jirong Huo, Liang Lü
To investigate the clinicopathological differences in laterally spreading tumor (LST) from the rectum and colon.
 Methods: Clinicopathological records of 198 patients with LST (116 cases in rectum, 82 cases in colon) from the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between January 2012 and January 2017 were evaluated.
 Results: A total of 198 colorectal LST were included. According to the endoscopic classification, nodular mixed type (LST-GM), homogeneous type (LST-GH), flat elevated type(LST-FE) and pseudodepressed type (LST-PD) were 127(64...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Nicolas Gourdin, Marion Bossennec, Céline Rodriguez, Selena Vigano, Christelle Machon, Camilla Jandus, David Bauché, Julien Faget, Isabelle Durand, Nicolas Chopin, Olivier Tredan, Julien C Marie, Bertrand Dubois, Jérôme Guitton, Pedro Romero, Christophe Caux, Christine Ménétrier-Caux
The production of CD73-derived Adenosine (Ado) by Tregs, has been proposed as a resistance mechanism to anti-PD1 therapy in murine tumor models. We reported that Human Tregs express the ecto-nucleotidase CD39, that generates AMP from ATP, but do not express the AMPase CD73. In contrast, CD73 defined a subset of effector CD4+ T cells (Teffs), enriched in polyfunctional Th1.17 cells characterized by expression of CXCR3, CCR6 and MDR1 and production of IL-17A/IFN-γ/IL-22/GM-CSF. CD39+ Tregs selectively targeted CD73+ Teffs through cooperative degradation of ATP into Ado inhibiting and restricting the ability of CD73+ Teffs to secrete IL-17A...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Masato Kasagi, Tomokazu Motegi, Kosuke Narita, Kazuyuki Fujihara, Yusuke Suzuki, Minami Tagawa, Koichi Ujita, Hirotaka Shimada, Masato Fukuda
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor binding affinity can be a more sensitive marker of age-related neuronal loss than regional gray matter (GM) volume, knowledge about the relationship between decreased GABAA receptor binding affinity and cognitive decline during normal aging is still limited. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy elderly individuals (aged 50-77 years (mean, 64.5 ± 7.3 years); 15 males and 22 females) were enrolled in this study...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Firas Mahmoud Hayajneh
The present study aims to evaluate the amount of immunoglobulins A, G, and M in she-camel blood serum in relation with the presence of pathogens in the udder, and to compare the antioxidative capacity and the concentration of zinc, iron, total proteins, and calcium. Milk and blood samples from she-camels from south Jordan were taken; according to milk bacteriological examination, the animals were divided into two groups: (Gm) which contained samples of milk contaminated with bacteria and (Gh) which contained uncontaminated milk samples...
March 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Dina Hafez, Laurence F McMahon, Linda Balogh, Floyd John Brinley, John Crump, Mark Ealovega, Audrey Fan, Yeong Kwok, Kristen Krieger, Thomas O'Connor, Elisa Ostafin, Heidi Reichert, Jennifer Meddings
OBJECTIVES: To characterize patterns of emergency department (ED) utilization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among patients with established care within a patient-centered medical home. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review using Michigan Medicine's (formerly University of Michigan Health System) electronic health record. METHODS: Ten general medicine (GM) physicians reviewed 256 ambulatory care-sensitive ED encounters that occurred between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, among patients of a GM medical home...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Sathvik B Sridhar, Atiqulla Shariff, Lana Dallah, Doaa Anas, Maryam Ayman, Padma Gm Rao
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Alexander Mikhaylov, Sophie de Reguardati, Jüri Pahapill, Patrik R Callis, Bern Kohler, Aleksander Rebane
Fluorescent DNA base analogs and intrinsic fluorophores are gaining importance for multiphoton microscopy and imaging, however, their quantitative nonlinear excitation properties have been poorly documented. Here we present the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra of 2-aminopurine (2AP), 7-methyl guanosine (7MG), isoxanthopterin (IXP), 6-methyl isoxanthopterin (6MI), as well as L-tryptophan (L-trp) and 3-methylindole (3MI) in aqueous solution and some organic solvents measured in the wavelength range 550 - 810 nm using femtosecond two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) and nonlinear transmission (NLT) methods...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Bogdan Ciszek, Marek Kujawa, Mateusz Bartkowiak, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Daria Klosinska, Anna Ratajska
During embryonic development, hematopoietic cells are present in areas of blood-vessel differentiation. These hematopoietic cells emerge from a specific subpopulation of endothelial cells called the hemogenic endothelium. We have previously found that mouse proepicardium contained its own population of endothelial cells forming a network of vascular tubules. We hypothesize that this EC population contains cells of hematopoietic potential. Therefore, we investigated an in vitro hematopoietic potential of proepicardial cell populations...
March 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Brian M Salata, Madeline R Sterling, Ashley N Beecy, Ajayram V Ullal, Erica C Jones, Evelyn M Horn, Parag Goyal
Given high rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and widespread adoption of the hospitalist model, patients with HF are often cared for on General Medicine (GM) services. Differences in discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates between patients on GM and those on Cardiology during the contemporary hospitalist era are unknown. The present study compared discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates of patients with HF admitted on GM services and those on Cardiology services. We retrospectively studied 926 patients discharged home after HF hospitalization...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Maria Siemionow, Joanna Cwykiel, Ahlke Heydemann, Jesus Garcia, Enza Marchese, Krzysztof Siemionow, Erzsebet Szilagyi
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and lethal disease caused by mutations of the dystrophin gene. Currently no cure exists. Stem cell therapies targeting DMD are challenged by limited engraftment and rejection despite the use of immunosuppression. There is an urgent need to introduce new stem cell-based therapies that exhibit low allogenic profiles and improved cell engraftment. In this proof-of-concept study, we develop and test a new human stem cell-based approach to increase engraftment, limit rejection, and restore dystrophin expression in the mdx/scid mouse model of DMD...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kyung Kate Hyun, Kyungsoo Jeong, Andre Tok, Stephen G Ritchie
Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs)...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Li Huang, Wei-Hong Lai, Lei Zhu, Wei Li, Lei Wei, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Lan Xie, Chin-Ho Chen
We have previously reported gnidimacrin (GM), a protein kinase C (PKC) agonist, significantly reduces the frequency of HIV-1 latently infected cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients undergoing successful antiretroviral therapy at low picomolar concentrations ex vivo , which is distinct from other latency reversing agents. In this study, we demonstrate that strong viral reactivation by GM is a mechanism for elimination of latently infected cells, and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), a thiophenyl benzamide (TPB), further potentiated the efficacy of GM against latent HIV-1...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ryosuke Koyama, Wataru Hakamata, Takako Hirano, Toshiyuki Nishio
Three Golgi mannosidases (GMs), namely Golgi α-mannosidases IA, IB, and IC, remove mannose residues from N-glycans and regulate the quality control and transportation of nascent proteins. GM inhibitors regulate several biological events such as cell-cell communication, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. As a result, GM inhibitor-based therapies have gained significant attention for cancer treatment. However, to date, no GM inhibitor has been approved and none is in clinical development for anti-cancer treatment...
March 13, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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