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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160149/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-silk-fibroin-functionalized-with-gaba-and-allopregnanolone-for-schwann-cell-and-neuron-survival
#1
Chiara Gm Gennari, Francesco Cilurzo, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Paola Minghetti, Valerio Magnaghi
AIM: This in vitro and in vivo study reports on silk fibroin (SF) scaffold, functionalized for in situ delivery of GABA and/or allopregnanolone (ALLO), as biomaterial for potential application in tissue engineering and nerve regeneration. MATERIALS & METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility to design 2D scaffolds (films) made of regenerated Bombyx mori SF, functionalized with GABA and/or ALLO to enhance in vitro biological functions, health, survival and growth of Schwann cells and sensitive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia...
November 21, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#2
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159057/gray-matter-atrophy-patterns-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-source-based-morphometry-study
#3
Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Michael G Dwyer, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Tyblova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Eva Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Objectives: To investigate spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and their association with disability progression in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a longitudinal setting. Methods: Brain MRI and clinical neurological assessments were obtained in 152 MS patients at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Patients were classified into those with confirmed disability progression (CDP) (n = 85) and those without CDP (n = 67) at the end of the study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158431/salmonella-typhimurium-alters-the-extracellular-proteome-of-macrophages-and-leads-to-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-exosomes
#4
Winnie W Hui, Kamil Hercik, Sayali Belsare, Navatha Alugubelly, Beata Clapp, Carlos Rinaldi, Mariola J Edelmann
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium, which can invade and survive within macrophages. Pathogenic Salmonellae induce the secretion of specific cytokines from these phagocytic cells and interfere with the host secretory pathways. In this study, we describe the extracellular proteome of human macrophages infected with S. Typhimurium, followed by analysis of canonical pathways of proteins isolated from the extracellular milieu. We demonstrate that some of the proteins secreted by macrophages upon S...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157815/an-efflux-pump-mexab-oprm-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-associated-with-antibacterial-activity-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg
#5
Rashmi Kanagaratnam, Rida Sheikh, Fahad Alharbi, Dong H Kwon
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogen. An efflux pump (MexAB-OprM) is the main contributor to the multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound extracted from green tea, exhibits antibacterial activity. It is unclear that molecular details of the antibacterial activity of EGCG, EGCG-effect on antibiotic susceptibility, and clinical relevance of EGCG in bacteria...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157295/single-cell-multiplexed-cytokine-profiling-of-cd19-car-t-cells-reveals-a-diverse-landscape-of-polyfunctional-antigen-specific-response
#6
Qiong Xue, Emily Bettini, Patrick Paczkowski, Colin Ng, Alaina Kaiser, Timothy McConnell, Olja Kodrasi, Máire F Quigley, James Heath, Rong Fan, Sean Mackay, Mark E Dudley, Sadik H Kassim, Jing Zhou
BACKGROUND: It remains challenging to characterize the functional attributes of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cell product targeting CD19 related to potency and immunotoxicity ex vivo, despite promising in vivo efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. METHODS: We employed a single-cell, 16-plex cytokine microfluidics device and new analysis techniques to evaluate the functional profile of CD19 CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. CAR-T cells were manufactured from human PBMCs transfected with the lentivirus encoding the CD19-BB-z transgene and expanded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads...
November 21, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156522/the-prevention-of-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-mixture-induced-inflammation-in-human-keratinocyte-and-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-in-nc-nga-mice-by-mineral-balanced-deep-sea-water
#7
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Min-Gu Lee, Soyoung Kim, Tae-Jung Jang, Kyung-Soo Nam
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by environmental and chemical allergens. Despite the complexity of its pathogenesis, many investigations have shown that substances having anti-inflammatory activities alleviated the pathology of AD. Here, we evaluated the effects of mineral-balanced deep sea water (DSW) on AD-like skin damage in both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that mineral-balanced DSW regressed inflammatory chemokines, such as macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA expression in HaCaT immortal human keratinocyte treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/ interferon (IFN)-γ mixture...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#8
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155314/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-irradiation-interferes-with-the-adipogenic-osteogenic-differentiation-balance-improving-their-hematopoietic-supporting-ability
#9
Silvia Preciado, Sandra Muntión, Ana Rico, Luis A Pérez Romasanta, Teresa L Ramos, Rebeca Ortega, Javier Borrajo, Luis A Corchete, Concepción Rodríguez, María Díez-Campelo, Luis I Sánchez-Abarca, María-Consuelo Del Cañizo, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo
Bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells are precursors of adipocytes and osteoblasts and key regulators of hematopoiesis. Irradiation is widely used in conditioning regimens. Despite mesenchymal stromal cells are radio-resistant, the effects of low-dose irradiation on their behavior have not been extensively explored. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of 2.5 Gy on mesenchymal stromal cells. Cells from 25 healthy donors were either irradiated or not (the latter were used as controls). Cells were characterized following ISCT criteria, including in vitro differentiation assays...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155267/chronic-subcutaneous-infusion-of-neurosecretory-protein-gm-increases-body-mass-gain-in-chicks
#10
Kenshiro Shikano, Shusuke Taniuchi, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
Recently we discovered a small hypothalamic protein in the chicken, named neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), which is associated with body growth and energy metabolism in birds and rodents. Genome database analysis suggested that the NPGL gene has a paralogous gene in vertebrates, named neurosecretory protein GM (NPGM). However, the biological action of NPGM remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether NPGM affects body growth in chicks. We found that subcutaneous infusion of NPGM for six days increased body mass gain in a dose-dependent manner...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155145/differential-effects-of-the-nrf2-activators-tbhq-and-cddo-im-on-the-early-events-of-t-cell-activation
#11
Joseph W Zagorski, Alexandra E Turley, Robert A Freeborn, Kelly R VanDenBerg, Heather E Dover, Brian R Kardell, Karen T Liby, Cheryl E Rockwell
We previously demonstrated that activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) promotes CD4+ Th2 differentiation. In the current study, we assessed the role of Nrf2 in early events following T cell activation. The Nrf2 activators, tBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone) and CDDO-Im (the imidazolide derivative of the triterpenoid CDDO), were used in conjunction with splenocytes derived from wild-type and Nrf2-null mice to distinguish between Nrf2-specific and off-target effects...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154085/btx-a-has-notable-effects-contradicting-some-treatment-aims-in-the-rat-triceps-surae-compartment-which-are-not-confined-to-the-muscles-injected
#12
Can A Yucesoy, Filiz Ateş
Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) is widely used in treating gastrocnemius medial (GM) and lateral (GL) muscles in cerebral palsy to improve joint motion. However, recent animal experiments indicate inferior BTX-A effects beyond the injected muscle. The goal was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model. (1) BTX-A injected into the GM and GL does not spread into the soleus (SOL), and muscles exposed show (2) a wider length range of force exertion (Lrange), (3) reduced passive forces and (4) no intermuscular interaction effects...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153069/-emerging-pathogen-candida-kefyr-kluvyeromyces-marxianus
#13
Tuğba Çuhadar, Ayşe Kalkancı
In the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital Candida kefyr was isolated from different clinical samples as 5.3% in 2016 and in 2017 this rate increased to 9.3% which was nearly two-fold and this has drawn our attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the special characteristics, antifungal susceptibility and virulence properties of C.keyfr species. Germ tube, corn meal-tween 80 agar morphology and carbohydrate assimilation profiles on ID32C yeast identification system were used for the diagnosis of Candida species...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152318/gut-microbiota-composition-may-relate-to-weight-loss-rate-in-obese-pet-dogs
#14
Ida N Kieler, Shamrulazhar Shamzir Kamal, Anne D Vitger, Dennis S Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Charlotte R Bjornvad
Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151595/high-fat-diet-consumption-differentially-affects-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-adipocyte-size-in-obesity-prone-and-obesity-resistant-rats
#15
J M Poret, F Souza-Smith, S J Marcell, D A Gaudet, T H Tzeng, H D Braymer, L M Harrison-Bernard, S D Primeaux
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Expanding visceral adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and increased risk for developing obesity-related comorbidities. The goal of this study was to examine high fat diet (HFD)-induced differences in adipocyte size and cytokine/chemokine expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS: OP and OR rats were fed either a low fat diet (LFD, 10% kilocalories from fat) or HFD (60% kilocalories from fat) for 7 weeks...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150974/reciprocal-interactions-between-bile-acids-and-gut-microbiota-in-human-liver-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Tadashi Ikegami, Akira Honda
The gut microbiota (GM) play a central role in their hosts' metabolism of bile acids (BAs) by regulating deconjugation, dehydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and epimerization reactions to generate unconjugated free BAs and secondary BAs. These BAs generated by the GM are potent signaling molecules that interact with BA receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). Each BA has a differential affinity to these receptors; therefore, alterations in BA composition by GM could modify the intensity of receptor signaling...
November 18, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147617/phase-i-trial-of-anti-gd2-monoclonal-antibody-hu3f8-plus-gm-csf-impact-of-body-weight-immunogenicity-and-anti-gd2-response-on-pharmacokinetics-and-survival
#17
Irene Y Cheung, Brian H Kushner, Shakeel Modak, Ellen M Basu, Stephen S Roberts, Nai-Kong V Cheung
Fifty-seven stage 4 patients with refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma were enrolled in a phase I trial (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01757626) using humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu3F8 in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The influence of body weight and human anti-human antibody (HAHA) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hu3F8, and the effect of de novo anti-GD2 response on patient outcome were explored. Serum samples before hu3F8 infusion, and serially up to day 12 during treatment cycle #1, and at 5 min after each hu3F8 infusion for all subsequent cycles were collected...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147095/histochemical-characteristics-in-relation-to-meat-quality-traits-of-eight-major-muscles-from-hanwoo-steers
#18
Sung-Hyun Joo, Kyu-Won Lee, Young-Hwa Hwang, Seon-Tea Joo
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between composition of muscle fiber types and meat quality traits of eight major muscles from Hanwoo steers. Longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus abdominis (RA) and superficialis flexor (SF) muscles were obtained from 9 Hanwoo steers and subjected to histochemical analysis. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of fiber types among these 8 major muscles...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#19
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146095/a-two-year-study-using-cerebral-gray-matter-volume-to-assess-the-response-to-fingolimod-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Fawad Yousuf, Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Renxin Chu, Gloria Kim, Subhash Tummala, Fariha Khalid, Howard L Weiner, Tanuja Chitnis, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND: Cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy has clinical relevance in multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod has known efficacy on clinical and conventional MRI findings in MS; the effect on GM is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore fingolimod's treatment effect on cerebral GM atrophy over two years in patients with relapsing forms of MS. DESIGN/METHODS: Patients starting fingolimod [n=24, age (mean±SD) 41.2±11.6years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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