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Botao Wang, Ying Gao, Guoxi Zheng, Xiaoyong Ren, Bin Sun, Kang Zhu, Huanan Luo, Zhenghui Wang, Min Xu
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosal tissue. Platycodin D (PLD), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, has anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PLD in the nasal mucosa have not been deeply investigated. The objective was to investigate the effect of PLD on inflammatory cytokines and mucus production from nasal epithelial cells. Our study showed that PLD inhibited the levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and eotaxin in interleukin (IL)-13-stimulated RPMI2650 cells...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
E Ilett, T Kottke, J Thompson, K Rajani, S Zaidi, L Evgin, M Coffey, C Ralph, R Diaz, H Pandha, K Harrington, P Selby, R Bram, A Melcher, R Vile
The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral (i.t.) oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumor response. In contrast, systemically delivered VSV expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumor CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumor activity...
October 25, 2016: Gene Therapy
Benjamin A Thomas, Vesna Cuplov, Alexandre Bousse, Adriana Mendes, Kris Thielemans, Brian F Hutton, Kjell Erlandsson
Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
A Gouveia, S P Dias, T Santos, H Rocha, C R Coelho, L Ruano, O Galego, M C Diogo, D Seixas, M J Sá, S Batista
OBJECTIVES: To characterize cognitive impairment in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and to correlate the pattern of cognitive deficits with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited consecutive patients with PPMS as well as age, sex, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and brain MRI was performed in patients with PPMS for analysis of lesion load, subcortical GM volumes, and regional cortical volumes...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Wei Wei, Chao Xu, Zhi-Yong Ye, Xiao-Jun Huang, Jia-En Yuan, Tian-Bao Ma, Han-Biao Lin, Xiu-Qiong Chen
The aim of the present study was to obtain the qualified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) and human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro in the co-culture system. Cord blood mononuclear cells were separated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll lymphocyte separation medium, and then CD34(+) HSC was collected by MACS immunomagnetic beads. The selected CD34(+) HSC/HPC and MSC were transferred into culture flask. IMDM culture medium with 15% AB-type cord plasma supplemented with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L) factors were used as the co-culture system for the amplification of HSC/HPC and MSC...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
D J Greene, A C Williams Iii, J M Koller, B L Schlaggar, K J Black
Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multicenter study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM+WM volume...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Hai-Jing Yu, Hua Deng, Jian Ma, Shu-Jun Huang, Jian-Min Yang, Yan-Fen Huang, Xiao-Ping Mu, Liang Zhang, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a chronic inflammatory breast lesion and its etiology remains incompletely defined. Although mounting evidence suggests the involvement of Corynebacterium in GM, there has been no systematic study of GM bacteriology using -omics technology. METHODS: The bacterial diversity and relative abundances in breast abscesses from 19 women with GM were investigated using 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing and Sanger sequencing. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was also developed to identify C...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Yiliao Song, Yong Wang, Feng Liu, Yixin Zhang
Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is currently a worldwide issue, and the situation is the worst in China due to a rapid increase in the construction industry and the short life span of China's buildings. To create an opportunity out of this problem, comprehensive prevention measures and effective management strategies are urgently needed. One major gap in the literature of waste management is a lack of estimations on future C&DW generation. Therefore, this paper presents a forecasting procedure for C&DW in China that can forecast the quantity of each component in such waste...
October 21, 2016: Waste Management
Zhao Cheng, Hong-Ling Peng, Rong Zhang, Xian-Ming Fu, Guang-Sen Zhang
Previous studies have shown that a subpopulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent F4/80(high) CD11b(high) innate macrophages could be derived from bone marrow cells by continuous in vitro culturing. These cells could be induced to differentiate into M1 or M2 macrophages in vitro. In the current study, we sought to determine whether bone marrow cell-derived innate macrophages (BMIMs) could be used to fulfill an anti-inflammatory purpose by intravenous transplantation in vivo after being stimulated to differentiate into M2 macrophages...
October 12, 2016: Cellular Immunology
C Shah, W Zhang, Y Xiao, L Yao, Y Zhao, X Gao, L Liu, J Liu, S Li, B Tao, Z Yan, Y Fu, Q Gong, S Lui
Studies of schizophrenia at drug-naive state and on antipsychotic medication have reported a number of regions of gray-matter (GM) abnormalities but the reports have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct multimodal meta-analysis to compare the cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies of brain GM in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) and those with antipsychotic treatment within 1 year (AT-FES) to determine the similarities and differences in these groups. We conducted two separate meta-analyses containing 24 studies with a sample size of 801 patients and 957 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Mireia Casulleras, Marco Pavesi, Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, Aritz Lopategi, Andrea de Gottardi, Ivo Graziadei, Henning Gronbaek, Pere Ginès, Mauro Bernardi, Vicente Arroyo, Joan Clària
: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in cirrhosis is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by acute decompensation, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. Recent findings suggest that an over-exuberant systemic inflammation plays a primary role in ACLF progression. In this study, we examined whether genetic factors shape systemic immune responses in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation-related genes (IL-1β: rs1143623, IL-1ra: rs4251961, IL-10: rs1800871, SOCS3: rs4969170, NOD2: rs3135500 and CMKLR1: rs1878022) were genotyped in 279 cirrhotic patients with (n=178) and without (n=101) ACLF from the CANONIC study of the CLIF consortium...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Khairy M A Zoheir, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed M El-Sherbeeny, Khalid M Alanazi, Moureq R Alotaibi, Sheikh F Ahmad
Psoriatic inflammation has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Recently, psoriasis has also been linked to hepatic disorders, however underlying mechanism connecting the two are unknown. IL-17A being a central pro-inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis may be involved in hepatic inflammation through its receptor and downward signaling; however so far no study has investigated IL-17A related signaling in the liver during psoriasis in a murine model...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
Oscar Heredia Díaz, José Luis Aldaba Meza, Baltazar M Baltazar, Germán Bojórquez Bojórquez, Luciano Castro Espinoza, José Luis Corrales Madrid, Juan Manuel de la Fuente Martínez, Héctor Abel Durán Pompa, José Alonso Escobedo, Armando Espinoza Banda, José Antonio Garzón Tiznado, Juvencio González García, José Luis Guzmán Rodríguez, Jesús Ignacio Madueño Martínez, José Luis Martínez Carrillo, Chen Meng, Francisco Javier Quiñones Pando, Enrique Rosales Robles, Ignacio Ruiz Hernández, José Elías Treviño Ramírez, Hugo Raúl Uribe Montes, Francisco Zavala García
Environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops is a process to evaluate whether the biotechnology trait(s) in a GM crop may result in increased pest potential or harm to the environment. In this analysis, two GM insect-resistant (IR) herbicide-tolerant maize hybrids (MON-89Ø34-3 × MON-88Ø17-3 and MON-89Ø34-3 × MON-ØØ6Ø3-6) and one herbicide-tolerant GM hybrid (MON-ØØ6Ø3-6) were compared with conventional maize hybrids of similar genetic backgrounds. Two sets of studies, Experimental Phase and Pilot Phase, were conducted across five ecological regions (ecoregions) in Mexico during 2009-2013, and data were subject to meta-analysis...
October 22, 2016: Transgenic Research
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Yuichi Nishiyama, Hidekazu Kanayama, Hiroshi Mori, Keiji Tada, Yasushi Yamamoto, Takashi Katsube, Haruo Takeshita, Kazunori Kawakami, Hajime Kitagaki
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the usefulness of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for investigating postmortem changes on brain computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 128 patients (23 - 100 years old) without cerebral abnormalities who underwent unenhanced brain CT before and after death. The antemortem CT (AMCT) scans and postmortem CT (PMCT) scans were spatially normalized using our original brain CT template, and postmortem changes of CT values (in Hounsfield units; HU) were analysed by the SPM technique...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
Marwa A A Ibrahim, Ebtsam F Okasha
Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods...
October 18, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Dany P Moualeu-Ngangue, Tsu-Wei Chen, Hartmut Stützel
Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Catharina C Gross, Diana Ahmetspahic, Tobias Ruck, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Kathrin Schwarte, Silke Jörgens, Stefanie Scheu, Susanne Windhagen, Bettina Graefe, Nico Melzer, Luisa Klotz, Volker Arolt, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Judith Alferink
OBJECTIVE: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. METHODS: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
M A López-Matas, R Moya, V Cardona, A Valero, P Gaig, A Malet, M Viñas, A García-Moral, M Labrador, E Alcoceba, M Ibero, J Carnés
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses...
October 2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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