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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721609/susceptibility-of-diaphorina-citri-hemiptera-liviidae-and-its-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-hymenoptera-eulophidae-to-entomopathogenic-fungi-under-laboratory-conditions
#1
K H Ibarra-Cortés, A W Guzmán-Franco, H González-Hernández, L D Ortega-Arenas, J A Villanueva-Jiménez, A Robles-Bermúdez
Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715452/including-irrigation-in-niche-modelling-of-the-invasive-wasp-vespula-germanica-fabricius-improves-model-fit-to-predict-potential-for-further-spread
#2
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713658/morphological-variation-of-aphidius-ervi-haliday-hymenoptera-braconidae-associated-with-different-aphid-hosts
#3
Cinthya M Villegas, Vladimir Žikić, Saša S Stanković, Sebastián A Ortiz-Martínez, Ainara Peñalver-Cruz, Blas Lavandero
BACKGROUND: Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704529/correction-rediscovery-of-the-enigmatic-fungus-farming-ant-mycetosoritis-asper-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-implications-for-taxonomy-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-agriculture-in-ants
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695711/cuticular-hydrocarbon-profiles-differentiate-tropical-fire-ant-populations-solenopsis-geminata-hymenoptera-formicidae
#5
Lin Hu, Robert K Vander Meer, Sanford D Porter, Li Chen
The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from hexane rinses of workers from two Florida populations (dark and red forms) of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified by GC-MS analysis. Both the dark form and the red form produce similar CHCs with carbon chain lengths ranging from 17 to 35. However, the relative percentages of these CHCs were consistently different between the two color forms. The largest CHC component in the dark form is tricosane, and (Z)-9-tricosene for the red form...
July 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694149/host-regulation-by-the-ectophagous-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-nigricans
#6
Andrea Becchimanzi, Maddalena Avolio, Ilaria Di Lelio, Adriana Marinelli, Paola Varricchio, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Francesco Pennacchio, Silvia Caccia
The host regulation process has been widely investigated in endophagous parasitoid wasps, which in most cases finely interact with living hosts (i.e. koinobiont parasitoids). In contrast, only very limited information is available for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and rapidly suppress their victims (i.e. idiobiont parasitoids). Here we try to fill this research gap by investigating the host regulation by Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous idiobiont wasp species. Parasitism, mainly by venom action, is able to redirect host metabolism in order to enhance its nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae and to provide the required metabolic support to host tissues...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690823/opposing-effects-of-mortality-factors-on-progeny-operational-sex-ratio-may-thwart-adaptive-manipulation-of-primary-sex-ratio
#7
Gaétan Moreau, Eldon S Eveleigh, Christopher J Lucarotti, Benoit Morin, Dan T Quiring
Despite extensive research on mechanisms generating biases in sex ratios, the capacity of natural enemies to shift or further skew operational sex ratios following sex allocation and parental care remains largely unstudied in natural populations. Male cocoons of the sawfly Neodiprion abietis (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are consistently smaller than those of females, with very little overlap, and thus, we were able to use cocoon size to sex cocoons. We studied three consecutive cohorts of N. abietis in six forest stands to detect cocoon volume-associated biases in the attack of predators, pathogens, and parasitoids and examine how the combined effect of natural enemies shapes the realized operational sex ratio...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686887/can-the-exposure-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apiadae-larvae-to-a-field-concentration-of-thiamethoxam-affect-newly-emerged-bees
#8
Priscila Sepúlveda Friol, Aline Fernanda Catae, Daiana Antonia Tavares, Osmar Malaspina, Thaisa Cristina Roat
The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A...
June 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675375/specific-immunotherapy-in-hymenoptera-venom-allergy-and-concomitant-malignancies-a-retrospective-follow-up-focusing-on-efficacy-and-safety
#9
J Aeberhard, G Haeberli, U R Müller, A Helbling
BACKGROUND: Malignancies are often considered as a contraindication for allergen specific immunotherapy. This aspect must be discussed in regards to the population with severe Hymenoptera venom allergy and cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to conduct a further examination of patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy, venom immunotherapy (VIT) and a malignancy. Methodology: All patients have been included who were referred for evaluation of a Hymenoptera venom allergy or for control during VIT from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664527/humic-fertilizer-and-vermicompost-applied-to-the-soil-can-positively-affect-population-growth-parameters-of-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-on-eggs-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#10
P Mohamadi, J Razmjou, B Naseri, M Hassanpour
The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest of tomato worldwide. One of the control measures of T. absoluta is the use of biological control agents, such as Trichogramma wasps. Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore characteristics and suitability of them to parasitism. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the life table parameters of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on T...
June 29, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663696/effects-of-abamectin-and-deltamethrin-to-the-foragers-honeybee-workers-of-apis-mellifera-jemenatica-hymenoptera-apidae-under-laboratory-conditions
#11
Dalal Musleh Aljedani
This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin) on the lethal time (LT50) and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin). The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h) after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659767/hornets-have-it-a-conserved-olfactory-subsystem-for-social-recognition-in-hymenoptera
#12
Antoine Couto, Aniruddha Mitra, Denis Thiéry, Frédéric Marion-Poll, Jean-Christophe Sandoz
Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651989/unraveling-the-venom-components-of-an-encyrtid-endoparasitoid-wasp-diversinervus-elegans
#13
Nai-Yong Liu, Jin-Qiang Wang, Zu-Bing Zhang, Jing-Mei Huang, Jia-Ying Zhu
The encyrtid parasitoid, Diversinervus elegans (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), is a natural enemy of the notorious scale pests belonging to the family of Coccidae. Venom containing a rich source of bioactive molecules is a key virulent factor used to regulate host physiology by parasitoids. Although knowledge regarding venom constituents accumulated from limited parasitoids has provided insights into their roles in host-parasitoid interaction, toxins involving in manipulating scale physiology remain sparsely documented...
June 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647560/transcript-expression-bias-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-gene-in-bumblebee-bombus-lantschouensis-hymenoptera-apidae
#14
Jie Dong, Lei Han, Ye Wang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family is a highly conserved group of proteins found in a wide range of organism. It plays an important role in innate immunity of insects. Little is known on the expression characteristic and function of PEBP in bees. In the current study, we cloned the pebp gene and investigated its expression profiles at different developmental stages and reproductive status from bumblebee, Bombus lantschouensis (Vogt), which is one of the most abundant pollinators for wild plants and crops in Northern China...
June 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646410/symbiont-spillover-from-invasive-to-native-woodwasps
#15
Ann E Hajek, David C Harris, Tonya D Bittner
Hosts and their associated microbes are being increasingly introduced around the world, which can lead to novel host/microbe associations via new sympatries. Woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) are able to utilize wood for its nutrients due to obligate mutualistic associations with white rot fungi in the genus Amylostereum and when invasive woodwasps are introduced to new areas, their symbionts accompany them. There is increasing evidence that woodwasp-fungus associations previously believed to be highly specific are actually flexible...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#16
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643143/egg-parasitoid-complex-of-the-corn-leafhopper-dalbulus-maidis-delong-hemiptera-cicadellidae-in-argentina
#17
E Luft Albarracin, S V Triapitsyn, E G Virla
The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong), is the most important leafhopper pest of maize, Zea mays, in the Americas. A survey of the diversity of its egg parasitoids was carried out in northwestern Argentina. During summer from 2004 to 2007, the samples were collected, using sentinel eggs of D. maidis on corn leaves, exposed in 48 cornfields. Sixteen species belonging to four families of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were identified. Among the parasitoid groups, Trichogrammatidae was the most represented family with eight species, followed by Mymaridae with six species...
June 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638279/preventive-actions-of-allergen-immunotherapy-the-facts-and-the-effects-in-search-of-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Irene Martignago, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Erminia Ridolo
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy. Available AIT nowadays are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis and asthma, while for allergy to Hymenoptera venom only subcutaneous route is recommended. A bulk of trials and meta-analyses demonstrated that efficacy and safety of AIT in decreasing allergic clinical symptoms and use of rescue medications, while its preventive capacity is yet under investigation. The most important of these effects is the prevention of potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings by venom immunotherapy (VIT)...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632152/isolation-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-loci-for-cotesia-plutellae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#19
Tiansheng Liu, Fushi Ke, Shijun You, Wenbin Chen, Weiyi He, Minsheng You
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0...
June 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629749/a-distinct-biomolecular-profile-identifies-monoclonal-mast-cell-disorders-in-patients-with-idiopathic-anaphylaxis
#20
Melody C Carter, Avanti Desai, Hirsh D Komarow, Yun Bai, Sarah T Clayton, Alicia S Clark, Karina N Ruiz-Esteves, Lauren M Long, Daly Cantave, Todd M Wilson, Linda M Scott, Olga Simakova, Mi-Yeon Jung, Jamie Hahn, Irina Maric, Dean D Metcalfe
BACKGROUND: Clonal mast cell disorders are known to occur in a subset of patients with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. This observation has prompted the question as to whether clonal mast cell disorders also occur in patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of clonal mast cell disorders among patients with IA, criteria to identify those patients who require a bone marrow biopsy and whether the pathogenesis of IA involves a hyper-responsive mast cell compartment...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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