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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432783/gene-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-a-novel-odorant-receptor-gene-cluster-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#1
S-N Wang, S Shan, Y Zheng, Y Peng, Z-Y Lu, Y-Q Yang, R-J Li, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M...
April 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432683/prospective-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-value-of-sensitive-kit-d816v-mutation-analysis-of-blood-in-adults-with-suspected-systemic-mastocytosis
#2
Thomas Kristensen, Hanne Vestergaard, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Charlotte Gotthard Mortz, Henrik Fomsgaard Kjaer, Markus Ollert, Michael Boe Møller, Sigurd Broesby-Olsen
BACKGROUND: Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood has been proposed to guide bone marrow (BM) investigation in suspected systemic mastocytosis (SM). The aim of this prospective study was for the first time to compare the D816V-status of the "screening blood sample" used to guide BM biopsy in suspected SM to the outcome of the subsequent BM investigation. METHODS: 58 adult patients with suspected SM were included. The outcome of sensitive KIT D816V-analysis of blood was compared to the result of the BM investigation...
April 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423420/functional-response-of-eretmocerus-delhiensis-on-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-by-parasitism-and-host-feeding
#3
Jafar Ebrahimifar, Arsalan Jamshidnia, Hossein Allahyari
The parasitoid wasp, Eretmocerus delhiensis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) is a thelytokous and syn-ovigenic parasitoid. To evaluate E. delhiensis as a biocontrol agent in greenhouse, the killing efficiency of this parasitoid by parasitism and host-feeding, were studied. Killing efficiency can be compared by estimation of functional response parameters. Laboratory experiments were performed in controllable conditions to evaluate the functional response of E. delhiensis at eight densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 100, and 120 third nymphal stage) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on two hosts including; tomato and prickly lettuce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423033/can-soda-ash-dumping-grounds-provide-replacement-habitats-for-digger-wasps-hymenoptera-apoidea-spheciformes
#4
Lucyna Twerd, Maciej Krzyżyński, Barbara Waldon-Rudzionek, Piotr Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419344/a-place-to-grow-host-choice-and-larval-performance-of-microplitis-similis-hymenoptera-braconidae-in-the-host-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#5
Xu-Yang Chen, R J Hopkins, Yi-Pei Zhao, Guo-Hua Huang
Host selection is a key stage in the lifecycle of parasitoids, and is critical to both their function in control and to the maintenance of their population. The solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis similis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological control agent of Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we examined the preference M. similis exhibits for different instars of the host, host instar effects on parasitoid development, and the weight gain and food consumption of different instars of parasitized larvae...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417942/protein-discovery-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-of-venom-from-the-endoparasitoid-cotesia-chilonis-hymenoptera-braconidae
#6
Zi-Wen Teng, Shi-Jiao Xiong, Gang Xu, Shi-Yu Gan, Xuan Chen, David Stanley, Zhi-Chao Yan, Gong-Yin Ye, Qi Fang
Many species of endoparasitoid wasps provide biological control services in agroecosystems. Although there is a great deal of information on the ecology and physiology of host/parasitoid interactions, relatively little is known about the protein composition of venom and how specific venom proteins influence physiological systems within host insects. This is a crucial gap in our knowledge because venom proteins act in modulating host physiology in ways that favor parasitoid development. Here, we identified 37 possible venom proteins from the polydnavirus-carrying endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis by combining transcriptomic and proteomic analyses...
April 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402466/efficacy-of-nootka-oil-as-a-biopesticide-for-management-of-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#7
K M Addesso, J B Oliver, P A O'Neal, N Youssef
Recent concerns regarding the impact of traditional synthetic pesticides on nontarget organisms have generated demand for alternative products with lower environmental impact. This demand has led to increasing focus on plant essential oils as sources of new biopesticides. In this study, we demonstrate that the essential oil of the Alaskan yellow cedar, Cupressus nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, has activity against hybrid imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren × Solenopsis richteri Forel. In digging assays, ants were repelled by nootka oil and digging continued to be suppressed by nearly 50% in nootka oil-treated sand aged 6 mo in the laboratory...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398581/agricultural-landscape-and-pesticide-effects-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-biological-traits
#8
Mohamed Alburaki, Sandra J Steckel, Matthew T Williams, John A Skinner, David R Tarpy, William G Meikle, John Adamczyk, Scott D Stewart
Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397638/number-of-attacks-by-trichogramma-dendrolimi-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-affects-the-successful-parasitism-of-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae-eggs
#9
J Huang, H-Q Hua, L-Y Wang, F Zhang, Y-X Li
In laboratories, the parasitism rate of Ostrinia furnacalis (Güenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) eggs by Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is low; however, efforts to control O. furnacalis with T. dendrolimi in the field have been successful. In this study, the effects of the number of attacks by T. dendrolimi against O. furnacalis eggs and diet of O. furnacalis larva on wasp development were investigated. The results indicated that more attacks increased significantly not only the successful parasitism rate of O...
April 11, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390323/the-impact-of-gc-bias-on-phylogenetic-accuracy-using-targeted-enrichment-phylogenomic-data
#10
Silas Bossert, Elizabeth A Murray, Bonnie B Blaimer, Bryan N Danforth
The field of sequence based phylogenetic analyses is currently being transformed by novel hybrid-based targeted enrichment methods, such as the use of ultraconserved elements (UCEs). Rather than analyzing relationships among organisms using a small number of genes, these methods now allow us to evaluate relationships with many hundreds to thousands of individual gene loci. However, the inclusion of thousands of loci does not necessarily overcome the long-standing challenge of incongruence among phylogenetic trees derived from different genes or gene regions...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387830/development-of-liquid-bait-with-unique-bait-station-for-control-of-dolichoderus-thoracicus-hymenoptera-formicidae
#11
Chung-Chi Lin, Tsai-Wei Chang, Hung-Wei Chen, Chung-Han Shih, Po-Cheng Hsu
The Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith) has seriously infested urban, village, and agricultural environments in Taiwan. To develop optimal bait for the effective control of D. thoracicus, we investigated the feeding preferences of this ant at different sugar and amino acid concentrations in a laboratory setting. The number of feeding workers was significantly higher for 20% sucrose compared with that for other sugars at 10% and 20% concentrations. Furthermore, among all tested concentrations of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%), the highest number of ants were attracted by 1% MSG with 20% sucrose...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386801/diploid-male-production-results-in-queen-death-in-the-stingless-bee-scaptotrigona-depilis
#12
Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Ricardo C Oliveira, Sharon Schillewaert, Denise A Alves, Tom Wenseleers, Fabio S Nascimento, Vera L Imperatriz-Fonseca, Francis L W Ratnieks
As in most Hymenoptera, the eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini) have a complementary sex determination (CSD) system. When a queen makes a "matched mating" with a male that shares a CSD allele with her, half of their diploid offspring are diploid males rather than females. Matched mating imposes a cost, since diploid male production reduces the colony workforce. Hence, adaptations preventing the occurrence or attenuating its effects are likely to arise. Here we provide clear evidence that in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis, the emergence of diploid males induces queen death, and this usually occurs within 10-20 days of the emergence of diploid male offspring from their pupae...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386800/chemical-ecology-of-stingless-bees
#13
Sara Diana Leonhardt
Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384308/the-relationship-between-epicuticular-long-chained-hydrocarbons-and-surface-area-volume-ratios-in-insects-diptera-hymenoptera-lepidoptera
#14
Adrian Brückner, Michael Heethoff, Nico Blüthgen
Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383702/role-of-human-action-in-the-spread-of-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-pathogens
#15
Robert Owen
The increased annual losses in European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in North America and some other countries is usually attributed to a range of factors including pathogens, poor nutrition, and insecticides. In this essay, I will argue that the global trade in honey bees and migratory beekeeping practices within countries has enabled pathogens to spread quickly. Beekeepers' management strategies have also contributed to the spread of pathogens as well as the development of resistance to miticides and antibiotics, and exacerbated by hobby beekeepers...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382881/effects-of-superparasitism-on-immature-and-adult-stages-of-diachasmimorpha-longicaudata-ashmead-hymenoptera-braconidae-reared-on-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann-diptera-tephritidae
#16
F Devescovi, G E Bachmann, A L Nussenbaum, M M Viscarret, J L Cladera, D F Segura
The optimal use of available host by parasitoid insects should be favoured by natural selection. For solitary parasitoids, superparasitism (i.e. the egg-laying of several eggs/host) may represent a detrimental phenomenon both in a biological and an applied sense, but under certain circumstances it may be adaptive. Here, we studied the effects of increasing levels of superparasitism (LSPs, number of parasitoid larvae/host) on fitness-related parameters of the immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a solitary endoparasitoid parasitizing Ceratitis capitata...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382878/quality-control-of-telenomus-remus-hymenoptera-platygastridae-reared-on-the-factitious-host-corcyra-cephalonica-lepidoptera-pyralidae-for-successive-generations
#17
A P Queiroz, A de Freitas Bueno, A Pomari-Fernandes, M L M Grande, O C Bortolotto, D M da Silva
Egg parasitoid rearing on factitious hosts is an important step to reduce costs and increase availability of the biocontrol agent but it requires quality control to achieve success in field conditions. To this end, this study evaluated the quality of Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) reared on Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) for until 45 generations. In the first bioassay, we evaluated the body size of the laboratory-produced parasitoids. In the second bioassay, flight activity was examined, measuring the percentage of 'flyers', 'walkers' and 'deformed' parasitoids...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381207/microbial-composition-of-spiny-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-polyrhachis-across-their-geographic-range
#18
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Odair Correa Bueno, Corrie Saux Moreau
BACKGROUND: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits...
April 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380475/long-term-follow-up-of-children-after-venom-immunotherapy-low-adherence-to-anaphylaxis-guidelines
#19
Claudia Fiedler, Ulrich Miehe, Regina Treudler, Wieland Kiess, Freerk Prenzel
BACKGROUND: Data on the long-term outcome of children after specific venom immunotherapy (VIT) are limited. Therefore, we assessed sting recurrence and anaphylaxis relapse rates as well as adherence to anaphylaxis guidelines with regard to the availability of emergency equipment and education status. METHODS: For this long-term survey, data of 311 children with a history of anaphylactic reactions to hymenoptera stings were collected by chart review. We included patients who were treated with a 3-year VIT between 1993 and 2009 and had completed a questionnaire...
April 6, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376325/phylogenomic-insights-into-the-evolution-of-stinging-wasps-and-the-origins-of-ants-and-bees
#20
Michael G Branstetter, Bryan N Danforth, James P Pitts, Brant C Faircloth, Philip S Ward, Matthew L Buffington, Michael W Gates, Robert R Kula, Seán G Brady
The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae), and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) [1]. The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems [2], and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects [3]...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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