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Simon Blank, Maria Beatrice Bilò, Markus Ollert
Stings of Hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated systemic and even fatal allergic reactions. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the only disease-modifying and curative treatment of venom allergy. However, choosing the correct venom for VIT represents a necessary prerequisite for efficient protection against further anaphylactic sting reactions after VIT. In the past, therapeutic decisions based on the measurement of specific IgE (sIgE) levels to whole venom extracts were not always straightforward, especially when the patient was not able to identify the culprit insect...
January 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yugo Seko, Daisuke Hayasaka, Atsushi Nishino, Taizo Uchida, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Takuo Sawahata
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is one of the world's most hazardous invasive species, and thus its eradication from Japan is important. Physical and chemical controls can be expensive and cause strong adverse effects on local terrestrial ecosystems regardless of their high efficacy. Here, presence/absence of host-tree selection by Argentine ants was investigated to understand the ant-honeydew-producing insects interactions in order to develop new cultural controls compatible with biodiversity conservation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shahla Farzan
Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Joseph S Wilson, Aaron D Pan, Erica S Limb, Kevin A Williams
Africa has the most tropical and subtropical land of any continent, yet has relatively low species richness in several taxa. This depauperate nature of the African tropical fauna and flora has led some to call Africa the "odd man out." One exception to this pattern is velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), wingless wasps that are known for Müllerian mimicry. While North American velvet ants form one of the world's largest mimicry complexes, mimicry in African species has not been investigated. Here we ask do African velvet ant Müllerian mimicry rings exist, and how do they compare to the North American complex...
2018: PloS One
Guang Xu, Evan Palmer-Young, Kim Skyrm, Timothy Daly, Martha Sylvia, Anne Averill, Stephen Rich
Currently, light microscopic examination of cell morphology cannot discriminate Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim with 100% certainty. Here, a minor groove-binding (MGB) probe-based multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of C. mellificae and L. passim in honey bees. A conserved Hymenoptera 18S rRNA gene was built in as an internal control that allows accurate detection of PCR inhibition and failure of DNA extraction. The newly developed assay was also applied to field samples...
December 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
Yiyuan Li, Rui Zhang, Shanlin Liu, Alexander Donath, Ralph S Peters, Jessica Ware, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Michael E Pfrender, Xin Zhou
BACKGROUND: The primary energy-producing pathway in eukaryotic cells, the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, comprises proteins encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. To maintain the function of the OXPHOS system, the pattern of substitutions in mitochondrial and nuclear genes may not be completely independent. It has been suggested that slightly deleterious substitutions in mitochondrial genes are compensated by substitutions in the interacting nuclear genes due to positive selection...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Patrizia Bonadonna, Roberta Zanotti, Mauro Pagani, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Luigi Scaffidi, Elisa Olivieri, Maurizio Franchini, Federico Reccardini, Maria Teresa Costantino, Chiara Roncallo, Marina Mauro, Elisa Boni, Fabio Lodi Rizzini, Maria Beatrice Bilò, Anna Rosaria Marcarelli, Giovanni Passalacqua
BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of patients with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera sting are at risk of further severe reactions if re-stung. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in protecting individuals with ascertained Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and previous severe reactions. After a 3- to 5-year VIT course, most patients remain protected after VIT discontinuation. Otherwise, a lifelong treatment should be considered in high-risk patients (eg, in mastocytosis). Several case reports evidenced that patients with mastocytosis and HVA, although protected during VIT, can re-experience severe and sometimes fatal reactions after VIT discontinuation...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Paul J Parsons, Christelle Couchoux, Gavin J Horsburgh, Deborah A Dawson, Jeremy Field
OBJECTIVE: The objective here is to identify highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Palaearctic sweat bee Lasioglossum malachurum. Sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) are widespread pollinators that exhibit an unusually large range of social behaviours from non-social, where each female nests alone, to eusocial, where a single queen reproduces while the other members of the colony help to rear her offspring. They thus represent excellent models for understanding social evolution...
December 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Jellena V Düster, Maria H Gruber, Florian Karolyi, John D Plant, Harald W Krenn
Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) possess the longest proboscis among bees. In this study, we compared the feeding behavior and functional morphology of mouthparts in two similarly large-sized species of Euglossa that differ greatly in proboscis length. Feeding observations and experiments conducted under semi-natural conditions were combined with micro-morphological examination using LM, SEM and micro CT techniques. The morphometric comparison showed that only the components of the mouthparts that form the food tube differ in length, while the proximal components, which are responsible for proboscis movements, are similar in size...
December 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Ralph S Peters, Oliver Niehuis, Simon Gunkel, Marcel Bläser, Christoph Mayer, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexey Kozlov, Alexander Donath, Simon van Noort, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, John Heraty, Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea are a megadiverse group of mostly parasitoid wasps of major ecological and economical importance that are omnipresent in almost all extant terrestrial habitats. The timing and pattern of chalcidoid diversification is so far poorly understood and has left many important questions on the evolutionary history of Chalcidoidea unanswered. In this study, we infer the early divergence events within Chalcidoidea and address the question of whether or not ancestral chalcidoids were small egg-parasitoids...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hassan Ghahari, Michael Madl
Currently 36 species of the superfamily Evanioidea are recorded from Iran. The family Aulacidae is represented by four species belonging to the genus Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900), Evaniidae by five species belonging to three genera, Brachygaster Leach, 1815 (one species), Evania Fabricius, 1775 (three species), Prosevania Kieffer, 1911 (one species), and Gasteruptiidae by 27 species belonging to the genus Gasteruption Latreille, 1796.
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Alejandra González-Moreno, Santiago Bordera
The female of Labena madoricola González-Moreno & Bordera, 2015 is described and illustrated for the first time from material collected with Malaise traps in 2016 in the Biocultural Reserve Kaxil Kiuic, Yucatán, Mexico. Diagnostic characters to distinguish females of New World Labena are provided. New distribution records of Labena species in Yucatán Peninsula, are also reported.
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Juli Pujade-Villar, Yiping Wang, Tianlin Chen, Jie Shen, Mar Ferrer-Suay
A new species, Synergus mongolicus Pujade-Villar & Wang n. sp., is described from galls collected on twigs of Quercus mongolica. The morphological characters useful for differentiating the new species are also discussed. Three inquilines species are recorded from China for the first time: Saphonecrus shirakashii, Synergus belizinellus and S. symbioticus. Saphonecrus tianmushanus is considered a n. syn. of S. shirakashii based on comparison of the types. Saphonecrus taiwanensis Pujade-Villar new name is proposed for Saphonecrus lithocarpii Schwéger & Melika, 2015 by homonymy with S...
October 30, 2017: Zootaxa
Mohd Talib Khan, Shoeba Binte Anis
A new genus and species, Ayaanella globugaster M.T. Khan & Anis gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is described from two females collected in Uttar Pradesh State of India.
November 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Majid Fallahzadeh, George Japoshvili
An updated checklist of Iranian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is presented based on literature records from 1947-2016. The current list includes 159 species representing 48 genera. Parasitoid-host associations in Iran and distributional data are also provided. Twelve encyrtid species (7.55%) are known only from Iran but a high number of species (68 species, 42.77%) are widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. Four species previously listed from Iran, Metaphycus angustifrons Compere, 1957, Homalotylus ephippium (Ruschka, 1923), H...
November 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Kalesh Sadasivan, Manoj Kripakaran
A new species of Tyrannomyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), T. alii sp. nov., is described from the Western Ghats of Kerala State in southern India. This new species can be distinguished from other Tyrannomyrmex species using morphological characters, from T.dux by the petiolar shape, and from T. legatus and T.rex by surface sculpture and pilosity. The gyne of the genus is described for the first time. We provide detailed morphological descriptions of the gyne and worker castes, images from scanning electron microscopy, a key to all four known species of Tyrannomyrmex, and a note on the ecology of this rare genus...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
Mayron E Escárraga, John E Lattke, Celso O Azevedo
The male of the endangered ant Dinoponera lucida Emery is described, providing morphometric measurements, high-resolution images, and a distribution map of the species. This ant inhabits the Brazilian Atlantic forest, an ecosystem strongly impacted by fragmentation. The males show clear morphological differences from the known males of other species of Dinoponera. We briefly discuss the relevance of the male description for the conservation strategies of this ant.
November 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Vladimir G Radchenko
A new bee species of the genus Dasypoda Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Melittidae), D. michezi Radchenko sp. nov., is described from south-western Portugal. This species belongs to the subgenus Heterodasypoda and appears very similar to D. albimana Pérez 1905, which occurs in the west Mediterranean Basin. A detailed comparative diagnosis of D. michezi with the other 3 species of the subgenus Heterodasypoda, is provided. The new species is most easily distinguishable by the widened protrusion at the apex of the 6th sternum, which is deeply emarginated apically in the form of a wide triangle...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Jeong-Kyu Kim
Three new species of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 are described with materials from South Korea and Far eastern Russia: Symmorphus kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov., S. truncatoclypeus Kim sp. nov., S. yamanei Kim sp. nov. All are members of the subgenus Symmorphus Wesmael 1836. S. kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov. is likely to be closely related to Symmorphus fuscipes in having well developed and completely closed propodeal submedian carina, but is clearly different from the latter in the shape of metasomal tergum 1 that is not markedly narrowed toward base...
November 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Jason Gibbs, John S Ascher, Molly G Rightmyer, Rufus Isaacs
The state of Michigan occupies an area between the Great Plains and the northeastern United States, bordering four Great Lakes, with diverse biogeographical regions. Michigan also has the second most diverse agriculture in the country, with many crops that depend on bees for pollination. This unique combination provides a wide range of opportunities for bees to persist, yet there is no current published checklist of these important insects. This study was conducted to provide the first annotated checklist of the bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) fauna of Michigan, summarizing aspects of their taxonomy and behavior and to provide provisional conservation assessment...
November 21, 2017: Zootaxa
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