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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326432/harnessing-scientific-literature-reports-for-pharmacovigilance-prototype-software-analytical-tool-development-and-usability-testing
#1
Alfred Sorbello, Anna Ripple, Joseph Tonning, Monica Munoz, Rashedul Hasan, Thomas Ly, Henry Francis, Olivier Bodenreider
OBJECTIVES: We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers' capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. METHODS: A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management...
March 22, 2017: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323818/teaching-broader-impacts-of-science-with-undergraduate-research
#2
Kenneth C Keiler, Kathy L Jackson, Leslie Jaworski, David Lopatto, Sarah E Ades
Science plays an important role in most aspects of society, and scientists face ethical decisions as a routine part of their work, but science education frequently omits or segregates content related to ethics and broader impacts of science. Undergraduate research experiences have the potential to bridge traditional divides in education and provide a holistic view of science. In practice, these experiences can be inconsistent and may not provide the optimal learning environment. We developed a course that combines seminar and independent research elements to support student learning during undergraduate research, makes ethical and societal impacts of science clear by relating them to the students' own research projects, and develops students' ethical decision-making skills...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322914/computer-aided-prediction-of-extent-of-motor-recovery-following-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-in-chronic-stroke
#3
Sarah Hulbert George, Mohammad Hossein Rafiei, Lynne Gauthier, Alexandra Borstad, John A Buford, Hojjat Adeli
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) is a well-researched intervention for treatment of upper limb function. Overall, CI therapy yields clinically meaningful improvements in speed of task completion and greatly increases use of the more affected upper extremity for daily activities. However, individual improvements vary widely. It has been suggested that intrinsic feedback from somatosensation may influence motor recovery from CI therapy. To test this hypothesis, an enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN) prognostic computational model was developed to identify which baseline characteristics predict extent of motor recovery, as measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT)...
March 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322045/9-73-efficiency-nonfullerene-all-organic-small-molecule-solar-cells-with-absorption-complementary-donor-and-acceptor
#4
Haijun Bin, Yankang Yang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Long Ye, Masoud Ghasemi, Shanshan Chen, Yindong Zhang, Chunfeng Zhang, Chenkai Sun, Ling-Wei Xue, Changduk Yang, Harald Ade, Yongfang Li
In the last two years, polymer solar cells (PSCs) developed quickly with n-type organic semiconductor (n-OSs) as acceptor. In contrast, the research progress of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) with organic small molecule as donor and the n-OS as acceptor lags behind. Here, we synthesized a D-A structured medium bandgap organic small molecule H11 with bithienyl-benzodithiophene (BDT) as central donor unit and fluorobenzotriazole as acceptor unit, and achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318815/the-role-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-heart-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sean R McMahon, Philip A Ades, Paul D Thompson
Cardiac rehabilitation is a valuable treatment for patients with a broad spectrum of cardiac disease. Current guidelines support its use in patients after acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery bypass grafting, coronary stent placement, valve surgery, and stable chronic systolic heart failure. Its use in these conditions is supported by a robust body of research demonstrating improved clinical outcomes. Despite this evidence, cardiac rehabilitation referral and attendance remains low and interventions to increase its use need to be developed...
February 15, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314663/features-of-golenkinia-sp-and-microbial-fuel-cells-used-for-the-treatment-of-anaerobically-digested-effluent-from-kitchen-waste-at-different-dilutions
#6
Qingjie Hou, Juan Cheng, Changliang Nie, Haiyan Pei, Liqun Jiang, Lijie Zhang, Zhigang Yang
The aim of this work was to study Golenkinia sp. and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the treatment of anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW) with different dilution factors. A dual-chamber MFC was fabricated for treating ADE-KW in the two chambers of the MFC and harvesting Golenkinia sp. All the anodic TN was removed more than 80%. COD removal efficiency increased from 48.2% to 76% when the dilution factor increased from 1 to 4. Maximum COD and TN removal rates were 3.56 and 3.71mg·L(-1)·h(-1) when ADE-KW was treated without dilution in the anodic chamber...
February 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306687/directly-measured-physical-function-in-cardiac-rehabilitation
#7
Jason L Rengo, Patrick D Savage, Joan C Shaw, Philip A Ades
PURPOSE: The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is a strong predictor for risk of physical disability in older adults. Roughly half of individuals participating in phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are 65 years or older, many presenting with low aerobic capacities and may be at increased risk for physical disability. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 196 consecutive patients (136 men), aged 65 years or older, entering CR who were prospectively evaluated by the SPPB...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306610/30-day-potentially-avoidable-readmissions-due-to-adverse-drug-events
#8
Olivia Dalleur, Patrick E Beeler, Jeffrey L Schnipper, Jacques Donzé
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the patterns of potentially avoidable readmissions due to adverse drug events (ADEs) to identify the most appropriate risk reduction interventions. METHODS: In this observational study, we analyzed a random sample of 534 potentially avoidable 30-day readmissions from 10,275 consecutive discharges from the medical department of an academic hospital. Readmissions due to ADEs were reviewed to identify the causative drugs and the severity and interventions to prevent them...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292594/the-management-of-boys-under-3-months-of-age-with-an-inguinal-hernia-and-ipsilateral-palpable-undescended-testis
#9
Naomi J Wright, Joseph R Davidson, Christina Major, Natalie Durkin, Yew-Wei Tan, Matthew Jobson, Niyi Ade-Ajayi, Nigel J Hall, Nordeen Bouhadiba
AIMS: The optimal management for boys under 3 months of age with an indirect inguinal hernia (IIH) and ipsilateral palpable undescended testis (IPUDT) is unknown. We aimed to: 1) determine the current practice for managing these boys across the UK, and 2) compare outcomes of different treatment strategies. METHODOLOGY: We undertook two studies. Firstly, we completed a National Survey of all surgeons on the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons email list in 2014...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291814/are-life-saving-anticancer-drugs-reaching-all-patients-patterns-and-discrepancies-of-trastuzumab-use-in-the-european-union-and-the-usa
#10
Felipe Ades, Christelle Senterre, Dimitrios Zardavas, Evandro de Azambuja, Razvan Popescu, Martine Piccart
BACKGROUND: The development of trastuzumab is considered to be one of the greatest improvements in breast cancer treatment in recent years. This study aims to evaluate changes in the uptake of trastuzumab over the last 12 years and to determine whether its use is proportional to patient needs in the European Union and the USA. METHODS: Using national registry data, the number of new cases of HER2-positive breast cancer patients per year was estimated. The number of likely trastuzumab treatments per year was estimated using trastuzumab procurement data for each country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289191/cathepsin-s-is-the-major-activator-of-the-psoriasis-associated-proinflammatory-cytokine-il-36%C3%AE
#11
Joseph S Ainscough, Tom Macleod, Dennis McGonagle, Rosella Brakefield, Jens M Baron, Ade Alase, Miriam Wittmann, Martin Stacey
The proinflammatory cytokine IL-36γ is highly expressed in epithelial cells and is a pivotal mediator of epithelial inflammation. In particular, IL-36γ is strongly associated with the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. As with other IL-1 cytokines, IL-36γ is expressed as an inactive precursor and must be processed by specific proteases to become bioactive. Our aim therefore was to identify protease/s capable of IL-36γ activation and explore the importance of this activation in psoriasis. Using a keratinocyte-based activity assay in conjunction with small-molecule inhibitors and siRNA gene silencing, cathepsin S was identified as the major IL-36γ-activating protease expressed by epithelial cells...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286884/stability-weighted-matrix-completion-of-incomplete-multi-modal-data-for-disease-diagnosis
#12
Kim-Han Thung, Ehsan Adeli, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Effective utilization of heterogeneous multi-modal data for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) diagnosis and prognosis has always been hampered by incomplete data. One method to deal with this is low-rank matrix completion (LRMC), which simultaneous imputes missing data features and target values of interest. Although LRMC yields reasonable results, it implicitly weights features from all the modalities equally, ignoring the differences in discriminative power of features from different modalities. In this paper, we propose stability-weighted LRMC (swLRMC), an LRMC improvement that weights features and modalities according to their importance and reliability...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280891/number-of-medications-and-adverse-drug-events-by-unintentional-poisoning-among-older-adults-in-consideration-of-inappropriate-drug-use-a-swedish-population-based-matched-case-control-study
#13
Christian Rausch, L Laflamme, U Bültmann, J Möller
PURPOSE: This national, population-based study aims to determine the association between the number of prescribed medications and adverse drug events (ADE) by unintentional poisoning and examine this risk when known indicators of inappropriate drug use (IDU) are accounted for. METHODS: We employed a matched case-control design among people living in Sweden who were 50 years and older. Cases experiencing an ADE by unintentional poisoning resulting in hospitalization or death (n = 5336) were extracted from the National Health and Death Registers from January 2006 to December 2009...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272596/a-time-and-motion-study-of-pharmacists-and-pharmacy-technicians-obtaining-admission-medication-histories
#14
Caroline B Nguyen, Rita Shane, Douglas S Bell, Galen Cook-Wiens, Joshua M Pevnick
Pharmacists' admission medication histories (AMHs) are known to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). Pharmacist-supervised pharmacy technicians (PSPTs) have also been used in this role. Nonetheless, few studies estimate the costs of utilizing PSPTs to obtain AMHs. We used time and motion methodology to study the time and cost required for pharmacists and PSPTs to obtain AMHs for patients at high risk for ADEs. Pharmacists and PSPTs required 58.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9-70.1) and 79.4 (95% CI, 59.1-99...
March 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259386/proper-management-of-medications-to-limit-errors-what-the-oral-surgeon-should-know-to-limit-medication-errors-and-adverse-drug-events
#15
REVIEW
Daniel S Sarasin, Jarom E Mauer
Providing safe and effective ambulatory anesthesia is a key component in delivering optimal care to oral and maxillofacial patients. Unfortunately, medication errors and adverse drug events (ADEs) occur in offices, as they do in hospital operating rooms. Preparing and delivering medication seems simple. In reality, this is a complex process with multiple opportunities for drug errors leading to actual or potential ADEs. This article reviews medication errors and ADEs, introduces a medication safety paradigm for oral and maxillofacial surgery facilities, and provides practical safety initiatives that can be implemented to achieve the goal of optimal anesthesia patient care and safety...
March 1, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259059/evaluation-of-medication-related-clinical-decision-support-alert-overrides-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#16
Adrian Wong, Mary G Amato, Diane L Seger, Sarah P Slight, Patrick E Beeler, Patricia C Dykes, Julie M Fiskio, Elizabeth R Silvers, E John Orav, Tewodros Eguale, David W Bates
PURPOSE: Medication-related clinical decision support (CDS) has been identified as a method to improve patient outcomes but is historically frequently overridden and may be inappropriately so. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at a higher risk of harm from adverse drug events (ADEs) and these overrides may increase patient harm. The objective of this study is to determine appropriateness of overridden medication-related CDS overrides in the ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated overridden medication-related alerts of four alert categories from January 2009 to December 2011...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256755/efficient-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-enabled-by-a-novel-wide-bandgap-small-molecular-acceptor
#17
Guangjun Zhang, Guofang Yang, He Yan, Joo-Hyun Kim, Harald Ade, Wenlin Wu, Xiaopeng Xu, Yuwei Duan, Qiang Peng
A wide bandgap small molecular acceptor, SFBRCN, containing a 3D spirobifluorene core flaked with a 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) and end-capped with highly electron-deficient (3-ethylhexyl-4-oxothiazolidine-2-yl)dimalononitrile (RCN) units, has been successfully synthesized as a small molecular acceptor (SMA) for nonfullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs). This SMA exhibits a relatively wide optical bandgap of 2.03 eV, which provides a complementary absorption to commonly used low bandgap donor polymers, such as PTB7-Th...
March 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252052/rhein-inhibits-autophagy-in-rat-renal-tubular-cells-by-regulation-of-ampk-mtor-signaling
#18
Yue Tu, Liubao Gu, Diping Chen, Wei Wu, Hong Liu, Hao Hu, Yigang Wan, Wei Sun
Rhubarb and its bioactive component rhein are frequently used for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in eastern Asia countries. However, the potential therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. Autophagy plays an important role in CKD. However, there were some important related issues that remained unresolved in the role of autophagy in CKD and treatment by rhubarb and rhein. We designed a number of experiments to examine whether rhubarb may reduce renal fibrosis and autophagy in rats with adenine (Ade)-induced renal tubular injury, and whether rhein could affect autophagic pathways in rat renal tubular cells...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244109/improvements-of-an-objective-model-of-compressed-breasts-undergoing-mammography-generation-and-characterization-of-breast-shapes
#19
Alejandro Rodríguez-Ruiz, Steve Si Jia Feng, Jan van Zelst, Suzan Vreemann, Jessica Rice Mann, Carl Joseph D'Orsi, Ioannis Sechopoulos
PURPOSE: To develop a set of accurate 2D models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography or breast tomosynthesis, based on objective analysis, to accurately characterize mammograms with few linearly independent parameters, and to generate novel clinically realistic paired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views of the breast. METHODS: We seek to improve on an existing model of compressed breasts by overcoming detector size bias, removing the nipple and non-mammary tissue, pairing the CC and MLO views from a single breast, and incorporating the pectoralis major muscle contour into the model...
February 28, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242191/comprehensive-literature-review-of-factors-influencing-medication-safety-in-nursing-homes-using-a-systems-model
#20
REVIEW
Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, William R Doucette
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to identify the work system factors influencing medication safety measures [adverse drug events (ADEs), adverse drug reactions, or medication errors (MEs)], to determine the incidence of ADEs, and describe the most common ADEs in nursing homes (NHs). METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed and CINAHL to identify studies investigating factors that influence ADEs, adverse drug reactions, and MEs in NHs and skilled nursing facilities...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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