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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679810/the-cost-effectiveness-of-seven-behavioural-interventions-to-prevent-drug-misuse-in-vulnerable-populations
#1
Becky Pennington, Brendan Collins, Simon Leigh, Antony P Martin, Lesley Owen, Alastair Fischer, Harry Sumnall, Geoff Bates
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) developed a guideline on drug misuse prevention in vulnerable populations. Part of the guideline development process involved evaluating cost-effectiveness and determining which interventions represented good value for money. METHODS: Economic models were developed for seven interventions which aimed to prevent drug use in vulnerable populations. The models compared the costs (to the health and crime sectors) and health benefits (in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) of each intervention and its comparator...
April 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679770/easy-to-read-informed-consent-form-for-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-clinical-trials-results-from-bmt-ctn-1205-study
#2
Ryan Spellecy, Sergey Tarima, Ellen Denzen, Heather Moore, Sunil Abhyankar, Peter Dawson, Amy Foley, Iris Gersten, Mitchell Horwitz, Lensa Idossa, Steven Joffe, Naynesh Kamani, Roberta King, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Lawrence Morris, Mary M Horowitz, Navneet S Majhail
PURPOSE: Due to the complexity of hematopoietic cell transplant trial treatments, informed consent forms are often long and difficult to read. We evaluated a two-column easy-to-read informed consent (ETRIC) form that incorporates elements of health literacy and readability in participants and centers participating in Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) clinical trials. METHODS: In a randomized study, 198 adult patients from 25 centers potentially eligible to participate in four BMT CTN interventional trials were randomized to ETRIC or standard consent form for that trial...
April 18, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679480/association-between-online-information-seeking-and-adherence-to-guidelines-for-breast-and-prostate-cancer-screening
#3
Hankyul Kim, Christopher Filson, Peter Joski, Silke von Esenwein, Joseph Lipscomb
INTRODUCTION: From 2012 through 2014, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended biennial mammography for women aged 50 to 75 and recommended against the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test for men of any age, emphasizing informed decision making for patients. Because of time constraints and other patient health priorities, health care providers often do not discuss benefits and risks associated with cancer screening. We analyzed the association between seeking information online about breast and prostate cancer and undergoing mammography and PSA screening...
April 19, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679479/health-care-disparities-between-men-and-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Marady Sabiaga Mesa
INTRODUCTION: Regular medical checkups indicate a patient's level of adherence to health care treatment, and the frequency of cancelled appointments or no-shows can indicate adherence. This study investigated the use of health care services by men and women and its impact on the control of their type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study observed 100 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 45 years or older who lived in Ventura County, California, during January 1, 2015, to January 31, 2016...
April 19, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679474/population-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-normal-and-diabetic-rabbits
#5
Mastan Shaik, Shabana Shaik, Eswar Kumar Kilari
Gliclazide is a second-generation sulphonylurea drug widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no single report to describe the population pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in animal models. This study was aimed to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of gliclazide in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. A total of 90 New Zealand white rabbits were administered with 3 doses (4.13, 8.27 and 16.53 mg/kg b.wt) of gliclazide by an oral route...
April 21, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679317/sensitivity-analysis-for-not-at-random-missing-data-in-trial-based-cost-effectiveness-analysis-a-tutorial
#6
Baptiste Leurent, Manuel Gomes, Rita Faria, Stephen Morris, Richard Grieve, James R Carpenter
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of randomised controlled trials are a key source of information for health care decision makers. Missing data are, however, a common issue that can seriously undermine their validity. A major concern is that the chance of data being missing may be directly linked to the unobserved value itself [missing not at random (MNAR)]. For example, patients with poorer health may be less likely to complete quality-of-life questionnaires. However, the extent to which this occurs cannot be ascertained from the data at hand...
April 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679295/the-influence-of-participation-on-mortality-in-very-old-age-among-community-living-people-in-sweden
#7
Maria Haak, Charlotte Löfqvist, Susann Ullén, Vibeke Horstmann, Susanne Iwarsson
BACKGROUND: Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being. AIMS: To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden. METHODS: ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N = 314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used...
April 20, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678986/detecting-risk-of-postural-hypotension-drop-derivation-and-validation-of-a-prediction-score-for-primary-care
#8
Christopher Elles Clark, Daniel Thomas, Fiona C Warren, David J Llewellyn, Luigi Ferrucci, John L Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Falls are a common problem in older people. Postural hypotension contributes to falls but is often asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms, postural hypotension is only infrequently checked for in clinical practice. We undertook this study to derive, validate and explore the prospective associations of a prediction tool to identify people likely to have unrecognised postural hypotension. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional and prospective multivariable cohort analysis...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678978/community-based-diagnosis-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-rural-and-urban-haiti-a-cross-sectional-prevalence-study
#9
Vincent DeGennaro, Stuart Malcolm, Lindsay Crompton, Krishna Vaddiparti, Lazarus K Mramba, Catherine Striley, Linda Cottler, Kellee Taylor, Robert Leverence
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease and their risk factors in a rural and urban region of Haiti. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community health workers enumerated 2648 households (909 rural and 1739 urban) via a multistage cluster random sampling method from July 2015 to May 2016, completed 705 rural and 1419 urban assessments for adults aged 25-65 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: We performed a WHO STEPS based questionnaire, measured two blood pressure values, weight, height, abdominal circumference and point of care test finger stick blood sample for haemoglobin A1c, creatinine and cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides)...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678865/economic-evaluation-of-quality-improvement-interventions-designed-to-improve-glycemic-control-in-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-weighted-regression-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Teryl K Nuckols, Emmett Keeler, Laura J Anderson, Jonas Green, Sally C Morton, Brian J Doyle, Kanaka Shetty, Aziza Arifkhanova, Marika Booth, Roberta Shanman, Paul Shekelle
OBJECTIVE: Quality improvement (QI) interventions can improve glycemic control, but little is known about their value. We systematically reviewed economic evaluations of QI interventions for glycemic control among adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used English-language studies from high-income countries that evaluated organizational changes and reported program and utilization-related costs, chosen from PubMed, EconLit, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, and WorldCat (January 2004 to August 2016)...
May 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678803/value-of-face-to-face-interactions-between-clinician-educators-and-patients-or-students-to-improve-health-care-education
#11
Manisha Singh
The power and outreach of the media is enormous and has restructured our society today; the author acknowledges the impact and appreciates the outreach. However, I question the relative lack of focus on physical human interactions and express concern over future training efforts. I have compared and attempted to highlight the components of two interaction scenarios: those of teacher-student, and those of physician-patient. The physician-educators need to generate a discussion regarding the value of each interaction...
April 20, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678798/analysis-of-college-students-personal-health-information-activities-online-survey
#12
Sujin Kim, Donghee Sinn, Sue Yeon Syn
BACKGROUND: With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678738/autochthonous-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-pig-faeces-in-thailand-show-probiotic-properties-and-antibacterial-activity-against-enteric-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Puwiya Pupa, Prasert Praechansri, Nutthee Am-In, Somboon Tanasupawat, Piengchan Sonthayanon, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in pig health and performance that arises from their beneficial impacts on the balance of gastrointestinal microbes, ability to fight enteric pathogens, and capacity to support the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and safety aspects of five previously isolated autochthonous LAB strains, (Lactobacillus plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Pediococcus acidilactici 72N and Pediococcus pentosaceus 77F) from pig faeces as potential probiotics for a pig feed supplement...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678617/uncertain-times-a-survey-of-canadian-women-s-perspectives-toward-mammography-screening
#14
Julia Abelson, Laura Tripp, Melissa C Brouwers, Gregory Pond, Jonathan Sussman
Evolving scientific evidence about mammography has raised new questions about the net benefits of organized screening, yet gaps remain about women's current screening practices, knowledge, attitudes and values toward screening to support informed decision making in this area. We addressed this gap through an online survey of 2000 screen-eligible women from Ontario, Canada in January 2016. Likert-scaled and categorical questions were used to collect information about screening practices, knowledge of benefits and risks of screening and underlying attitudes and values toward screening...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678616/costs-of-community-based-interventions-from-the-community-transformation-grants
#15
Olga A Khavjou, Amanda A Honeycutt, Benjamin Yarnoff, Christina Bradley, Robin Soler, Diane Orenstein
Limited data are available on the costs of evidence-based community-wide prevention programs. The objective of this study was to estimate the per-person costs of strategies that support policy, systems, and environmental changes implemented under the Community Transformation Grants (CTG) program. We collected cost data from 29 CTG awardees and estimated program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; partners; and the value of in-kind contributions. We estimated costs per person reached for 20 strategies...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678561/distribution-of-take-home-opioid-antagonist-kits-during-a-synthetic-opioid-epidemic-in-british-columbia-canada-a-modelling-study
#16
Michael A Irvine, Jane A Buxton, Michael Otterstatter, Robert Balshaw, Reka Gustafson, Mark Tyndall, Perry Kendall, Thomas Kerr, Mark Gilbert, Daniel Coombs
BACKGROUND: Illicit use of high-potency synthetic opioids has become a global issue over the past decade. This misuse is particularly pronounced in British Columbia, Canada, where a rapid increase in availability of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the local illicit drug supply during 2016 led to a substantial increase in overdoses and deaths. In response, distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) overdose prevention kits was scaled up (6·4-fold increase) throughout the province...
April 17, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678439/prevalence-and-associated-factors-with-voice-disorders-in-brazilian-community-dwelling-older-adults
#17
Amanda C B Góis, Leandro Pernambuco, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with voice disorders (VDs) in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The sample comprised 463 older adults (60 years or more) of both sexes living in a Brazilian northeastern city. Variables were related to socioeconomic and demographic profile, lifestyle, and general health conditions, in addition to the validated "Screening for Voice Disorders in Older Adults" (RAVI) questionnaire...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678404/longer-sitting-time-and-low-physical-activity-are-closely-associated-with-chronic-low-back-pain-in-population-over-50-years-of-age-a-cross-sectional-study-using-the-sixth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#18
Sang-Min Park, Ho-Joong Kim, Hyunseok Jeong, Hyoungmin Kim, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, Jin S Yeom
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: There is increasing evidence supporting an association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP). However, the degree of the association between the total daily sitting time and LBP in the general population is poorly understood. PURPOSE: (1) To analyze the association between the duration of sitting time and LBP, and (2) to examine this association according to the degree of physical activity in population over 50 years of age with a nationally representative sample of Korean adults...
April 17, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678338/current-trends-in-anticoagulation-bridging-for-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation-on-warfarin-undergoing-endoscopy
#19
Jeremy A Slivnick, Raymond Y Yeow, Colin McMahon, David G Paje, Jacob E Kurlander, Geoff D Barnes
For warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at low thromboembolic risk, recent studies have shown harm associated with periprocedural bridging using low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinician surveys have indicated a preference toward excessive bridging, especially among noncardiologists; however, little is known about actual practice patterns in these patients. We performed a retrospective evaluation of bridging in the setting of gastrointestinal endoscopy. We identified 938 patients with AF on warfarin who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy between 2012 and 2016 at a tertiary health center...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678324/time-series-study-of-weather-water-quality-and-acute-gastroenteritis-at-water-safety-plan-implementation-sites-in-france-and-spain
#20
Karen E Setty, Jerome Enault, Jean-Francois Loret, Claudia Puigdomenech Serra, Jordi Martin-Alonso, Jamie Bartram
Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, can help drinking water suppliers to proactively identify potential risks and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. Few studies have investigated long-term impacts of WSPs, such as changes in drinking water quality or public health; however, some evidence from high-income countries associates WSP implementation with a reduction in diarrheal disease. To validate the previously observed linkages between WSPs and health outcomes, this time series study examined site-specific relationships between water-related exposures and acute gastroenteritis rates at three locations in France and Spain, including the role of WSP status...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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