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Alcohol detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230332/knowledge-past-use-and-willingness-to-start-medication-assisted-treatment-among-persons-undergoing-alcohol-detoxification
#1
Michael D Stein, Jessica N Flori, Claire E Blevins, Micah T Conti, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current study examined knowledge of previous use, and willingness to take alcohol-related medication among individuals in medically supervised detoxification. METHODS: Participants (n = 302) provided health and demographic information, substance use and detoxification history, PCP visits, and AA attendance. RESULTS: Most patients had knowledge of alcohol medications, one-third had past prescription, and over 80% reported willingness to take medication...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181094/factors-predicting-patient-s-allocation-to-short-and-long-term-therapeutic-community-treatments-in-the-italian-voect-cohort-study
#2
F Vigna-Taglianti, F Mathis, R Diecidue, E Trogu, U Kirchmayer, J Ghibaudi, G Piras, A Camposeragna, A Saponaro, L Amato, M Davoli, F Faggiano, P P Pani
The Evaluation of Therapeutic Community Treatments and Outcomes (VOECT) study was conducted in 131 Italian Therapeutic Communities (TCs) in 2008/2009. All of the patients entering residential treatment for drug or alcohol dependence were invited to participate. Data regarding patient socio-demographic characteristics, drug and alcohol consumption, health and psychopathological status, prior treatments and outcomes, and their motivation score were collected upon enrolment onto the study. The aim of this work was to identify the factors associated with allocation to short- versus long-term programmes in drug or alcohol dependent patients entering TCs in Italy...
February 8, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170108/caspase-cleaved-k18-fragments-increase-during-alcohol-withdrawal-and-predict-liver-related-death-in-patients-with-ald
#3
S Mueller, P Nahon, V Rausch, T Peccerella, I Silva, E Yagmur, B K Straub, C Lackner, H K Seitz, P Rufat, A Sutton, H Bantel, T Longerich
Non-invasive assessment of disease activity in patients with non-alcoholic (NALFD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unsettled but essential for the evaluation of disease progression. We here studied the association of total (M65) and caspase-cleaved (M30) serum keratin-18 fragments (n=204) with histological parameters (n=106) in heavy drinkers primarily admitted for alcohol withdrawal before and after alcohol detoxification. An age, gender and fibrosis-stage matched NAFLD cohort (n=30) was used for comparison...
February 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166367/liver-injury-and-endotoxemia-in-male-and-female-alcohol-dependent-individuals-admitted-to-an-alcohol-treatment-program
#4
Irina A Kirpich, Craig J McClain, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Melanie Schwandt, Monte Phillips, K Cameron Falkner, Lucy Zhang, Catey Harwell, David T George, John C Umhau
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the liver, the gut, and the immune system are critical components of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The aim of this study was to explore the associations between alcohol-induced liver injury, endotoxemia, and inflammation at admission and over time during abstinence, as well as to examine the sex-related differences in these parameters in alcohol-dependent individuals admitted to an alcohol treatment program. METHODS: A cohort of 48 otherwise healthy participants with alcohol use disorder, but no clinical signs of alcoholic liver injury (34 males (M)/14 females (F)) admitted to an alcohol detoxification program, was stratified into two groups based on baseline plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (as a marker of liver injury)...
February 6, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163821/the-role-of-cyp2e1-in-the-drug-metabolism-or-bioactivation-in-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
W A García-Suástegui, L A Ramos-Chávez, M Rubio-Osornio, M Calvillo-Velasco, J A Atzin-Méndez, J Guevara, D Silva-Adaya
Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160209/increased-expression-of-microrna-378a-5p-in-acute-ethanol-exposure-of-rat-cardiomyocytes
#6
Zhongkai Wang, Jingwen Song, Liang Zhang, Songqun Huang, Lizhi Bao, Feng Chen, Xianxian Zhao
Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for a distinct form of congestive heart failure, known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Here, we investigate how microRNAs may participate in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with ethanol exposure in vitro. Increasing the concentrations of ethanol to primary rat cardiomyocytes resulted in elevated apoptosis assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and reduced expression of an enzyme for alcohol detoxification aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). These ethanol effects were accompanied by a substantial elevation of miR-378a-5p...
February 3, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124943/prevalence-and-clinical-correlates-of-chlamydia-infection-in-youth-who-use-drugs-and-alcohol-a-good-opportunity-for-early-intervention
#7
Wole Akosile, Brett M McDermott
AIMS: This study estimates the prevalence of chlamydia infection amongst teenage substance users aged 14-18years and investigates risk factors associated with a positive diagnosis of chlamydia infection. METHODS: Data was collected from the medical files of adolescents who attended a statewide drug and alcohol treatment facility during a three-year period commencing June 2011. RESULTS: The highest rate of chlamydia detection (18.0%) was found in the group with a reported history of abuse, a non-substance use psychiatric diagnosis, and individuals who did not complete year 10 education...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123307/basal-oxidative-stress-ratio-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-correlates-with-nodal-metastatic-spread-in-patients-under-therapy
#8
D Dequanter, R Dok, S Nuyts
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a type of cancer that is strongly associated with oxidative damage and oxidative stress. Tobacco and alcohol - sources of massive quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - have been clearly identified as etiologic factors that contribute to these malignancies. Considering the role of glutathione (GSH) in ROS detoxification, we hypothesized that potential biological markers can be found in addition to the parameters of oxidative stress...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119413/promoter-polymorphism-rs886205-genotype-interacts-with-dna-methylation-of-the-aldh2-regulatory-region-in-alcohol-dependence
#9
Hansi Pathak, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Alexander Glahn, Annemarie Heberlein, Mani Haschemi Nassab, Thomas Hillemacher, Alexandra Burkert, Mathias Rhein
AIMS: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects cells from ethanol toxicity by metabolizing acetaldehyde. We studied the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs886205s located between a negative and a positive regulating promoter element in the ALDH2 gene. The negative regulatory region was already associated with differential DNA methylation in the two allele variations of rs886205 SNP. Another CpG island, in the positive regulatory region of the ALDH2 promoter, extends through the SNP rs886205 and a nuclear receptor response element...
January 24, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090374/neurophysiological-measures-and-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-hypothesizing-links-between-clinical-severity-index-and-molecular-neurobiological-patterns
#10
Mario Vitali, Carmen Napolitano, Marlene Oscar Berman, Simona Flamminii Minuto, Gemma Battagliese, Maria Luisa Attilia, Eric R Braverman, Marina Romeo, Kenneth Blum, Mauro Ceccanti
BACKGROUND: In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060415/gender-differences-in-affects-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependence-a-study-during-alcohol-detoxification
#11
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Pauline Monhonval, Sophie Leclercq, Quentin Spilliaert, François Zammit, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving is a major cause of relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. It is closely related to the high depression and anxiety symptoms that are frequently observed at the early stages of abstinence, and these comorbid symptoms might thus constitute a relapse factor when they persist after detoxification. As these negative affects are known to evolve during the detoxification process, the aim of this study was to investigate the course of the relation between affects and craving during detoxification, with a particular attention given to gender in light of the known differences in affects between AD men and women...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059434/assessment-of-abuse-liability-of-tramadol-among-experienced-drug-users-double-blind-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Mrinmay Das, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, Amandeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. METHODS: A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057039/automatic-activation-of-alcohol-cues-by-child-maltreatment-related-words-a-replication-attempt-in-a-different-treatment-setting
#13
Nadine Potthast, Frank Neuner, Claudia Catani
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050235/primary-liver-injury-and-delayed-resolution-of-liver-stiffness-after-alcohol-detoxification-in-heavy-drinkers-with-the-pnpla3-variant-i148m
#14
Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, Carolin Lackner, Eray Yagmur, Helmut-Karl Seitz, Thomas Longerich, Sebastian Mueller
AIM: To investigate the influence of PNPLA3 genotype in heavy drinkers on serum markers and liver stiffness (LS) during alcohol withdrawal and its association with histology. METHODS: Caucasian heavy drinkers (n = 521) with a mean alcohol consumption of 192.1 g/d (median alcohol consumption: 169.0 g/d; 95%CI: 179.0-203.3) were enrolled at the Salem Medical Center, University of Heidelberg. LS was measured by transient elastography (Fibroscan, Echosens SA, Paris, France)...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030560/the-effect-of-significant-international-sports-events-on-qualified-detoxification-treatment-outcome-do-drop-out-rates-change-during-uefa-european-championship
#15
Yvonne Sofin, Heidi Danker-Hopfe, Peter Neu
No previous studies have evaluated the influence of significant international sports events on qualified detoxification treatment outcome. This prospective study examines the impact of the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship on inpatient treatment outcome of alcohol dependent patients. Hospital admission and premature drop-out rates of consecutively admitted alcohol dependent patients were determined before, during and immediately after the UEFA Championship in the year 2012. The admission rate of male patients increased significantly after the European Football Championship had ended whereas for female patients, no change in admission rate was found...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017182/prevalence-of-restless-legs-syndrome-during-detoxification-from-alcohol-and-opioids
#16
Susan E Mackie, R Kathryn McHugh, Katherine McDermott, Margaret L Griffin, John W Winkelman, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a movement disorder associated with adverse health outcomes and decreased quality of life. Small case series suggest that symptoms of RLS occur during opioid withdrawal. However, the prevalence is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of RLS among inpatients patients receiving buprenorphine detoxification from opioids. To assess the specificity of RLS to opioid detoxification, we also evaluated patients receiving detoxification from alcohol as a comparison group...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997560/activation-of-human-salivary-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-by-sulforaphane-mechanism-and-significance
#17
Md Fazle Alam, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Lubna Maryam, Hina Younus
Cruciferous vegetables contain the bio-active compound sulforaphane (SF) which has been reported to protect individuals against various diseases by a number of mechanisms, including activation of the phase II detoxification enzymes. In this study, we show that the extracts of five cruciferous vegetables that we commonly consume and SF activate human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH), which is a very important detoxifying enzyme in the mouth. Maximum activation was observed at 1 μg/ml of cabbage extract with 2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988502/identification-and-quantitation-of-phosphatidylethanols-in-oral-fluid-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Shahid Ullah, Anders Helander, Olof Beck
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanols (PEth) are formed from phosphatidylcholines and ethanol and are used as a specific and sensitive alcohol biomarker. An analytical method for analysis of PEth in oral fluid based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated and applied on samples collected from patients undergoing alcohol detoxification. METHODS: A 200-μL aliquot of oral fluid, collected using the QuantisalTM device, was extracted with chloroform/methanol containing internal standard and subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis of three selected PEth forms (16:0/16:0, 16:0/18:1, and 16:0/18:2)...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951519/differential-cytokine-levels-between-early-withdrawal-and-remission-states-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#19
Che-Hung Yen, Pei-Shen Ho, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chih-Sung Liang, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chang-Chih Huang, Chun-Yen Chen, Mei-Chen Shih, Kuo-Hsing Ma, Yueh-Feng Sung, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Alcohol dependence (AD) leads to altered innate and adaptive immune responses, and frequently co-occurs with inflammation. Therefore, inflammatory cytokines potentially play a crucial role in the development of alcohol-related illnesses. This study evaluated changes in plasma cytokine concentrations, liver function, cravings, depression severity, and cognitive function in male patients with AD, during the course of an alcohol-detoxification program. A total of 78 male patients with AD were recruited for a conservative detoxification program; and cytokine levels, depressive score, and cognitive impairment applying the Trail Making Test (TMT) were evaluated during early withdrawal (baseline) and after 4 weeks of abstinence from alcohol...
February 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935906/cognitive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kathmandu
#20
S Adhikari, M Rana, S Shakya, S P Ojha
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. METHODS: The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62) from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Scale for the severity of alcohol dependence, executive impairments and memory dysfunctions respectively once they had completed alcohol detoxification...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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