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Alcohol detoxification

Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Harsh Chalana, Tanu Kundal, Varun Gupta, Amandeep Singh Malhari
Introduction. Relapse rate after opioid detoxification is very high. We studied the possibility that predetoxification patient characteristics might predict relapse at follow-up and thus conducted this 1-year follow-up study to assess the predictors of relapse after inpatient opioid detoxification. Materials and Methods. We conducted this study in our tertiary care institute in India over two-year time period (1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2015). Out of 581 patients admitted, 466 patients were considered for study. Results and Discussion...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Primavera A Spagnolo, Vijay A Ramchandani, Melanie L Schwandt, Laura E Kwako, David T George, Leah M Mayo, Cecilia J Hillard, Markus Heilig
BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (C385A) in the human fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene has been associated with decreased distress responses in healthy volunteers, but its role in psychiatric disorders remains unknown. Here, we obtained genotypes and carried out a secondary analysis of subjects from a trial of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD). We evaluated the effects of C385A variation on behavioral and biochemical biomarkers of distress responses...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
W Miles Cox, Leena Subramanian, David E J Linden, Michael Lührs, Rachel McNamara, Rebecca Playle, Kerenza Hood, Gareth Watson, Joseph R Whittaker, Raman Sakhuja, Niklas Ihssen
BACKGROUND: Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is used for neurofeedback training (NFT). Preliminary results suggest that it can help patients to control their symptoms. This study uses rtfMRI NFT for relapse prevention in alcohol dependence. METHODS/DESIGN: Participants are alcohol-dependent patients who have completed a detoxification programme within the past 6 months and have remained abstinent. Potential participants are screened for eligibility, and those who are eligible are randomly assigned to the treatment group (receiving rtfMRI NFT in addition to treatment as usual) or the control group (receiving only treatment as usual)...
October 3, 2016: Trials
Raghu Ram Achar, B K Venkatesh, H K Vivek, B S Priya, S Nanjunda Swamy
Caralluma umbellata peroxidase (CUP) is an acidic heme-containing protein having a molecular weight of ~42 kDa and is specific to guaiacol. It is not a glycoprotein. It was purified to 12.5-fold purity with 6.16 % yield. Its activity is dependent on hydrogen peroxide and has an optimum pH and temperature of 6.2 and 45 °C respectively. It can decolorize dyes, viz., Aniline Blue, Reactive Black 5, and Reactive Blue 19 but not Congo Red, while HRP can decolorize Congo Red also. It has lignin-degrading potentiality as it can decompose veratryl alcohol...
October 6, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ursula Running Bear, Janette Beals, Douglas K Novins, Spero M Manson
BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). METHODS: The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit...
September 24, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Joel T Haas, Bart Staels
Oxidative stress has long been considered a key driving factor of many obesity-related health problems. However, recent work by Merry, Tran et al (Diabetologia DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4084-3 ) challenges this idea with an interesting study using a hepatocyte-specific Gpx1-knockout (HGKO) mouse. GPX1 is an important detoxification enzyme that converts H2O2 to water. The authors found that high-fat diet-fed HGKO mice were more insulin sensitive than wildtype controls, despite elevated hepatic levels of H2O2 and evidence of increased systemic oxidative stress...
October 1, 2016: Diabetologia
Verner S Westerberg, Barbara S McCrady, Mandy Owens, Paul Guerin
Because it is not common in the U.S. for jails to allow inmates to continue opioid medications that have been started in the community, we aimed to assess whether inmates maintained on methadone showed different rates of recidivism, lengths of incarceration, and types of offenses than other incarcerated groups. We also analyzed rates of return to home clinics after release. In order to answer these questions this study used extant data from 960 adult inmates in a large metropolitan detention center who were in 1 of 4 groups: general population with no known substance use disorders, alcohol detoxification, methadone maintenance (MMT), and opioid detoxification...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Chiaki Noguchi, Grant Grothusen, Vinesh Anandarajan, Marta Martínez-Lage García, Daniel Terlecky, Krysten Corzo, Katsunori Tanaka, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Eishi Noguchi
Acetaldehyde, a primary metabolite of alcohol, forms DNA adducts and disrupts the DNA replication process, causing genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. Indeed, chronic alcohol consumption accounts for approximately 3.6% of all cancers worldwide. However, how the adducts are prevented and repaired after acetaldehyde exposure is not well understood. In this report, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model organism to comprehensively understand the genetic controls of DNA damage avoidance in response to acetaldehyde...
September 29, 2016: Cell Cycle
Sedjro Emile Tokpohozin, Susann Fischer, Bertram Sacher, Thomas Becker
Sorghum malt used during African beer processing contains a high level of cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin), up to 1375 ppm. In traditional sorghum malting and mashing, dhurrin is not sufficiently hydrolyzed due to uncontrolled germination and a high gelatinization temperature. The cyanide content of traditional African beers (11 ppm) is higher than the minimum dose (1 ppm) required to form carcinogenic ethyl carbamate during alcoholic fermentation. In the detoxification process, aryl-β-d-glucosidase (dhurrinase) is the "key component"...
September 10, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Petra Schmid, Bernhard Widmann, Achim Jekel, Ulrike Nelles, Thomas Fritschi, Carmen Uhlmann
Objective: In the treatment of patients with alcohol dependence it is next to physical detoxification under protected conditions to promoting abstinence motivation. Further the need of crisis interventions is derived from the clinical practise. To be able to become fairer to all groups of treatment as well as the different demands, the addiction admission station was restructured. Methods: Pre-post-evaluation. Results: It was found that the door was closed up significantly less often after the restructuring...
September 12, 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Eline R Zaaijer, Anna E Goudriaan, Maarten W J Koeter, Jan Booij, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: Extended-release naltrexone (XRNT) was developed to overcome poor treatment compliance with oral naltrexone in alcohol and opioid-dependent patients. XRNT injections are registered in the United States and Russia, but not in The Netherlands. However, XRNT can be obtained for individual patients, but it is expensive and not reimbursed by the health insurance. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the support for abstinence oriented treatment among heroin-dependent patients and the acceptability of XRNT injections by heroin-dependent patients and treatment providers in The Netherlands...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Thiago G Pianca, Luis Augusto Rohde, Ronaldo L Rosa, Ana Paula A Begnis, Pedro B Ferronatto, Mariana C Jensen, Flavio Pechansky, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Victoria P Fairchild, Claudia M Szobot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with crack cocaine dependence and possible predictors of transition from drug experimentation to crack cocaine dependence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 90 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit in the city of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil for crack cocaine detoxification between May 2011 and November 2012. Comorbid psychological conditions were assessed using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version, and severity of drug use was assessed using the Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Alyssa Todaro Brooks, Michael Krumlauf, Craig S Fryer, Kenneth H Beck, Li Yang, Vijay A Ramchandani, Gwenyth R Wallen
AIMS: This prospective, repeated measures study utilized a convergent parallel mixed methods approach to assess sleep experiences among individuals who were alcohol-dependent undergoing inpatient detoxification and treatment at a clinical research facility across the transition periods associated with the rehabilitation process: the initial adjustment to becoming an inpatient and the transition from inpatient to outpatient status. METHODS: This study included individual semi-structured interviews and quantitative measures relating to psychological distress, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sleep-related beliefs and behavior (n = 33; 66...
2016: PloS One
T Zambelis, S Kanelli, E Tzavellas, T Paparrigopoulos, N Karandreas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) among alcohol dependent subjects. METHOD: The study sample comprised 99 consecutive alcohol dependent subjects treated for detoxification voluntarily in the specialized unit of the Athens University Psychiatric Clinic in an inpatient basis. RESULTS: UNE was found in 51 subjects (51.5%): in 40.4% on the right side, in 44.6% on the left and in 20.1% on both. Polyneuropathy was diagnosed in 41...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Stacey L McCallum, Jane M Andrews, Matthew D Gaughwin, Deborah A Turnbull, Antonina A Mikocka-Walus
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Joshua D Lee, Edward V Nunes, Patricia Novo Mpa, Genie L Bailey, Gregory S Brigham, Allan J Cohen, Marc Fishman, Walter Ling, Robert Lindblad, Dikla Shmueli-Blumberg, Don Stablein, Jeanine May, Dagmar Salazar, David Liu, John Rotrosen
INTRODUCTION: For opioid-dependent patients in the US and elsewhere, detoxification and counseling-only aftercare are treatment mainstays. Long-term abstinence is rarely achieved; many patients relapse and overdose after detoxification. Methadone, buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) and extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) can prevent opioid relapse but are underutilized. This study is intended to develop an evidence-base to help patients and providers make informed choices and to foster wider adoption of relapse-prevention pharmacotherapies...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Victoria Manning, Petra K Staiger, Kate Hall, Joshua B B Garfield, Gabriella Flaks, Daniel Leung, Laura K Hughes, Jarrad A G Lum, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Relapse is common in alcohol-dependent individuals and can be triggered by alcohol-related cues in the environment. It has been suggested that these individuals develop cognitive biases, in which cues automatically capture attention and elicit an approach action tendency that promotes alcohol seeking. The study aim was to examine whether cognitive bias modification (CBM) training targeting approach bias could be delivered during residential alcohol detoxification and improve treatment outcomes...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yoko Ishida, Trinh T M Nguyen, Sakihito Kitajima, Shingo Izawa
Vanillin is a potent fermentation inhibitor derived from the lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, and high concentrations of vanillin result in the pronounced repression of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on genes that are efficiently translated even in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin will be useful for improving yeast vanillin tolerance and fermentation efficiency. The BDH1 and BDH2 genes encode putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases and their amino acid sequences are very similar to each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eric M Schmidt, Shalini Gupta, Thomas Bowe, Laura S Ellerbe, Tyler E Phelps, John W Finney, Steven M Asch, Keith Humphreys, Jodie Trafton, Megan Vanneman, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: Measures of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment quality are essential tools for performance improvement. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) developed a measure of access to and engagement in intensive outpatient programs (IOP) for SUD. However, predictive validity, or associations between this measure and treatment outcomes, has not been examined. METHODS: Data on veterans with SUD came from three samples: the Outcomes Monitoring Project (N = 5,436), a national evaluation of VHA mental health services (N = 339,887), and patients receiving detoxification services (N = 23,572)...
July 19, 2016: Substance Abuse
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