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Alcohol detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317849/is-medical-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-stag-hunt-challenges-and-opportunities-in-managing-risk-and-uncertainty-in-addiction-cessation
#1
Roger Lee Mendoza
Purpose: While the individual and social costs of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder are well established, few are aware that medical problems can arise during detoxification, some of which can be life-threatening. This study determines if sustained treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) might be based on the strategic choices and expectations of patients and health care providers alike, as well as the risk mitigation options available to them. Design/approach: AWS was modeled as a Stag Hunt to explain both risk and decision-making in medical treatments for detoxification, since it can deduce a set of equilibrium strategies available to both patient and provider...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313106/neural-correlates-of-instrumental-responding-in-the-context-of-alcohol-related-cues-index-disorder-severity-and-relapse-risk
#2
Daniel J Schad, Maria Garbusow, Eva Friedel, Christian Sommer, Miriam Sebold, Claudia Hägele, Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Shuyan Liu, Uta Eichmann, Anne Beck, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Henrik Walter, Philipp Sterzer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Florian Schlagenhauf, Quentin J M Huys, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp
The influence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli on ongoing behavior may contribute to explaining how alcohol cues stimulate drug seeking and intake. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task, we investigated the effects of alcohol-related cues on approach behavior (i.e., instrumental response behavior) and its neural correlates, and related both to the relapse after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy controls underwent instrumental training, where approach or non-approach towards initially neutral stimuli was reinforced by monetary incentives...
January 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306936/remote-healing-of-bipolar-disorder-eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-fibromyalgia-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-through-lifestyle-change
#3
Kelly Brogan
This case report illustrates the relationship between gut, hormonal, and brain function in that dietary change, mindfulness interventions, and detoxification led to resolution of disabling psychiatric symptoms. In this case, a single Caucasian female resolved her symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD) including psychotic features and suicidality, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms from childhood torture, disordered eating, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome through lifestyle interventions. This patient survived a severe trauma history only to develop alcohol dependence, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms, which were treated with a polypharmaceutical psychiatric approach...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302560/benzodiazepine-maintenance-for-alcohol-dependence-a-case-series
#4
Shivanand Kattimani, Balaji Bharadwaj, Anand Babu Arun
Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing syndrome. Benzodiazepines remain as the mainstay for detoxification, taking care of the acute withdrawal syndrome. There is fear of dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines on prolonged use. Here, we selectively interviewed ten cases who were on longer duration of benzodiazepines to elicit their potential perceived benefits, attitudes, and any adverse effect. Three patients experienced adverse effects. None of them had features of benzodiazepine dependence. We opine that in select cases, benzodiazepine use should persist beyond detox period, and its benefits continue beyond the acute withdrawal phase while monitoring their safety/adverse effects...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300238/erythropoietin-in-treatment-of-methanol-optic-neuropathy
#5
Farzad Pakdel, Mostafa S Sanjari, Asieh Naderi, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Anousheh Haghighi, Mohsen B Kashkouli
BACKGROUND: Methanol poisoning can cause an optic neuropathy that is usually severe and irreversible and often occurs after ingestion of illicit or homemade alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on visual acuity (VA) in patients with methanol optic neuropathy. METHODS: In a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series, consecutive patients with methanol optic neuropathy after alcoholic beverage ingestion were included...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281047/symptom-triggered-detoxification-using-the-alcohol-withdrawal-scale-reduces-risks-and-healthcare-costs
#6
Leila M Soravia, Alexander Wopfner, Luzius Pfiffner, Sophie Bétrisey, Franz Moggi
Aims: As there are only a few existing experimental studies on symptom-triggered therapy for patients with alcohol withdrawal, we investigated the effectiveness of symptom-triggered detoxification regarding the use and dosage of benzodiazepine and withdrawal complications in a naturalistic clinical setting of a specialized treatment center for alcohol use disorder. Methods: In total, 301 charts of patients who entered residential treatment for alcohol withdrawal were included in the retrospective analysis...
January 1, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224234/an-observational-study-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-during-inpatient-alcohol-detoxification-for-patients-with-versus-without-chronic-pretreatment-with-high-dosage-baclofen
#7
Laura Martinez, Florence Vorspan, Xavier Declèves, Julien Azuar, Maeva Fortias, Franck Questel, Alexandra Dereux, Leslie Grichy, Hélène Barreteau, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Vanessa Bloch
High dose baclofen is prescribed as a maintenance treatment to reduce alcohol use in patients with alcohol use disorder. Nevertheless, some patients still have massive alcohol intakes and require inpatient alcohol withdrawal. AIM: to compare the oral dose of benzodiazepine prescribed to manage alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients with versus without steady state pre-treatment with high dose baclofen. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study. Prescribed benzodiazepine dose expressed in diazepam-equivalent was compared between groups...
December 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191394/medications-for-alcohol-use-disorders-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed Akbar, Mark Egli, Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Antonio Noronha
Patients who suffer from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) usually go through various socio-behavioral and pathophysiological changes that take place in the brain and other organs. Recently, consumption of unhealthy food and excess alcohol along with a sedentary lifestyle has become a norm in both developed and developing countries. Despite the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption, chronic and/or excessive alcohol intake is reported to negatively affect the brain, liver and other organs, resulting in cell death, organ damage/failure and death...
November 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160944/ketogenic-diet-suppresses-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-rats
#9
Ditte Dencker, Anna Molander, Morgane Thomsen, Chantal Schlumberger, Gitta Wortwein, Pia Weikop, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is under-diagnosed and under-treated, and up to 50% of alcohol abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate was recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls...
November 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160087/glyoxalase-1-modulation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#10
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing globally. There is also increasing associated complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vascular complications of diabetes. There is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD and no recent treatments for diabetic complications. New approaches are required, particularly those addressing mechanism-based risk factors for health decline and disease progression. Recent Advances: Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites such as methylglyoxal (MG) leading to cell and tissue dysfunction...
January 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136089/nutritional-status-during-inpatient-alcohol-detoxification
#11
Marie-Astrid Gautron, Frank Questel, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Florence Vorspan
Aims: As low rates of thiamine are thought to be implicated in alcohol-related cognitive disorders, we wanted to assess patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) during detoxification for their nutritional status and test if vitamins blood levels were associated with a surrogate of cognitive impairment. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of 94 consecutive patients hospitalized for alcohol detoxification in a specialized addiction medicine department...
November 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129047/hepaprotective-effect-of-standardized-ecklonia-stolonifera-formulation-on-ccl%C3%A2-induced-liver-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Jae-Hyuk Byun, Jun Kim, Se-Young Choung
The liver is an essential organ for the detoxification of exogenous xenobiotics, drugs and toxic substances. The incidence rate of non-alcoholic liver injury increases due to dietary habit change and drug use increase. Our previous study demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera (ES) formulation has hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced liver injury in rat and tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This present study was designated to elucidate hepatoprotective effects of ES formulation against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rat...
November 13, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126911/why-mdma-therapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-why-now
#13
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes...
November 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093690/distress-response-to-the-failure-to-an-insoluble-anagrams-task-maladaptive-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-binge-drinking-students
#14
Marie Poncin, Nicolas Vermeulen, Philippe de Timary
Background: Emotion regulation refers to the attempt to influence the latency, magnitude, and duration of an emotion, and to modify the experiential, behavioral, or physiological components of the emotional response. In situations of personal failure, individuals, and in particular those who present a tendency to self-focus, may experience intense emotional distress. Individuals who lack proper adaptive emotion regulation strategies may engage in activities leading to immediate pleasure, such as alcohol drinking, in order to escape the self-relevance of emotional experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072738/correlations-in-the-elemental-and-metabolic-profiles-of-the-lichen-dirinaria-picta-after-road-traffic-exposure
#15
Xulei Huang, Lei Wang, Anna Karen Carrasco Laserna, Sam Fong Yau Li
Lichens can be used as cost-effective biomonitors of elements from road traffic in the urban environment. However, the nature of comprehensive interactions between hazardous heavy metals from road traffic and lichen metabolites remains unclear. In this study, elemental and metabolic profiles of the lichen Dirinaria picta after exposure to road traffic for 3 months in 9 sites of Singapore city were investigated. Concentrations of 34 elements reveal strong correlations among each other and a general increase with traffic exposure level...
November 15, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045753/association-between-the-rs1229984-polymorphism-in-the-alcohol-dehydrogenase-b-adh1b-gene-and-risk-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#16
Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Javier Gómez-Tabales, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Martín Zurdo, Laura Turpín-Fenoll, Jorge Millán-Pascual, Teresa Adeva-Bartolomé, Esther Cubo, Francisco Navacerrada, Ana Rojo-Sebastián, Lluisa Rubio, Mónica Díez-Fairén, Pau Pastor, Marisol Calleja, José Francisco Plaza-Nieto, Belén Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Margarita Arroyo-Solera, Esteban García-Albea, José A G Agúndez, Elena García-Martín
Background/Objective: Several studies have raised the possibility of an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS). Moreover, an important percentage of patients under alcohol detoxification therapy develop RLS symptoms fulfil the criteria for idiopathic RLS during alcohol withdrawal. We have aimed to establish the possible association between 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alcohol-dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, and the risk for RLS...
October 16, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045249/inhaled-loxapine-for-agitation-in-intoxicated-patients-a-case-series
#17
Carlos Roncero, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Raúl Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Alfonso Carlos Abad, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miquel Casas, Lara Grau-López
OBJECTIVES: Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagnoses patients with agitation...
November 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042778/motivation-to-change-and-posttreatment-temptation-to-drink-a-multicenter-study-among-alcohol-dependent-patients
#18
Elena Fiabane, Marcella Ottonello, Valeria Zavan, Caterina Pistarini, Ines Giorgi
BACKGROUND: An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2) which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034432/ykl071w-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-encodes-a-novel-aldehyde-reductase-for-detoxification-of-glycolaldehyde-and-furfural-derived-from-lignocellulose
#19
Hanyu Wang, Yidan Ouyang, Chang Zhou, Difan Xiao, Yaping Guo, Lan Wu, Xi Li, Yunfu Gu, Quanju Xiang, Ke Zhao, Xiumei Yu, Likou Zou, Menggen Ma
Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA)...
December 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034428/heterogeneous-electro-fenton-catalyst-for-1-butylpyridinium-chloride-degradation
#20
Jessica Meijide, Marta Pazos, Maria Ángeles Sanromán
The application of the electro-Fenton process for organic compound mineralisation has been widely reported over the past years. However, operational problems related to the use of soluble iron salt as a homogeneous catalyst involve the development of novel catalysts that are able to operate in a wide pH range. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads, containing goethite as iron, were synthesised and evaluated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride mineralisation. The influence of catalyst dosage and pH solution on ionic liquid degradation was analysed, achieving almost total oxidation after 60 min under optimal conditions (2 g/L catalyst concentration and pH 3)...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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