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Alcohol detoxification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331542/expression-of-a-heat-stable-nadph-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-from-thermoanaerobacter-pseudethanolicus-39e-in-clostridium-thermocellum-1313-results-in-increased-hydroxymethylfurfural-resistance
#1
Sun-Ki Kim, Joseph Groom, Daehwan Chung, James Elkins, Janet Westpheling
BACKGROUND: Resistance to deconstruction is a major limitation to the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate for the production of fuels and chemicals. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), the use of microbes for the simultaneous hydrolysis of lignocellulose into soluble sugars and fermentation of the resulting sugars to products of interest, is a potential solution to this obstacle. The pretreatment of plant biomass, however, releases compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of microbes used for CBP...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330145/enhanced-xylitol-production-using-immobilized-candida-tropicalis-with-non-detoxified-corn-cob-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate
#2
Tatyaso Yewale, Shruti Panchwagh, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Pradip B Dhamole, Rishi Jain
This study reports an industrially applicable non-sterile xylitol fermentation process to produce xylitol from a low-cost feedstock like corn cob hydrolysate as pentose source without any detoxification. Different immobilization matrices/mediums (alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, agarose gel, polyacrylamide, gelatin, and κ-carrageenan) were studied to immobilize Candida tropicalis NCIM 3123 cells for xylitol production. Amongst this calcium alginate, immobilized cells produced maximum amount of xylitol with titer of 11...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314870/perillyl-alcohol-a-pleiotropic-natural-compound-suitable-for-brain-tumor-therapy-targets-free-radicals
#3
REVIEW
Aline C Gomes, Angélica L Mello, Manuel G Ribeiro, Diogo G Garcia, Clovis O Da Fonseca, Marcela D'Alincourt Salazar, Axel H Schönthal, Thereza Quirico-Santos
Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are promising natural compounds with pro-oxidant properties partly due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity owing to their activity as free radical scavengers, inhibition of coenzyme Q synthesis, activation of antioxidant-responsive elements (inducing detoxification enzymes) and induction of apoptosis. Activation of ER-stress responses generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive free radicals mainly produced during mitochondrial electron transfer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis...
March 17, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303497/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-alcohol-related-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#4
Ricardo Schneider, Solange Bandiera, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Greice Caletti, André Quincozes-Santos, Elaine Elisabetsky, Rosane Gomez
Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282324/predictive-validity-of-outpatient-follow-up-after-detoxification-as-a-quality-measure
#5
Eric M Schmidt, Shalini Gupta, Thomas Bowe, Laura S Ellerbe, Tyler E Phelps, John W Finney, Keith Humphreys, Jodie Trafton, Megan E Vanneman, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVES: Care coordination for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a persistent challenge. Timely outpatient follow-up after detoxification from alcohol and opiates is associated with improved outcomes, leading some care systems to attempt to measure and incentivize this practice. This study evaluated the predictive validity of a 7-day outpatient follow-up after detoxification quality measure used by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: A national sample of patients who received detoxification from alcohol or opiates (N = 25,354) was identified in VHA administrative data...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278218/predictors-of-and-reasons-for-attempts-to-reduce-alcohol-intake-a-population-survey-of-adults-in-england
#6
Emma Beard, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Robert West, Susan Michie
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption. METHOD: Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230332/knowledge-past-use-and-willingness-to-start-medication-assisted-treatment-among-persons-undergoing-alcohol-detoxification
#7
Michael D Stein, Jessica N Flori, Claire E Blevins, Micah T Conti, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current study examined knowledge of previous use, and willingness to take alcohol-related medication among individuals in medically supervised detoxification. METHODS: Participants (n = 302) provided health and demographic information, substance use and detoxification history, PCP visits, and AA attendance. RESULTS: Most patients had knowledge of alcohol medications, one-third had past prescription, and over 80% reported willingness to take medication...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181094/factors-predicting-patient-s-allocation-to-short-and-long-term-therapeutic-community-treatments-in-the-italian-voect-cohort-study
#8
F Vigna-Taglianti, F Mathis, R Diecidue, E Trogu, U Kirchmayer, J Ghibaudi, G Piras, A Camposeragna, A Saponaro, L Amato, M Davoli, F Faggiano, P P Pani
The Evaluation of Therapeutic Community Treatments and Outcomes (VOECT) study was conducted in 131 Italian Therapeutic Communities (TCs) in 2008/2009. All of the patients entering residential treatment for drug or alcohol dependence were invited to participate. Data regarding patient socio-demographic characteristics, drug and alcohol consumption, health and psychopathological status, prior treatments and outcomes, and their motivation score were collected upon enrolment onto the study. The aim of this work was to identify the factors associated with allocation to short- versus long-term programmes in drug or alcohol dependent patients entering TCs in Italy...
February 8, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170108/caspase-cleaved-k18-fragments-increase-during-alcohol-withdrawal-and-predict-liver-related-death-in-patients-with-ald
#9
S Mueller, P Nahon, V Rausch, T Peccerella, I Silva, E Yagmur, B K Straub, C Lackner, H K Seitz, P Rufat, A Sutton, H Bantel, T Longerich
Non-invasive assessment of disease activity in patients with non-alcoholic (NALFD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unsettled but essential for the evaluation of disease progression. We here studied the association of total (M65) and caspase-cleaved (M30) serum keratin-18 fragments (n=204) with histological parameters (n=106) in heavy drinkers primarily admitted for alcohol withdrawal before and after alcohol detoxification. An age, gender and fibrosis-stage matched NAFLD cohort (n=30) was used for comparison...
February 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166367/liver-injury-and-endotoxemia-in-male-and-female-alcohol-dependent-individuals-admitted-to-an-alcohol-treatment-program
#10
Irina A Kirpich, Craig J McClain, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Melanie Schwandt, Monte Phillips, K Cameron Falkner, Lucy Zhang, Catey Harwell, David T George, John C Umhau
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the liver, the gut, and the immune system are critical components of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The aim of this study was to explore the associations between alcohol-induced liver injury, endotoxemia, and inflammation at admission and over time during abstinence, as well as to examine the sex-related differences in these parameters in alcohol-dependent individuals admitted to an alcohol treatment program. METHODS: A cohort of 48 otherwise healthy participants with alcohol use disorder, but no clinical signs of alcoholic liver injury (34 males (M)/14 females (F)) admitted to an alcohol detoxification program, was stratified into two groups based on baseline plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (as a marker of liver injury)...
February 6, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163821/the-role-of-cyp2e1-in-the-drug-metabolism-or-bioactivation-in-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
W A García-Suástegui, L A Ramos-Chávez, M Rubio-Osornio, M Calvillo-Velasco, J A Atzin-Méndez, J Guevara, D Silva-Adaya
Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160209/increased-expression-of-microrna-378a-5p-in-acute-ethanol-exposure-of-rat-cardiomyocytes
#12
Zhongkai Wang, Jingwen Song, Liang Zhang, Songqun Huang, Lizhi Bao, Feng Chen, Xianxian Zhao
Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for a distinct form of congestive heart failure, known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Here, we investigate how microRNAs may participate in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with ethanol exposure in vitro. Increasing the concentrations of ethanol to primary rat cardiomyocytes resulted in elevated apoptosis assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and reduced expression of an enzyme for alcohol detoxification aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). These ethanol effects were accompanied by a substantial elevation of miR-378a-5p...
February 3, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124943/prevalence-and-clinical-correlates-of-chlamydia-infection-in-youth-who-use-drugs-and-alcohol-a-good-opportunity-for-early-intervention
#13
Wole Akosile, Brett M McDermott
AIMS: This study estimates the prevalence of chlamydia infection amongst teenage substance users aged 14-18years and investigates risk factors associated with a positive diagnosis of chlamydia infection. METHODS: Data was collected from the medical files of adolescents who attended a statewide drug and alcohol treatment facility during a three-year period commencing June 2011. RESULTS: The highest rate of chlamydia detection (18.0%) was found in the group with a reported history of abuse, a non-substance use psychiatric diagnosis, and individuals who did not complete year 10 education...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123307/basal-oxidative-stress-ratio-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-correlates-with-nodal-metastatic-spread-in-patients-under-therapy
#14
D Dequanter, R Dok, S Nuyts
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a type of cancer that is strongly associated with oxidative damage and oxidative stress. Tobacco and alcohol - sources of massive quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - have been clearly identified as etiologic factors that contribute to these malignancies. Considering the role of glutathione (GSH) in ROS detoxification, we hypothesized that potential biological markers can be found in addition to the parameters of oxidative stress...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119413/promoter-polymorphism-rs886205-genotype-interacts-with-dna-methylation-of-the-aldh2-regulatory-region-in-alcohol-dependence
#15
Hansi Pathak, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Alexander Glahn, Annemarie Heberlein, Mani Haschemi Nassab, Thomas Hillemacher, Alexandra Burkert, Mathias Rhein
AIMS: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects cells from ethanol toxicity by metabolizing acetaldehyde. We studied the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs886205s located between a negative and a positive regulating promoter element in the ALDH2 gene. The negative regulatory region was already associated with differential DNA methylation in the two allele variations of rs886205 SNP. Another CpG island, in the positive regulatory region of the ALDH2 promoter, extends through the SNP rs886205 and a nuclear receptor response element...
January 24, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090374/neurophysiological-measures-and-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-hypothesizing-links-between-clinical-severity-index-and-molecular-neurobiological-patterns
#16
Mario Vitali, Carmen Napolitano, Marlene Oscar Berman, Simona Flamminii Minuto, Gemma Battagliese, Maria Luisa Attilia, Eric R Braverman, Marina Romeo, Kenneth Blum, Mauro Ceccanti
BACKGROUND: In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060415/gender-differences-in-affects-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependence-a-study-during-alcohol-detoxification
#17
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Pauline Monhonval, Sophie Leclercq, Quentin Spilliaert, François Zammit, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving is a major cause of relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. It is closely related to the high depression and anxiety symptoms that are frequently observed at the early stages of abstinence, and these comorbid symptoms might thus constitute a relapse factor when they persist after detoxification. As these negative affects are known to evolve during the detoxification process, the aim of this study was to investigate the course of the relation between affects and craving during detoxification, with a particular attention given to gender in light of the known differences in affects between AD men and women...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059434/assessment-of-abuse-liability-of-tramadol-among-experienced-drug-users-double-blind-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Mrinmay Das, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, Amandeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. METHODS: A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057039/automatic-activation-of-alcohol-cues-by-child-maltreatment-related-words-a-replication-attempt-in-a-different-treatment-setting
#19
Nadine Potthast, Frank Neuner, Claudia Catani
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050235/primary-liver-injury-and-delayed-resolution-of-liver-stiffness-after-alcohol-detoxification-in-heavy-drinkers-with-the-pnpla3-variant-i148m
#20
Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, Carolin Lackner, Eray Yagmur, Helmut-Karl Seitz, Thomas Longerich, Sebastian Mueller
AIM: To investigate the influence of PNPLA3 genotype in heavy drinkers on serum markers and liver stiffness (LS) during alcohol withdrawal and its association with histology. METHODS: Caucasian heavy drinkers (n = 521) with a mean alcohol consumption of 192.1 g/d (median alcohol consumption: 169.0 g/d; 95%CI: 179.0-203.3) were enrolled at the Salem Medical Center, University of Heidelberg. LS was measured by transient elastography (Fibroscan, Echosens SA, Paris, France)...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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