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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737908/edible-nanoencapsulation-vehicles-for-oral-delivery-of-phytochemicals-a-perspective-paper
#1
Jie Xiao, Yong Cao, Qingrong Huang
Edible nanoencapsulation vehicles (ENVs) designed for the delivery of phytochemicals have gained increasing research interest. The major driving force for this trend is the potential bioavailability enhancement effect for phytochemicals when delivered via ENVs. ENVs affect the bioefficacy of phytochemicals by influencing their dispersion and gastrointestinal stability, rate and site of release, transportation efficiency across endothelial layer, systemic circulation and biodistribution, as well as the regulation of gut microflora...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737515/cell-biology-of-spinal-cord-injury-and-repair
#2
Timothy M O'Shea, Joshua E Burda, Michael V Sofroniew
Spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions present diverse challenges for repair strategies. Anatomically complete injuries require restoration of neural connectivity across lesions. Anatomically incomplete injuries may benefit from augmentation of spontaneous circuit reorganization. Here, we review SCI cell biology, which varies considerably across three different lesion-related tissue compartments: (a) non-neural lesion core, (b) astrocyte scar border, and (c) surrounding spared but reactive neural tissue. After SCI, axon growth and circuit reorganization are determined by neuron-cell-autonomous mechanisms and by interactions among neurons, glia, and immune and other cells...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737432/integrin-targeted-nano-sized-polymeric-systems-for-paclitaxel-conjugation-a-comparative-study
#3
Anat Eldar-Boock, Rachel Blau, Claudia Ryppa, Hemda Baabur-Cohen, Ariel Many, María J Vicent, Felix Kratz, Joaquin Sanchis, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro
The generation of rationally-designed polymer therapeutics via the conjugation of low molecular weight anti-cancer drugs to water-soluble polymeric nanocarriers aims to improve the therapeutic index. Here, we focus on applying polymer therapeutics to target two cell compartments simultaneously - tumor cells and angiogenic endothelial cells. Comparing different polymeric backbones carrying the same therapeutic agent and targeting moiety may shed light on any correlation between the choice of polymer and the anti-cancer activity of the conjugate...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737254/1d-and-2d-nmr-spectroscopy-of-bonding-interactions-within-stable-and-phase-separating-organic-electrolyte-cellulose-solutions
#4
Matthew T Clough, Christophe Fares, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a polar, molecular co-solvent) are highly versatile solvents for cellu-lose. However, the underlying solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are not yet fully understood. Herein, mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, the co-solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, and cellulose are investigated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The use of a triply-13C-labelled ionic liq-uid enhances the signal-to-noise ratio for 13C NMR spectroscopy, enabling changes in bonding interactions to be accurately pinpoint-ed...
July 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736501/design-of-radioiodinated-pharmaceuticals-structural-features-affecting-metabolic-stability-towards-in-vivo-deiodination
#5
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cavina, Dion van der Born, Peter H M Klaren, Martin C Feiters, Otto C Boerman, Floris P J T Rutjes
Radioiodinated pharmaceuticals are convenient tracers for clinical and research investigations because of the relatively long half-lives of radioactive iodine isotopes (i.e., (123)I, (124)I, and (131)I) and the ease of their chemical insertion. Their application in radionuclide imaging and therapy may, however, be hampered by poor in vivo stability of the C-I bond. After an overview of the use of iodine in biology and nuclear medicine, we present here a survey of the catabolic pathways for iodinated xenobiotics, including their biodistribution, accumulation, and biostability...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736500/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-three-chinese-hamster-ovary-cho-host-cells
#6
Ningning Xu, Chao Ma, Jianfa Ou, Wanqi Wendy Sun, Lufang Zhou, Hui Hu, Xiaoguang Margaret Liu
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used to express heterologous genes and produce therapeutic proteins in biopharmaceutical industry. Different CHO host cells have distinct cell growth rates and protein expression characteristics. In this study, the expression of about 1,307 host proteins in three sublines, i.e. CHO K1, CHO S and CHO/dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)(-) , were investigated and compared using proteomic analysis. The proteins involved in cell growth, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, transcription, translation and glycosylation were quantitated using Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736390/-side-effects-are-central-effects-that-challenge-retention-in-hiv-treatment-programmes-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#7
Jenny Renju, Mosa Moshabela, Estelle McLean, William Ddaaki, Morten Skovdal, Fred Odongo, Dominic Bukenya, Joyce Wamoyi, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVES: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38 PLHIV who were lost to follow-up and 53 healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. PLHIV were purposely selected to include a range of HIV treatment histories...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736389/hiv-testing-experiences-and-their-implications-for-patient-engagement-with-hiv-care-and-treatment-on-the-eve-of-test-and-treat-findings-from-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#8
Alison Wringe, Mosa Moshabela, Constance Nyamukapa, Dominic Bukenya, Ken Ondenge, William Ddaaki, Joyce Wamoyi, Janet Seeley, Kathryn Church, Basia Zaba, Victoria Hosegood, Oliver Bonnington, Morten Skovdal, Jenny Renju
OBJECTIVE: In view of expanding 'test and treat' initiatives, we sought to elicit how the experience of HIV testing influenced subsequent engagement in HIV care among people diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: As part of a multisite qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe with 5-10 health workers and 28-59 people living with HIV, per country. Topic guides covered patient and provider experiences of HIV testing and treatment services...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#9
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735972/pyrimidine-metabolism-in-schistosomes-a-comparison-with-other-parasites-and-the-search-for-potential-chemotherapeutic-targets
#10
REVIEW
Mahmoud H El Kouni
Schistosomes are responsible for the parasitic disease schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic parasitic ailment that affects more than 240 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. At least 200,000 deaths per year are associated with the disease. In the absence of the availability of vaccines, chemotherapy is the main stay for combating schistosomiasis. The antischistosomal arsenal is currently limited to a single drug, Praziquantel, which is quite effective with a single-day treatment and virtually no host-toxicity...
July 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735538/photophysics-of-the-singlet-oxygen-sensor-green-chromophore-self-production-of-1-o2-explained-by-molecular-modelling
#12
Marco Marazzi, Vanessa Besancenot, Hugo Gattuso, Henri-Pierre Lassalle, Stephanie Grandemange, Antonio Monari
We report a combined computational and experimental study in order to rationalize the behavior of a well known singlet oxygen (1O2) probe, i.e. the chromophore of the Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: a fluoresceine-based sensor. In particular we evidence that the presence of an intramoleculer charge transfer state that is no more present upon reaction with 1O2 explains the fluorescence enhancement observed in presence of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore we also unequivocally show the photophysical pathways leading to fluorescence enhancement of fluoresceine upon irradiation with UVA lights and also in the absence of any oxygen activator...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735229/synthetic-antibody-mimics-for-the-inhibition-of-protein-ligand-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Christina Haußner, Johannes Lach, Jutta Eichler
The rational/structure-based design and/or combinatorial development of molecules capable of selectively binding to a protein, represents a promising strategy for a range of biomedical applications, in particular the inhibition of disease-associated protein-ligand interactions. The design of such protein binding molecules is often based on an antibody against the target protein, or involves the generation of smaller molecules that retain the binding characteristics of the antibody. Alternatively, protein binding molecules can be selected from protein libraries based on small, stably folded protein scaffolds presenting flexible loops, which are randomized in the libraries...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735000/application-of-pharmacometrics-and-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-to-cancer-therapy-the-example-of-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Brett Fleisher, Kayla Andrews, Ashley A Brown, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subtypes with distinct morphologies and clinical implications. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) is an emerging discipline bridging systems biology with pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) leveraging the systematic understanding of drugs' efficacy and toxicity. Despite numerous challenges in applying computational methodologies for QSP and mechanism-based PK/PD models to biological, physiological, and pharmacological data, bridging these disciplines has the potential to enhance our understanding of complex disease systems such as BC...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734279/a-discrete-fourier-encoded-diagonal-free-experiment-to-simplify-homonuclear-2d-nmr-correlations
#15
Zebin Huang, Quanshuai Guan, Zhong Chen, Lucio Frydman, Yulan Lin
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734001/control-of-reversible-activation-dynamics-of-ru-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BA%C3%A2-c%C3%A2-h%C3%A2-c%C3%A2-h%C3%A2-nh%C3%A2-xy-n-and-the-effect-of-chelate-ligand-variation
#16
Francisco Martínez-Peña, Ana M Pizarro
The potential use of organometallic ruthenium complexes as anticancer drugs is well known. Here we show a family of activatable tethered ruthenium(II) arene complexes of general formula [Ru(η⁶:κ¹-C₆H₅(C₆H₄)NH₂)(XY)]n+ (closed tether-ring) bearing different chelating XY ligands (XY = aliphatic diamine, phenylenediamine, oxalato, bis(phosphino)ethane). The activation of these complexes (closed-to-open tether conversion) occurs in methanol and dimethylsulfoxide at different rates, and to different reaction extents at equilibrium...
July 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733698/expert-agreed-standards-for-the-selection-and-development-of-cancer-support-group-leaders-an-online-reactive-delphi-study
#17
Amanda Pomery, Penelope Schofield, Miranda Xhilaga, Karla Gough
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop pragmatic, consensus-based minimum standards for the role of a cancer support group leader. Secondly, to produce a structured interview designed to assess the knowledge, skills and attributes of the individuals who seek to undertake the role. METHODS: An expert panel of 73 academics, health professionals, cancer agency workers and cancer support group leaders were invited to participate in a reactive online Delphi study involving three online questionnaire rounds...
July 21, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733650/emergence-of-polysaccharide-membrane-walls-through-macro-space-partitioning-via-interfacial-instability
#18
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
Living organisms in drying environments build anisotropic structures and exhibit directionality through self-organization of biopolymers. However, the process of macro-scale assembly is still unknown. Here, we introduce a dissipative structure through a non-equilibrium process between hydration and deposition in the drying of a polysaccharide liquid crystalline solution. By controlling the geometries of the evaporation front in a limited space, multiple nuclei emerge to grow vertical membrane walls with macroscopic orientation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733629/improving-nitrogen-source-utilization-from-defatted-soybean-meal-for-nisin-production-by-enhancing-proteolytic-function-of-lactococcus-lactis-f44
#19
Jiaheng Liu, Jianjian Zhou, Lihong Wang, Zelin Ma, Guangrong Zhao, Zhiqiang Ge, Hongji Zhu, Jianjun Qiao
Nisin, one kind of natural antimicrobial peptide, is produced by certain Lactococcus lactis strains, which generally require expensive high-quality nitrogen sources due to limited ability of amino acids biosynthesis. Here we use defatted soybean meal (DSM) as sole nitrogen source to support L. lactis growth and nisin production. DSM medium composition and fermentation conditions were optimized using the methods of Plackett-Burman design and central composite design. The highest nisin production of 3879.58 IU/ml was obtained in DSM medium, which was 21...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733623/crystal-structure-of-a-low-molecular-weight-activator-blm-pep-with-yeast-20s-proteasome-insights-into-the-enzyme-activation-mechanism
#20
Julia Witkowska, Małgorzata Giżyńska, Przemysław Grudnik, Przemysław Golik, Przemysław Karpowicz, Artur Giełdoń, Grzegorz Dubin, Elżbieta Jankowska
Proteasomes are responsible for protein turnover in eukaryotic cells, degrading short-lived species but also removing improperly folded or oxidatively damaged ones. Dysfunction of a proteasome results in gradual accumulation of misfolded/damaged proteins, leading to their aggregation. It has been postulated that proteasome activators may facilitate removal of such aggregation-prone proteins and thus prevent development of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the discovery of pharmacologically relevant compounds is hindered by insufficient structural understanding of the activation process...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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