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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733541/a-validated-transitional-and-translational-porcine-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Kwame A Darfour-Oduro, Arun K De, Lauretta A Rund, Kuldeep Singh, Daniel R Principe, Grace Guzman, Charles E Ray, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Difficult questions are confronting clinicians attempting to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. A large animal model with genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans is required to transition from mouse models to human clinical trials to address unmet clinical needs. To validate our previously reported inducible porcine cancer model (Oncopig) as a transitional HCC model, Oncopig hepatocyte cultures were transformed using Cre recombinase. The resulting porcine HCC cells (pHCC) expressed oncogenic TP53R167H and KRASG12D, and displayed nuclear pleomorphisms with pale to granular cytoplasm arranged in expanded plates similar to human HCC histopathology...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733469/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-breast-cancer-and-bone-metastases-striking-the-right-balance
#2
Catherine Zabkiewicz, Jeyna Resaul, Rachel Hargest, Wen Jiang, Lin Ye
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β super family, and are essential for regulation of foetal development, tissue differentiation and homeostasis, and a multitude of cellular functions. Naturally, this has led to the exploration of aberrance in this highly regulated system as a key factor in tumourigenesis. Originally identified for their role in osteogenesis and bone turnover, attention has been turned to the potential role of BMPs in tumour metastases to, and progression within, the bone niche...
July 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731284/the-rna-binding-protein-hur-inhibits-expression-of-ccl5-and-limits-recruitment-of-macrophages-into-tumors
#3
Thilo F Brauß, Sofia Winslow, Sebastian Lampe, Anica Scholz, Andreas Weigert, Nathalie Dehne, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Tobias Schmid, Bernhard Brüne
The RNA-binding protein HuR promotes tumor growth by affecting proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Although immune cells, especially tumor-associated macrophages, are critical components of the tumor stroma, the influence of HuR in tumors on the recruitment of immune cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we therefore aimed to elucidate the impact of tumor cell HuR on the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages. To this end, we stably depleted HuR in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731045/renal-cell-tumors-with-clear-cell-histology-and-intact-vhl-and-chromosome-3p-a-histological-review-of-tumors-from-the-cancer-genome-atlas-database
#4
Laura Favazza, Dhananjay A Chitale, Ravi Barod, Craig G Rogers, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Nilesh S Gupta, Sean R Williamson
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is by far the most common form of kidney cancer; however, a number of histologically similar tumors are now recognized and considered distinct entities. The Cancer Genome Atlas published data set was queried (http://cbioportal.org) for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumors lacking VHL gene mutation and chromosome 3p loss, for which whole-slide images were reviewed. Of the 418 tumors in the published Cancer Genome Atlas clear cell renal cell carcinoma database, 387 had VHL mutation, copy number loss for chromosome 3p, or both (93%)...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730229/molecular-analysis-of-brca1-and-brca2-genes-by-next-generation-sequencing-and-ultrastructural-aspects-of-breast-tumor-tissue
#5
Corina Elena Mihalcea, Ana Maria Moroşanu, Daniela Murăraşu, Liliana Puiu, Sabin Aurel Cinca, Silviu Cristian Voinea, Nicolae Mirancea
In this paper, we focus our interest on the dynamics alterations of the tumor-stroma interface at the ultrastructural level and to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using next generation sequencing (NGS) of breast tumor tissue. Electron microscopic investigation revealed some peculiar infrastructural alterations of the tumor cells per se as well as of the tumor-stroma interface: invadopodia, shedding microvesicles, altered morphology and reduced number of telocytes, different abnormalities of the microvasculature...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729775/role-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-and-its-prognostic-significance
#6
Tianjian Yu, Genhong Di
Breast cancer has been shown to live in the tumor microenvironment, which consists of not only breast cancer cells themselves but also a significant amount of pathophysiologically altered surrounding stroma and cells. Diverse components of the breast cancer microenvironment, such as suppressive immune cells, re-programmed fibroblast cells, altered extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain soluble factors, synergistically impede an effective anti-tumor response and promote breast cancer progression and metastasis...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729135/tumor-stroma-ratio-tsr-as-a-potential-novel-predictor-of-prognosis-in-digestive-system-cancers-a-meta-analysis
#7
Runjin Zhang, Wei Song, Kai Wang, Shubing Zou
MAIN PROBLEM: The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has been reported as a prognosis predictor in multiple cancers. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the potential value of TSR as a prognostic predictor of cancer in the digestive system. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Elsevier and Web of Science. All studies exploring the association of TSR with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS), and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were identified. RESULTS: In total, eight studies were eligible for analysis, and they included 1959 patients...
July 17, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728298/-the-prognostic-analysis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-the-tumor-neo-vessels-macrophages-and-%C3%AE-sma-in-tumor-microenvironment
#8
M Fang, J P Yuan, L L Liu, G P Cheng, H J Ying, Y M Chen, M Chen
Objective: To analyze the quantitative expression and prognostic significance of tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts in tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The clinic-pathological features and tissue samples for 101 HCC cases were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain the tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts on tumor tissue. The distribution results and quantitative data of above key components were acquired by inverted microscopy equipped with CRi Nuance multispectral analysis system...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728288/-descemet-s-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-for-treatment-of-patients-with-corneal-endothelial-decompensation
#9
T Huang, C Ouyang, J Zhan, L Jiang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for treatment of patients with corneal endothelial decompensation in China. Methods: Interventional case series. Ten patients (10 eyes) with the diagnosis of corneal endothelial decompensation received DMEK during July 2016 and September 2016 in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. Descemet's membrane of the donor tissue was carefully stripped from the underlying stroma manually and cut with a 7.75- or 8.0-mm-diameter donor punch...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726916/a-novel-3-d-bio-microfluidic-system-mimicking-in-vivo-heterogeneous-tumour-microstructures-reveals-complex-tumour-stroma-interactions
#10
Qihui Fan, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao, Chunxiu Tian, James D Farrell, Wenwen Diao, Xiaochen Wang, Fengrong Zhang, Wei Yuan, Haibo Han, Jinfeng Chen, Yue Yang, Xixiang Zhang, Fangfu Ye, Ming Li, Zhongcan Ouyang, Liyu Liu
A 3-D microfluidic system consisting of microchamber arrays embedded in a collagen hydrogel with tuneable biochemical gradients that mimics the tumour microenvironment of mammary glands was constructed for the investigation on the interactions between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding the collagen microchamber arrays allow one to impose complex concentration gradients of specific biological molecules or drugs...
July 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726192/study-of-proliferative-activity-of-vaginal-epithelium-in-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-treated-by-er-yag-laser
#11
G A Lapii, A Yu Yakovleva, A I Neimark, E L Lushnikova
The expression of Ki-67 proliferation marker was studied in vaginal biopsy specimens from women with stress urinary incontinence treated using a Fotona nonablative erbium laser. Cells expressing Ki-67 were located in all cases in the parabasal and basal levels of stratified squamous epithelium, the index of labeled nuclei before Er:YAG laser exposure was 19.05±2.86%. After 1-2 months of laser therapy, the index of labeled nuclei in the epithelium increased significantly and reached 31.79±2.25%. These changes were interpreted as a result of epithelial-stromal interactions...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725958/immune-surveillance-plays-a-role-in-locally-aggressive-giant-cell-lesions-of-bone
#12
REVIEW
Ahmad Al-Sukaini, Francis J Hornicek, Zachary S Peacock, Leonard B Kaban, Soldano Ferrone, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND: Giant cell lesions are locally aggressive intraosseous neoplasms with capacity to metastasize. The role of immune surveillance in the pathophysiology of giant cell lesions is poorly understood, and understanding what role the immune system plays in giant cell lesions may lead to the development of more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the role of immune surveillance in giant cell lesions by examining the expression of the HLA class I and class II antigens and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723714/vent-incisions-to-facilitate-peripheral-unfolding-of-the-dmek-graft
#13
Christopher Liu, Alfonso Vasquez-Perez, Jordan Vassileff Chervenkoff, Venkata Avadhanam
PURPOSE: To present the results of 15 cases in which a modified technique of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with vent incisions was used to assist unfolding of tight peripheral inward folds. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 15 consecutive eyes that underwent a modified vent incision technique for DMEK. Six oblique, small-size (1 mm) vent incisions parallel to the limbus and 3.5 mm from the center were performed after descemetorhexis...
July 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720843/clinical-study-of-genomic-drivers-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Michael T Barrett, Ray Deiotte, Elizabeth Lenkiewicz, Smriti Malasi, Tara Holley, Lisa Evers, Richard G Posner, Timothy Jones, Haiyong Han, Mark Sausen, Victor E Velculescu, Jeffrey Drebin, Peter O'Dwyer, Gayle Jameson, Ramesh K Ramanathan, Daniel D Von Hoff
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal cancer with complex genomes and dense fibrotic stroma. This study was designed to identify clinically relevant somatic aberrations in pancreatic cancer genomes of patients with primary and metastatic disease enrolled and treated in two clinical trials. METHODS: Tumour nuclei were flow sorted prior to whole genome copy number variant (CNV) analysis. Targeted or whole exome sequencing was performed on most samples...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719575/non-canonical-notch3-signalling-limits-tumour-angiogenesis
#15
Shuheng Lin, Ana Negulescu, Sirisha Bulusu, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Benjamin Ducarouge, Nicolas Rama, Nicolas Gadot, Isabelle Treilleux, Pierre Saintigny, Olivier Meurette, Patrick Mehlen
Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719380/comparison-of-different-antibody-clones-for-immunohistochemistry-detection-of-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-on-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#16
Edwin R Parra, Pamela Villalobos, Barbara Mino, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a major immune checkpoint protein that mediates antitumor immune suppression and response. Preliminary data suggest that its detection using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues may predict clinical response to PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In diagnostic pathology, it is essential to count with a validated IHC that can reliably detect PD-L1-positive cases. The present study was conducted to compare and validate different PD-L1 commercial clones and identify which ones can be reliably used by surgical pathologist to detect PD-L1 expression in human cancer tissues...
July 17, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718368/remodeling-of-extracellular-matrix-of-the-lamina-propria-in-the-uninvolved-human-rectal-mucosa-10-and-20%C3%A2-cm-away-from-the-malignant-tumor
#17
Sanja Z Despotović, Novica M Milićević, Dragoslav P Milošević, Nebojša Despotović, Predrag Erceg, Petar Svorcan, Udo Schumacher, Sebastian Ullrich, Gordana Mihajlović, Dragan Kalem, Srđan Marković, Ivana M Lalić, Aleksandar J Krmpot, Mihailo D Rabasović, Dejan V Pantelić, Svetlana Z Jovanić, Thomas Rösch, Živana Milićević
In recent years, it has been demonstrated that malignancy arises and advances through the molecular interplay between tumor cells and non-malignant elements of the tumor stroma, that is, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. However, in contrast to the mounting evidence about the role of tumor stroma in the genesis and progression of the malignant disease, there are very few data regarding the uninvolved stromal tissue in the remote surrounding of the tumor. Using the objective morphometric approach in patients with adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate the remodeling of extracellular matrix of the lamina propria in the uninvolved rectal mucosa 10 and 20 cm away from the neoplasm...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717852/elevated-s100a8-protein-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells-and-breast-tumor-stroma-is-prognostic-of-poor-disease-outcome
#18
P Miller, K M Kidwell, D Thomas, M Sabel, J M Rae, D F Hayes, B I Hudson, D El-Ashry, M E Lippman
PURPOSE: Elevated S100A8 expression has been observed in cancers of the bladder, esophagus, colon, ovary, and breast. S100A8 is expressed by breast cancer cells as well as by infiltrating immune and myeloid cells. Here we investigate the association of elevated S100A8 protein expression in breast cancer cells and in breast tumor stroma with survival outcomes in a cohort of breast cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed from breast cancer specimens from 417 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2004 and 2006...
July 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717394/immunohistochemical-expression-of-er-%C3%AE-and-pr-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#19
Marwa Mohammed Serag Eldien, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Tarek Rageh, Eman Abdelrazek, Enas Elkholy
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer with multiple risk factors including exposure to ionising radiation. Oestrogens contribute to papillary carcinoma development by promoting cell proliferation and invasion of mutated epithelial follicular cells. The present study aimed to assess ER-α and PR expression in PTC and to correlate their expression with the clinicopathological parameters in this cancer. This study included 62 primary and six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma cases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717013/mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-acquisition-and-co2-sensing-in-marine-diatoms-a-gateway-to-carbon-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Yusuke Matsuda, Brian M Hopkinson, Kensuke Nakajima, Christopher L Dupont, Yoshinori Tsuji
Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO2 fixation. The evolution of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO2]aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO2 in water and a limited CO2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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