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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644681/treatment-results-of-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-combined-with-riboflavin-and-440-nm-blue-light-for-bacterial-corneal-ulcer-in-rabbits
#2
Shufang Wei, Cuiying Zhang, Shaoru Zhang, Yanyun Xu, Guoying Mu
PURPOSE: To study the treatment effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with 440 nm blue light and riboflavin on bacterial corneal ulcer using animal experiments. METHODS: A total of 21 New Zealand white rabbits that developed Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups. Seven rabbits were used as blank control groups; seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light; and seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 370 nm ultraviolet A light...
June 23, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644561/the-redox-sensitive-module-of-cyclophilin-20-3-2-cysteine-peroxiredoxin-and-cysteine-synthase-integrates-sulfur-metabolism-and-oxylipin-signaling-in-the-high-light-acclimation-response
#3
Sara M Müller, Shanshan Wang, Wilena Telman, Michael Liebthal, Helena Schnitzer, Andrea Viehhauser, Carsten Sticht, Carolina Delatorre, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Karl-Josef Dietz
The integration of redox- and reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling and metabolic activities are fundamental to plant acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). The functionality of this COPS module is influenced by redox stimuli and oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) which is the precursor for jasmonic acid...
June 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644236/cyp1b1-cytopathy-uncommon-phenotype-of-a-homozygous-cyp1b1-deletion-as-internal-corneal-ulcer-of-von-hippel
#4
Valeria Oliva-Biénzobas, Alejandro Navas, Mirena C Astiazarán, Oscar Francisco Chacón-Camacho, Jose A Bermúdez-Magner, Mariana Takane, Enrique Graue-Hernández, Juan Carlos Zenteno
PURPOSE: To report a mutation of CYP1B1 in a newborn with a rare phenotype without the classic features of anterior segment dysgenesis or congenital glaucoma. METHODS: The newborn presented with diffuse corneal edema and bilaterally elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Ophthalmological examination, ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy were performed; congenital infections were ruled out. Genetic analysis was performed. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and goniotomy in a single surgical time...
June 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638792/immunotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-unleash-its-potential-through-novel-combinations
#5
REVIEW
Songchuan Guo, Merly Contratto, George Miller, Lawrence Leichman, Jennifer Wu
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States, with poor response to current standard of care, short progression-free and overall survival. Immunotherapies that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death protein-1, and programmed death-ligand 1 checkpoints have shown remarkable activities in several cancers such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer due to high numbers of somatic mutations, combined with cytotoxic T-cell responses...
June 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638563/extraskeletal-myxoid-chondrosarcoma-of-the-masticator-space-in-a-pediatric-patient
#6
Mário-José Romañach, Román Carlos, Michel Nuyens, Bruno-Augusto-Benevenuto de Andrade, Oslei-Paes de Almeida
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a malignant soft-tissue neoplasm rarely described in the head and neck region of children and adolescents. We describe a case of EMC affecting the masticator space and a literature review. A 13-year-old boy who presented a large painless, diffuse mass causing progressive midfacial asymmetry of 6 months duration. Histopathological evaluation revealed a multinodular lesion, containing scattered round vacuolated tumor cells dispersed in an abundant myxoid stroma, separated by fibrous septae...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638462/reorganized-collagen-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-gastric-cancer-and-its-association-with-prognosis
#7
Zhi-Hua Zhou, Cheng-Dong Ji, Hua-Liang Xiao, Hai-Bin Zhao, You-Hong Cui, Xiu-Wu Bian
Collagen components in the tumor microenvironment substantially influence cancer pathogenesis and progression. Nevertheless, in gastric cancer, collagen status and its prognostic role remain unclear. Using picrosirius red staining and immunohistochemistry, we found that collagen deposition was significantly increased in gastric cancer when compared with non-neoplastic tissues, and in cancer stroma, more immature collagen components were present, suggesting a qualitative change. Furthermore, the morphology of collagen fibers could be weakly, moderately or strongly changed in gastric cancer; when weakly or moderately changed, they appeared similar to normal collagen fibers, except for a higher linearization and density; when strongly changed, they were thicker and less eosinophilic, sharply differently from their normal counterparts...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638064/quantitative-phosphoproteomics-reveals-a-role-for-collapsin-response-mediator-protein-2-in-pdgf-induced-cell-migration
#8
Adil R Sarhan, Justyna Szyroka, Shabana Begum, Michael G Tomlinson, Neil A Hotchin, John K Heath, Debbie L Cunningham
The Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) family of ligands have well established functions in the induction of cell proliferation and migration during development, tissue homeostasis and interactions between tumours and stroma. However, the mechanisms by which these actions are executed are incompletely understood. Here we report a differential phosphoproteomics study, using a SILAC approach, of PDGF-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). 116 phospho-sites were identified as up-regulated and 45 down-regulated in response to PDGF stimulation...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636979/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635517/a-primer-for-oncoimmunology-immunooncology
#10
Brad Bolon, Famke Aeffner
Oncoimmunology (or immunooncology) is a burgeoning specialty of precision ("personalized") medicine designed to heighten the antitumor response of the immune system against molecules expressed excessively or only by tumor cells. This focus is necessary, as cancers are polyclonal tissues comprised of antigenically heterogeneous cells, the exact composition of which is shaped by the balance between antitumor immunity and tumor-promoting inflammation. Key targets include enhancing immune system (especially T cell) reactivity, inhibiting immune checkpoints, and promoting tumor cytolysis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634582/cancer-stem-cells-in-moderately-differentiated-lip-squamous-cell-carcinoma-express-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#11
Rachna S Ram, Helen D Brasch, Jonathan C Dunne, Paul F Davis, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: We investigated the expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations we have identified in moderately differentiated lip squamous cell carcinoma (MDLSCC). METHOD: Ten MDLSCC samples underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and immunofluorescent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for (pro)renin receptor (PRR), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor 1 (ATIIR1), and receptor 2 (ATIIR2). NanoString analysis and Western blotting (WB) were performed on six MDLSCC samples for gene and protein expression, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631712/-the-molecular-mechanisms-and-morphological-manifestations-of-leiomyoma-reduction-induced-by-selective-progesterone-receptor-modulators
#12
T A Demura, Z V Revazova, E A Kogan, L V Adamyan
AIM: to investigate the molecular mechanisms and morphological substrate of reduced uterine leiomyoma in patients receiving the selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) ulipristal acetate for 3 months, by estimating the immunohistochemical expression of the markers steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1), nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR-1), ER, PgR, Ki-67, p16, TGF-β, and VEGF in tumor tissue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 75 women with uterine leiomyoma, menorrhagias, and anemia...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629870/tumor-stroma-ratio-is-an-independent-predictor-for-overall-survival-and-disease-free-survival-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#13
Paolo Aurello, Giammauro Berardi, Diego Giulitti, Antonio Palumbo, Simone Maria Tierno, Giuseppe Nigri, Francesco D'Angelo, Emanuela Pilozzi, Giovanni Ramacciato
BACKGROUND: Despite different prognostic factors have been already studied, patients undergoing potentially curative resection for gastric cancer, still have a poor outcome. There is therefore the need to identify novel prognostic factors. Recently, Tumor-Stroma Ratio (TSR) was proven to be associated with prognosis in different types of cancers. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of TSR in gastric cancer patients. METHODS: 106 patients underwent gastrectomy between January 2004 and December 2015...
June 16, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629762/targeting-the-tumor-and-its-associated-stroma-one-and-one-can-make-three-in-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#14
Anna Mondino, Gerlanda Vella, Laura Icardi
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic option for cancer patients. The proof for ACT therapeutic efficacy was first obtained with allogenic T cells and then reproduced with T cells isolated from patients' tumor samples (i.e. tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). It is now clear that specificity of ACT products can be educated by genetically engineering T cells with classical T Cell Receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date a poor accessibility of the tumor mass and a hostile microenvironment, influenced by genetic and epigenetic instability, mainly limit ACT therapeutic efficacy in the case of solid tumors...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629307/tumor-reversion-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-as-a-critical-step-in-managing-the-tumor-microenvironment-cross-talk
#15
Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandra Cucina, Sara Proietti
Tumour reversion represents a promising field of investigation. The occurrence of cancer reversion both in vitro and in vivo has been ascertained by an increasing number of reports. The reverting process may be triggered in a wide range of different cancer types by both molecular and physical cues. This process encompasses mandatorily a change in the cell-stroma interactions, leading to profound modification in tissue architecture. Indeed, cancer reversion may be obtained by only resetting the overall burden of biophysical cues acting on the cell-stroma system, thus indicating that conformational changes induced by cell shape and cytoskeleton remodelling trigger downstream the cascade of molecular events required for phenotypic reversion...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628715/overcoming-the-resistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Richard A Skelton, Ammar Javed, Lei Zheng, Jin He
Immunotherapy has become a new modality of cancer treatment, but has had a limited success in treating PDAC. A combination approach to immunotherapy, using both immune checkpoint inhibitors and immune activating agonists, is needed, as PDAC does not respond to single-agent checkpoint inhibitors. Studies have also supported using vaccine-based therapies to prime the tumor microenvironment of PDAC with effector T-cells. Other therapeutic strategies including epigenetic agents, stroma modulators, radiotherapy, and T-cell transfer therapies may also prime the tumor microenvironment to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628331/quantum-cascade-laser-spectral-histopathology-breast-cancer-diagnostics-using-high-throughput-chemical-imaging
#17
Michael John Pilling, Alex Henderson, Peter Gardner
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, coupled with machine learning approaches, has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for identifying abnormalities in human tissue. The ability to objectively identify the pre-diseased state, and diagnose cancer with high levels of accuracy, has the potential to revolutionise current histopathological practice. Despite recent technological advances in FT-IR microscopy, sample throughput and speed of acquisition are key barriers to clinical translation. Wide-field quantum cascade laser (QCL) infrared imaging systems with large focal plane array detectors and utilising discrete frequency imaging, have demonstrated that large tissue microarrays (TMA) can be imaged in a matter of minutes...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628120/intestinal-cancer-progression-by-mutant-p53-through-the-acquisition-of-invasiveness-associated-with-complex-glandular-formation
#18
M Nakayama, E Sakai, K Echizen, Y Yamada, H Oshima, T-S Han, R Ohki, S Fujii, A Ochiai, S Robine, D C Voon, T Tanaka, M M Taketo, M Oshima
Tumor suppressor TP53 is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and most mutations are missense type. Although gain-of-functions by mutant p53 have been demonstrated experimentally, the precise mechanism for malignant progression in in vivo tumors remains unsolved. We generated Apc(Δ716) Trp53(LSL•R270H) villin-CreER compound mice, in which mutant p53(R270H) was expressed in the intestinal epithelia upon tamoxifen treatment, and examined the intestinal tumor phenotypes and tumor-derived organoids...
June 19, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627080/comparison-of-subconjunctival-scarring-after-microincision-vitrectomy-surgery-using-20-23-25-and-27-gauge-systems-in-rabbits
#19
Makoto Gozawa, Yoshihiro Takamura, Seiji Miyake, Kentaro Iwasaki, Shogo Arimura, Yuji Takihara, Masaru Inatani
PURPOSE: To compare subconjunctival scarring after vitrectomy in rabbit eyes using different gauge systems by analysing anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images and histological sections. METHODS: Vitrectomy using 20-, 23-, 25- and 27-gauge systems was performed for rabbits. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images of the incision sites were obtained before and at day 1, 7 and 1 month after surgery. We measured the thickness of conjunctival epithelium, stroma, Tenon's capsule and total conjunctiva of these three layers, then determined the preservation rates of the borderlines between each layer...
June 19, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626929/successful-liver-transplantation-for-non-resectable-desmoplastic-nested-spindle-cell-tumor-complicated-by-cushing-s-syndrome
#20
Sarah Tehseen, Louis Rapkin, Erwin Schemankewitz, Joseph F Magliocca, Rene Romero
Desmoplastic spindle cell tumors of liver are rare tumors of low malignant potential characterized by well-demarcated nests of spindle and epithelioid cells in a dense desmoplastic stroma. While surgery remains the definitive treatment, there have been reports of tumor recurrence locally and metastasis which respond poorly to chemotherapy. Hepatic transplant has been attempted in cases of recurrence or large size of primary tumor. Long-term follow-up and imaging surveillance are required as these tumors have shown a tendency for recurrence many years after initial therapy...
June 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
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