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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902716/large-scale-anthropogenic-reduction-of-forest-cover-in-last-glacial-maximum-europe
#1
Jed O Kaplan, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Jan C A Kolen, Basil A S Davis
Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851309/1674-ketoacidosis-in-a-breast-feeding-patient-on-the-paleolithic-diet
#2
Evan Diamond, Samarth Beri, Erik Perez, Fawzi Ameer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813680/taming-the-past-ancient-dna-and-the-study-of-animal-domestication
#3
David E MacHugh, Greger Larson, Ludovic Orlando
During the last decade, ancient DNA research has been revolutionized by the availability of increasingly powerful DNA sequencing and ancillary genomics technologies, giving rise to the new field of paleogenomics. In this review, we show how our understanding of the genetic basis of animal domestication and the origins and dispersal of livestock and companion animals during the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods is being rapidly transformed through new scientific knowledge generated with paleogenomics methods...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783697/under-the-skin-of-a-lion-unique-evidence-of-upper-paleolithic-exploitation-and-use-of-cave-lion-panthera-spelaea-from-the-lower-gallery-of-la-garma-spain
#4
Marián Cueto, Edgard Camarós, Pedro Castaños, Roberto Ontañón, Pablo Arias
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760210/early-evidence-for-the-extensive-heat-treatment-of-silcrete-in-the-howiesons-poort-at-klipdrift-shelter-layer-pbd-65-ka-south-africa
#5
Anne Delagnes, Patrick Schmidt, Katja Douze, Sarah Wurz, Ludovic Bellot-Gurlet, Nicholas J Conard, Klaus G Nickel, Karen L van Niekerk, Christopher S Henshilwood
Heating stone to enhance its flaking qualities is among the multiple innovative adaptations introduced by early modern human groups in southern Africa, in particular during the Middle Stone Age Still Bay and Howiesons Poort traditions. Comparatively little is known about the role and impact of this technology on early modern human behaviors and cultural expressions, due, in part, to the lack of comprehensive studies of archaeological assemblages documenting the heat treatment of stone. We address this issue through an analysis of the procedure used for heating and a technological analysis of a lithic assemblage recovered from one Howiesons Poort assemblage at Klipdrift Shelter (southern Cape, South Africa)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753214/how-to-make-stone-soup-is-the-paleo-diet-a-missed-opportunity-for-anthropologists
#6
Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706187/a-molecular-approach-to-the-sexing-of-the-triple-burial-at-the-upper-paleolithic-site-of-doln%C3%A3-v%C3%A4-stonice
#7
Alissa Mittnik, Chuan-Chao Wang, Jiří Svoboda, Johannes Krause
In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692243/the-relation-of-saturated-fatty-acids-with-low-grade-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet
The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685850/genes-mirror-migrations-and-cultures-in-prehistoric-europe-a-population-genomic-perspective
#9
Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson
Genomic information from ancient human remains is beginning to show its full potential for learning about human prehistory. We review the last few years' dramatic finds about European prehistory based on genomic data from humans that lived many millennia ago and relate it to modern-day patterns of genomic variation. The early times, the Upper Paleolithic, appears to contain several population turn-overs followed by more stable populations after the Last Glacial Maximum and during the Mesolithic. Some 11000 years ago the migrations driving the Neolithic transition start from around Anatolia and reach the north and the west of Europe millennia later followed by major migrations during the Bronze Age...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666153/can-the-paleolithic-diet-meet-the-nutritional-needs-of-older-people
#10
EDITORIAL
Richard Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638212/palaeoproteomic-evidence-identifies-archaic-hominins-associated-with-the-ch%C3%A3-telperronian-at-the-grotte-du-renne
#11
Frido Welker, Mateja Hajdinjak, Sahra Talamo, Klervia Jaouen, Michael Dannemann, Francine David, Michèle Julien, Matthias Meyer, Janet Kelso, Ian Barnes, Selina Brace, Pepijn Kamminga, Roman Fischer, Benedikt M Kessler, John R Stewart, Svante Pääbo, Matthew J Collins, Jean-Jacques Hublin
In Western Europe, the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is associated with the disappearance of Neandertals and the spread of anatomically modern humans (AMHs). Current chronological, behavioral, and biological models of this transitional period hinge on the Châtelperronian technocomplex. At the site of the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, morphological Neandertal specimens are not directly dated but are contextually associated with the Châtelperronian, which contains bone points and beads. The association between Neandertals and this "transitional" assemblage has been controversial because of the lack either of a direct hominin radiocarbon date or of molecular confirmation of the Neandertal affiliation...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638208/advanced-maritime-adaptation-in-the-western-pacific-coastal-region-extends-back-to-35-000-30-000-years-before-present
#12
Masaki Fujita, Shinji Yamasaki, Chiaki Katagiri, Itsuro Oshiro, Katsuhiro Sano, Taiji Kurozumi, Hiroshi Sugawara, Dai Kunikita, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Akihiro Kano, Tomoyo Okumura, Tomomi Sone, Hikaru Fujita, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toru Naruse, Megumi Kondo, Shuji Matsu'ura, Gen Suwa, Yousuke Kaifu
Maritime adaptation was one of the essential factors that enabled modern humans to disperse all over the world. However, geographic distribution of early maritime technology during the Late Pleistocene remains unclear. At this time, the Indonesian Archipelago and eastern New Guinea stand as the sole, well-recognized area for secure Pleistocene evidence of repeated ocean crossings and advanced fishing technology. The incomplete archeological records also make it difficult to know whether modern humans could sustain their life on a resource-poor, small oceanic island for extended periods with Paleolithic technology...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569548/ancestral-origins-and-genetic-history-of-tibetan-highlanders
#13
Dongsheng Lu, Haiyi Lou, Kai Yuan, Xiaoji Wang, Yuchen Wang, Chao Zhang, Yan Lu, Xiong Yang, Lian Deng, Ying Zhou, Qidi Feng, Ya Hu, Qiliang Ding, Yajun Yang, Shilin Li, Li Jin, Yaqun Guan, Bing Su, Longli Kang, Shuhua Xu
The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan highlanders and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover their origins. Non-modern human sequences compose ∼6% of the Tibetan gene pool and form unique haplotypes in some genomic regions, where Denisovan-like, Neanderthal-like, ancient-Siberian-like, and unknown ancestries are entangled and elevated...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525705/the-acheulian-and-early-middle-paleolithic-in-latium-italy-stability-and-innovation
#14
Paola Villa, Sylvain Soriano, Rainer Grün, Fabrizio Marra, Sebastien Nomade, Alison Pereira, Giovanni Boschian, Luca Pollarolo, Fang Fang, Jean-Jacques Bahain
We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519459/archeological-insights-into-hominin-cognitive-evolution
#15
Thomas Wynn, Frederick L Coolidge
How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods...
July 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509519/compliance-palatability-and-feasibility-of-paleolithic-and-australian-guide-to-healthy-eating-diets-in-healthy-women-a-4-week-dietary-intervention
#16
Angela Genoni, Johnny Lo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Amanda Devine
(1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498855/mtdna-analysis-reveals-enriched-pathogenic-mutations-in-tibetan-highlanders
#17
Longli Kang, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Menghan Zhang, Shi Yan, Lei Li, Lijun Liu, Kai Liu, Kang Hu, Feng Chen, Lifeng Ma, Zhendong Qin, Yi Wang, Xiaofeng Wang, Li Jin
Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457544/cutmark-data-and-their-implications-for-the-planning-depth-of-late-pleistocene-societies
#18
Marie-Cécile Soulier, Eugène Morin
Cutmarks provide empirical evidence for the exploitation of animal resources by past human groups. Their study may contribute substantially to our knowledge of economic behavior, including the procurement of prey and the analysis of butchery sequences. Butchering practices can be investigated using cutmark illustrations recorded on bone templates. In this paper, quantitative data on cutmarks were derived from published and unpublished cutmark drawings for 27 French assemblages dated between the late Middle Paleolithic and the final Upper Paleolithic...
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457543/the-altitudinal-mobility-of-wild-sheep-at-the-epigravettian-site-of-kalavan-1-lesser-caucasus-armenia-evidence-from-a-sequential-isotopic-analysis-in-tooth-enamel
#19
Carlos Tornero, Marie Balasse, Adrian Bălăşescu, Christine Chataigner, Boris Gasparyan, Cyril Montoya
Kalavan 1 is an Epigravettian hunting campsite in the Aregunyats mountain chain in northeastern Armenia (Lesser Caucasus). The site lies at an elevation of 1640 m in a bottleneck that controls the descent into the Barepat Valley from the alpine meadows above. The lithic and faunal assemblages show evidence of the production of hunting weapons, the hunting and targeting of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis), and the constitution of animal product reserves. A seasonal occupation of the site was proposed within a model of occupation by Epigravettian hunter-gatherers that involved a search for obsidian resources in high altitude sources from the spring to the summer and settling at Kalavan 1 at the end of summer or during autumn to coincide with the migration of wild herds from the alpine meadows to the valley...
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412573/dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#20
J Godos, F Bella, A Torrisi, S Sciacca, F Galvano, G Grosso
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that dietary patterns may play an important role in colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies exploring the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas (a precancerous condition). METHODS: Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched to retrieve eligible studies. Only studies exploring the risk or association with colorectal adenomas for the highest versus lowest category of exposure to a posteriori dietary patterns were included in the quantitative analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
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