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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742147/from-neandertals-to-modern-humans-new-data-on-the-uluzzian
#1
Paola Villa, Luca Pollarolo, Jacopo Conforti, Fabrizio Marra, Cristian Biagioni, Ilaria Degano, Jeannette J Lucejko, Carlo Tozzi, Massimo Pennacchioni, Giovanni Zanchetta, Cristiano Nicosia, Marco Martini, Emanuela Sibilia, Laura Panzeri
Having thrived in Eurasia for 350,000 years Neandertals disappeared from the record around 40,000-37,000 years ago, after modern humans entered Europe. It was a complex process of population interactions that included cultural exchanges and admixture between Neandertals and dispersing groups of modern humans. In Europe Neandertals are always associated with the Mousterian while the Aurignacian is associated with modern humans only. The onset of the Aurignacian is preceded by "transitional" industries which show some similarities with the Mousterian but also contain modern tool forms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718916/assessing-the-significance-of-palaeolithic-engraved-cortexes-a-case-study-from-the-mousterian-site-of-kiik-koba-crimea
#2
Ana Majkić, Francesco d'Errico, Vadim Stepanchuk
Twenty-Seven Lower and Middle Paleolithic sites from Europe and the Middle East are reported in the literature to have yielded incised stones. At eleven of these sites incisions are present on flint cortexes. Even when it is possible to demonstrate that the engravings are ancient and human made, it is often difficult to distinguish incisions resulting from functional activities such as butchery or use as a cutting board, from those produced deliberately, and even more difficult to identify the scope of the latter...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712867/symbolic-emblems-of-the-levantine-aurignacians-as-a-regional-entity-identifier-hayonim-cave-lower-galilee-israel
#3
José-Miguel Tejero, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Vitaly Gutkin, Rivka Rabinovich
The Levantine Aurignacian is a unique phenomenon in the local Upper Paleolithic sequence, showing greater similarity to the West European classic Aurignacian than to the local Levantine archaeological entities preceding and following it. Herewith we highlight another unique characteristic of this entity, namely, the presence of symbolic objects in the form of notched bones (mostly gazelle scapulae) from the Aurignacian levels of Hayonim Cave, Lower Galilee, Israel. Through both macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the items, we suggest that they are not mere cut marks but rather are intentional (decorative?) human-made markings...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696296/a-heterogeneous-response-of-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-fat-to-the-combination-of-a-paleolithic-diet-and-exercise-in-obese-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Andreas Isaksson, Ingegerd Söderström, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Jón Hauksson, Tommy Olsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity, in a parallel single-blinded randomised controlled trial, comparing Paleolithic diet alone with the combination of Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes with BMI 25-40 kg/m2 and 30-70 years of age followed a Paleolithic diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. In addition, study participants were randomised by computer program to either supervised combined exercise training (PD-EX group) or standard care exercise recommendations (PD group)...
April 26, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686582/medicine-as-a-sacred-vocation
#5
Sister Jane Dominic Laurel
This brief survey examines the concept of medicine as a sacred vocation by examining its origins, manifestations, and development in history. In the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras, the practice of medicine was considered a sacred vocation because, like the practice of religion, it sought to preserve life. Moreover, it involved a specialized knowledge and the power of healing, both of which were associated with the sacred and the divine. In Classical Antiquity, the Hippocratic innovations in medicine used human reason and creativity to study the nature of disease...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668700/chronological-reassessment-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-and-early-upper-paleolithic-cultures-in-cantabrian-spain
#6
Ana B Marín-Arroyo, Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Lawrence G Straus, Jennifer R Jones, Marco de la Rasilla, Manuel R González Morales, Michael Richards, Jesús Altuna, Koro Mariezkurrena, David Ocio
Methodological advances in dating the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition provide a better understanding of the replacement of local Neanderthal populations by Anatomically Modern Humans. Today we know that this replacement was not a single, pan-European event, but rather it took place at different times in different regions. Thus, local conditions could have played a role. Iberia represents a significant macro-region to study this process. Northern Atlantic Spain contains evidence of both Mousterian and Early Upper Paleolithic occupations, although most of them are not properly dated, thus hindering the chances of an adequate interpretation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664998/compatible-ecological-niche-signals-between-biological-and-archaeological-datasets-for-late-surviving-neandertals
#7
Rachael C Bible, A Townsend Peterson
OBJECTIVES: To assess ecological niche similarity for biological and archaeological samples representing late-surviving Neandertals in Europe to evaluate the validity of combining these two types of data in ecological niche modeling analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tests of niche conservatism were used to assess niche similarity and niche identity of samples of morphologically diagnostic Neandertal remains and Middle Paleolithic (MP) archaeological sites dating to the time period leading up to Neandertal extinction...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572504/timing-of-the-saalian-and-elsterian-glacial-cycles-and-the-implications-for-middle-pleistocene-hominin-presence-in-central-europe
#8
Tobias Lauer, Marcel Weiss
By establishing a luminescence-based chronology for fluvial deposits preserved between the Elsterian- and Saalian tills in central Germany, we obtained information on the timing of both the Middle Pleistocene glacial cycles and early human appearance in central Europe. The luminescence ages illustrate different climatic driven fluvial aggradation periods during the Saalian glacial cycle spanning from 400-150 ka. The ages of sediments directly overlying the Elsterian till are approximately 400 ka and prove that the first extensive Fennoscandian ice sheet extension during the Quaternary correlates with MIS 12 and not with MIS 10...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545507/pleistocene-north-african-genomes-link-near-eastern-and-sub-saharan-african-human-populations
#9
Marieke van de Loosdrecht, Abdeljalil Bouzouggar, Louise Humphrey, Cosimo Posth, Nick Barton, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Birgit Nickel, Sarah Nagel, El Hassan Talbi, Mohammed Abdeljalil El Hajraoui, Saaïd Amzazi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Svante Pääbo, Stephan Schiffels, Matthias Meyer, Wolfgang Haak, Choongwon Jeong, Johannes Krause
North Africa is a key region for understanding human history, but the genetic history of its people is largely unknown. We present genomic data from seven 15,000-year-old modern humans from Morocco, attributed to the Iberomaurusian culture. We find a genetic affinity with early Holocene Near Easterners, best represented by Levantine Natufians, suggesting a pre-agricultural connection between Africa and the Near East. We do not find evidence for gene flow from Paleolithic Europeans into Late Pleistocene North Africans...
March 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544620/cross-sectional-properties-of-the-lower-limb-long-bones-in-the-middle-pleistocene-sima-de-los-huesos-sample-sierra-de-atapuerca-spain
#10
Laura Rodríguez, José Miguel Carretero, Rebeca García-González, Juan Luis Arsuaga
The recovery to date of three complete and five partial femora, seven complete tibiae, and four complete fibulae from the Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos site provides an opportunity to analyze the biomechanical cross-sectional properties in this Middle Pleistocene population and to compare them with those of other fossil hominins and recent modern humans. We have performed direct comparisons of the cross-sectional geometric parameters and reduced major axis (RMA) regression lines among different samples. We have determined that Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) fossils have significantly thicker cortices than those of recent modern humans for the three leg bones at all diaphyseal levels, except that of the femur at 35% of biomechanical length...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507889/symbolic-use-of-marine-shells-and-mineral-pigments-by-iberian-neandertals-115-000-years-ago
#11
Dirk L Hoffmann, Diego E Angelucci, Valentín Villaverde, Josefina Zapata, João Zilhão
Cueva de los Aviones (southeast Spain) is a site of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Europe. It has yielded ochred and perforated marine shells, red and yellow colorants, and shell containers that feature residues of complex pigmentatious mixtures. Similar finds from the Middle Stone Age of South Africa have been widely accepted as archaeological proxies for symbolic behavior. U-series dating of the flowstone capping the Cueva de los Aviones deposit shows that the symbolic finds made therein are 115,000 to 120,000 years old and predate the earliest known comparable evidence associated with modern humans by 20,000 to 40,000 years...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501784/impact-of-prolonged-fasting-on-the-risk-of-calcium-phosphate-precipitation-in-the-urine-calcium-phosphate-lithogenesis-during-prolonged-fasting-in-a-healthy-cohort
#12
Mohammad A Shafiee, Mehdi Aarabi, Pouyan Shaker, Amir M Ghafarian, Pouyan Chamanian, Mitchell L Halperin
PURPOSE: Intermittent fasting and curtailing water intake for extended periods were likely common in Paleolithic times. Today it occurs for religious and dietary reasons. This restriction in intake should cause a decrease in the urine flow rate while raising the concentration of certain substances in urine to the point of precipitation. In this study we measured the risk of CaHPO4 precipitation following 18 hours of food and water deprivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples were periodically collected from 15 healthy subjects who fasted and abstained from drinking any liquid for 18 hours...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451892/assessing-site-formation-and-assemblage-integrity-through-stone-tool-refitting-at-gruta-da-oliveira-almonda-karst-system-torres-novas-portugal-a-middle-paleolithic-case-study
#13
Marianne Deschamps, João Zilhão
We use stone tool refitting to assess palimpsest formation and stratigraphic integrity in the basal units of the Gruta da Oliveira archeo-stratigraphic sequence, layers 15-27, which TL and U-series dating places in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 or early MIS 4. As in most karst contexts, the formation of this succession involved multiple and complex phenomena, including subsidence, bioturbation, carnivore activity and runoff as agents of potential post-depositional disturbance. During phases of stabilization, such as represented by layers 15, 21 and 22, the excavated area was inhabited and refits corroborate that post-depositional displacement is negligible...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449566/first-evidence-of-an-extensive-acheulean-large-cutting-tool-accumulation-in-europe-from-porto-maior-galicia-spain
#14
E Méndez-Quintas, M Santonja, A Pérez-González, M Duval, M Demuro, L J Arnold
We describe a European Acheulean site characterised by an extensive accumulation of large cutting tools (LCT). This type of Lower Paleolithic assemblage, with dense LCT accumulations, has only been found on the African continent and in the Near East until now. The identification of a site with large accumulations of LCTs favours the hypothesis of an African origin for the Acheulean of Southwest Europe. The lithic tool-bearing deposits date back to 293-205 thousand years ago. Our chronological findings confirm temporal overlap between sites with clear "African" Acheulean affinities and Early Middle Paleolithic sites found elsewhere in the region...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447762/the-easternmost-middle-paleolithic-mousterian-from-jinsitai-cave-north-china
#15
Feng Li, Steven L Kuhn, Fuyou Chen, Yinghua Wang, John Southon, Fei Peng, Mingchao Shan, Chunxue Wang, Junyi Ge, Xiaomin Wang, Tala Yun, Xing Gao
The dispersal of Neanderthals and their genetic and cultural interactions with anatomically modern humans and other hominin populations in Eurasia are critical issues in human evolution research. Neither Neanderthal fossils nor typical Mousterian assemblages have been reported in East Asia to date. Here we report on artifact assemblages comparable to western Eurasian Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) at Jinsitai, a cave site in North China. The lithic industry at Jinsitai appeared at least 47-42 ka and persisted until around 40-37 ka...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446560/less-of-a-bird-s-song-than-a-hard-rock-ensemble
#16
Robert Hosfield, James Cole, John McNabb
Corbey et al. (2016) propose that the Acheulean handaxe was, at least in part, under genetic control. An alternative perspective is offered here, focusing on the nature of the Acheulean handaxe and the archaeological record, and re-emphasizing their status as cultural artefacts. This is based on four main arguments challenging the proposals of Corbey et al. Firstly, handaxes do not have to track environmental variation to be a cultural artefact, given their role as a hand-held butchery knife or multi-purpose tool...
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394426/history-of-music-therapy-and-its-contemporary-applications-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Maria Rosa Montinari, Simona Giardina, Pierluca Minelli, Sergio Minelli
Contrary to what is commonly believed, music therapy is an old cure, the use of which is lost in the mists of time. Music always has been perceived to have particular healing powers, and the entire history of civilization contains aspects that link music to physical and mental healing. It seems that the adoption of music for therapeutic purposes harks back to a distant past, probably since the Paleolithic period: it was believed that listening to music could affect the behavior of human beings. In later centuries, the concept of "musical organ-tropism" was born and developed, because according to the type of music, one may affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuroendocrine systems...
February 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376123/the-evolution-of-modern-human-brain-shape
#18
Simon Neubauer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz
Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils ( N = 20) from different time periods...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372121/morphology-and-structure-of-homo-erectus-humeri-from-zhoukoudian-locality-1
#19
Song Xing, Kristian J Carlson, Pianpian Wei, Jianing He, Wu Liu
Background: Regional diversity in the morphology of the H. erectus postcranium is not broadly documented, in part, because of the paucity of Asian sites preserving postcranial fossils. Yet, such an understanding of the initial hominin taxon to spread throughout multiple regions of the world is fundamental to documenting the adaptive responses to selective forces operating during this period of human evolution. Methods: The current study reports the first humeral rigidity and strength properties of East Asian H...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359455/ancient-and-recent-middle-eastern-maternal-genetic-contribution-to-north-africa-as-viewed-by-mtdna-diversity-in-tunisian-arab-populations
#20
Sarra Elkamel, Sami Boussetta, Houssein Khodjet-El-Khil, Amel Benammar Elgaaied, Lotfi Cherni
OBJECTIVES: Through previous mitochondrial DNA studies, the Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations appears limited. In fact, most of the studied communities were cosmopolitan, or of Berber or Andalusian origin. To provide genetic evidence for the actual contribution of Middle Eastern mtDNA lineages to Tunisia, we focused on two Arab speaking populations from Kairouan and Wesletia known to belong to an Arab genealogical lineage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 114 samples were sequenced for the mtDNA HVS-I and HVS-II regions...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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