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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331230/lower-limb-articular-scaling-and-body-mass-estimation-in-pliocene-and-pleistocene-hominins
#1
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Nicole Squyres, Juho-Antti Junno, Erik Trinkaus
Previous attempts to estimate body mass in pre-Holocene hominins have relied on prediction equations derived from relatively limited extant samples. Here we derive new equations to predict body mass from femoral head breadth and proximal tibial plateau breadth based on a large and diverse sample of modern humans (avoiding the problems associated with using diaphyseal dimensions and/or cadaveric reference samples). In addition, an adjustment for the relatively small femoral heads of non-Homo taxa is developed based on observed differences in hip to knee joint scaling...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320401/mediterranean-diet-and-other-dietary-patterns-in-primary-prevention-of-heart-failure-and-changes-in-cardiac-function-markers-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida, Stefanny Ronchi Spillere, Priccila Zuchinali, Gabriela Corrêa Souza
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies that support the protective effect of these diets, their effects on the prevention of HF are not clear yet. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that examined dietary patterns, such as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet), paleolithic, vegetarian, low-carb and low-fat diets and prevention of HF...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241749/acne-vulgaris-the-metabolic-syndrome-of-the-pilosebaceous-follicle
#3
Bodo C Melnik
Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory disease of the human sebaceous follicle and represents the most common skin disease affecting about 85% of adolescents in Westernized populations. Acne vulgaris is primarily a disease of wealthy countries and exhibits higher prevalence rates in developed compared with developing countries. No acne has been found in non-Westernized populations still living under Paleolithic dietary conditions constraining hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk, and dairy products. The high prevalence rates of adolescent acne cannot be explained by the predominance of genetic factors but by the influence of a Western diet that overstimulates the key conductor of metabolism, the nutrient- and growth factor-sensitive kinase mTORC1...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225658/intraspecific-eye-color-variability-in-birds-and-mammals-a-recent-evolutionary-event-exclusive-to-humans-and-domestic-animals
#4
Juan J Negro, M Carmen Blázquez, Ismael Galván
Background: Human populations and breeds of domestic animals are composed of individuals with a multiplicity of eye (= iris) colorations. Some wild birds and mammals may have intraspecific eye color variability, but this variation seems to be due to the developmental stage of the individual, its breeding status, and/or sexual dimorphism. In other words, eye colour tends to be a species-specific trait in wild animals, and the exceptions are species in which individuals of the same age group or gender all develop the same eye colour...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190669/the-performance-of-tranchet-blows-at-the-late-middle-paleolithic-site-of-grotte-de-la-verpilli%C3%A3-re-i-sa%C3%A3-ne-et-loire-france
#5
Jens Axel Frick, Klaus Herkert, Christian Thomas Hoyer, Harald Floss
This paper focuses on the technological characteristics of Keilmesser with a lateral tranchet blow modification on the cutting edge. It examines the underlying technological production of these bifacial objects: this implies the evaluation of their working stage succession, as well as produced forms necessary for the execution of tranchet blow performance. Furthermore, it offers a techno-morphological description of these enigmatic tools. The Keilmesser with tranchet blow and corresponding blanks of tranchet blows from Grotte de la Verpillière I in Germolles (Saône-et-Loire, France) are used as case study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188235/precise-dating-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-murcia-spain-supports-late-neandertal-persistence-in-iberia
#6
João Zilhão, Daniela Anesin, Thierry Aubry, Ernestina Badal, Dan Cabanes, Martin Kehl, Nicole Klasen, Armando Lucena, Ignacio Martín-Lerma, Susana Martínez, Henrique Matias, Davide Susini, Peter Steier, Eva Maria Wild, Diego E Angelucci, Valentín Villaverde, Josefina Zapata
The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain). At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173519/diet-as-a-therapeutic-option-for-adult-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Samir Kakodkar, Ece A Mutlu
There are many mechanisms to explain how food may drive and ameliorate inflammation. Although there are no consistent macronutrient associations inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development, many exclusion diets have been described: IgG-4 guided exclusion diet; semivegetarian diet; low-fat, fiber-limited exclusion diet; Paleolithic diet; Maker's diet; vegan diet; Life without Bread diet; exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) and the low FODMAP diet. The literature on diet and IBD is reviewed with a particular focus on EEN, SCD, and low FODMAP diets...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152566/radiocarbon-chronology-of-manot-cave-israel-and-upper-paleolithic-dispersals
#8
Bridget Alex, Omry Barzilai, Israel Hershkovitz, Ofer Marder, Francesco Berna, Valentina Caracuta, Talia Abulafia, Lauren Davis, Mae Goder-Goldberger, Ron Lavi, Eugenia Mintz, Lior Regev, Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer, José-Miguel Tejero, Reuven Yeshurun, Avner Ayalon, Mira Bar-Matthews, Gal Yasur, Amos Frumkin, Bruce Latimer, Mark G Hans, Elisabetta Boaretto
The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097532/paleolithic-networking
#9
COMMENT
Anders Bergström, Chris Tyler-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075849/decreased-lipogenesis-promoting-factors-in-adipose-tissue-in-postmenopausal-women-with-overweight-on-a-paleolithic-type-diet
#10
Caroline Blomquist, Elin Chorell, Mats Ryberg, Caroline Mellberg, Evelina Worrsjö, Elena Makoveichuk, Christel Larsson, Bernt Lindahl, Gunilla Olivecrona, Tommy Olsson
PURPOSE: We studied effects of diet-induced postmenopausal weight loss on gene expression and activity of proteins involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. METHODS: Fifty-eight postmenopausal women with overweight (BMI 32.5 ± 5.5) were randomized to eat an ad libitum Paleolithic-type diet (PD) aiming for a high intake of protein and unsaturated fatty acids or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Anthropometry, plasma adipokines, gene expression of proteins involved in fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in SAT were measured at baseline and after 6 months...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068047/a-multivariate-assessment-of-the-dali-hominin-cranium-from-china-morphological-affinities-and-implications-for-pleistocene-evolution-in-east-asia
#11
Sheela Athreya, Xinzhi Wu
OBJECTIVES: A nearly complete hominin fossil cranium from Dali in Shaanxi Province, China was excavated in 1978. We update and expand on previous research by providing a multivariate analysis of the specimen relative to a large sample of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We apply principal components analysis, discriminant function analysis, and a method of assessing group membership based on a soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) to the study of Dali's cranial morphology...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054166/3d-enamel-thickness-in-neandertal-and-modern-human-permanent-canines
#12
Laura Buti, Adeline Le Cabec, Daniele Panetta, Maria Tripodi, Piero A Salvadori, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Robin N M Feeney, Stefano Benazzi
Enamel thickness figures prominently in studies of human evolution, particularly for taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleodietary reconstruction. Attention has focused on molar teeth, through the use of advanced imaging technologies and novel protocols. Despite the important results achieved thus far, further work is needed to investigate all tooth classes. We apply a recent approach developed for anterior teeth to investigate the 3D enamel thickness of Neandertal and modern human (MH) canines. In terms of crown size, the values obtained for both upper and lower unworn/slightly worn canines are significantly greater in Neandertals than in Upper Paleolithic and recent MH...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053710/early-levallois-and-the-beginning-of-the-middle-paleolithic-in-central-italy
#13
Sylvain Soriano, Paola Villa
In the second half of the 19th century Pleistocene faunas were discovered in two sites, Sedia del Diavolo and Monte delle Gioie, contained in deposits of the Aniene River in the area of Rome (Latium, Italy). Fieldwork by A.C. Blanc in the late 1930's proved the association of fauna and lithic industry within fluvial deposits interbedded with volcanoclastic layers. A human femoral diaphysis and a metatarsal were later identified in the faunal assemblage from Sedia del Diavolo and evaluated as Neandertal. The lithic assemblages from these two sites were the basis of the definition of the Protopontinian by M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038900/correction-to-dietary-interventions-and-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Ghadah Altowaijri, Allison Fryman, Vijayshree Yadav
The original version of this article contains an error in the second sentence of the second paragraph of the Paleolithic Diet section.
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037417/establishment-of-occupation-chronicles-in-grotte-mandrin-using-sooted-concretions-rethinking-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#15
Ségolène Vandevelde, Jacques Élie Brochier, Christophe Petit, Ludovic Slimak
Soot marks, witnesses of past human activities, can sometimes be noticed in concretions (speleothem, travertine, carbonated crust, etc.) formed in cavities. We demonstrate here that these deposits, generally ignored in archaeological studies, turned out to be a perfectly suitable material for micro-chronological study of hominin activities in a site. At the Grotte Mandrin (Mediterranean France), thousands of clastic fragments from the rock walls were found in every archaeological level of the shelter. Calcareous crusts containing soot deposits are recorded on some of their surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033327/40-000-year-old-individual-from-asia-provides-insight-into-early-population-structure-in-eurasia
#16
Melinda A Yang, Xing Gao, Christoph Theunert, Haowen Tong, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso, Qiaomei Fu
By at least 45,000 years before present, anatomically modern humans had spread across Eurasia [1-3], but it is not well known how diverse these early populations were and whether they contributed substantially to later people or represent early modern human expansions into Eurasia that left no surviving descendants today. Analyses of genome-wide data from several ancient individuals from Western Eurasia and Siberia have shown that some of these individuals have relationships to present-day Europeans [4, 5] while others did not contribute to present-day Eurasian populations [3, 6]...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982795/ancient-genomes-show-social-and-reproductive-behavior-of-early-upper-paleolithic-foragers
#17
Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Vitor C Sousa, Anders Albrechtsen, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Amy Ko, Simon Rasmussen, Isabelle Dupanloup, Philip R Nigst, Marjolein D Bosch, Gabriel Renaud, Morten E Allentoft, Ashot Margaryan, Sergey V Vasilyev, Elizaveta V Veselovskaya, Svetlana B Borutskaya, Thibaut Deviese, Dan Comeskey, Tom Higham, Andrea Manica, Robert Foley, David J Meltzer, Rasmus Nielsen, Laurent Excoffier, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Ludovic Orlando, Eske Willerslev
Present-day hunter-gatherers (HGs) live in multilevel social groups essential to sustain a population structure characterized by limited levels of within-band relatedness and inbreeding. When these wider social networks evolved among HGs is unknown. To investigate whether the contemporary HG strategy was already present in the Upper Paleolithic, we used complete genome sequences from Sunghir, a site dated to ~34,000 years before the present, containing multiple anatomically modern human individuals. We show that individuals at Sunghir derive from a population of small effective size, with limited kinship and levels of inbreeding similar to HG populations...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935946/population-resequencing-of-european-mitochondrial-genomes-highlights-sex-bias-in-bronze-age-demographic-expansions
#18
Chiara Batini, Pille Hallast, Åshild J Vågene, Daniel Zadik, Heidi A Eriksen, Horolma Pamjav, Antti Sajantila, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Interpretations of genetic data concerning the prehistory of Europe have long been a subject of great debate, but increasing amounts of ancient and modern DNA data are now providing new and more informative evidence. Y-chromosome resequencing studies in Europe have highlighted the prevalence of recent expansions of male lineages, and focused interest on the Bronze Age as a period of cultural and demographic change. These findings contrast with phylogeographic studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which have been interpreted as supporting expansions from glacial refugia...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901333/a-paleolithic-type-diet-results-in-iodine-deficiency-a-2-year-randomized-trial-in-postmenopausal-obese-women
#19
S Manousou, M Stål, C Larsson, C Mellberg, B Lindahl, R Eggertsen, L Hulthén, T Olsson, M Ryberg, S Sandberg, H F Nyström
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874524/direct-dating-of-neanderthal-remains-from-the-site-of-vindija-cave-and-implications-for-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#20
Thibaut Devièse, Ivor Karavanić, Daniel Comeskey, Cara Kubiak, Petra Korlević, Mateja Hajdinjak, Siniša Radović, Noemi Procopio, Michael Buckley, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000-29,000 B.P. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B.P. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC). This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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