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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735528/lipids-evergreen-autofluorescent-biomarkers-for-the-liver-functional-profiling
#1
Anna Cleta Croce, Giovanni Bottiroli
Depending on their chemical nature, lipids can be classified in two main categories: hydrophilic, greatly contributing to membrane composition and subcellular organelle compartmentalization, and hydrophobic, mostly triglycerides, greatly enrolled in the storage and production of energy. In both cases, some lipid molecules can be involved as signaling agents in the regulation of metabolism and protective or damaging pathways in responses to harmful stimuli. These events could affect in particular the liver, because of its central role in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735527/fibroblast-activating-protein-%C3%AE-expression-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus-in-primary-and-irradiated-tumors-the-use-of-archival-ffpe-material-for-molecular-techniques
#2
Renata Tabola, Magdalena Zaremba-Czogalla, Dagmara Baczynska, Roberto Cirocchi, Kamila Stach, Krzysztof Grabowski, Katarzyna Augoff
There are numerous reports suggesting that fibroblast activating protein-α (FAP-α) plays an important role in invasion of various tumor types. We studied the expression pattern of FAP-α in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who had not been treated primarily and those who had received neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. Our goal was to establish whether readily available tissue specimens fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks for years might still be a source of FAP-α RNA for PCR analysis...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735521/myd88-erk-nfkb%C3%A2-pathways-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-release-in-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-stimulated-by-porphyromonas%C3%A2-gingivalis
#3
Francesca Diomede, Maria Zingariello, Marcos F X B Cavalcanti, Ilaria Merciaro, Jacopo Pizzicannella, Natalia De Isla, Sergio Caputi, Patrizia Ballerini, Oriana Trubiani
The present study was aimed at investigating whether human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) were capable of sensing and reacting to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-G) which is widely recognized as a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. At this purpose hPDLCs were stimulated with 5 μg/mL LPS-G various times and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was evaluated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immune signaling in response to microbial infections, and in particular TLR4, type-I transmembrane proteins, has been shown recognizing LPS-G...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735518/the-possible-prognostic-role-of-histone-deacetylase-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-in-high-grade-gliomas-treated-by-radio-chemotherapy-a-preliminary-immunohistochemical-study
#4
Roberta Sferra, Simona Pompili, Claudio Festuccia, Francesco Marampon, Giovanni L Gravina, Luca Ventura, Ernesto Di Cesare, Sara Cicchinelli, Eugenio Gaudio, Antonella Vetuschi
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735509/diagnostic-utility-of-automated-surefish-dako-omnis-in-the-diagnosis-of-musculoskeletal-translocation-related-sarcomas
#5
Shintaro Sugita, Tomoyuki Aoyama, Yoshimasa Ito, Hiroko Asanuma, Taro Sugawara, Keiko Segawa, Yumika Ito, Noriaki Kikuchi, Mitsuhiro Tsujiwaki, Hiromi Fujita, Yusuke Ono, Tadashi Hasegawa
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an essential tool for genetic diagnosis in daily pathological work. Almost full automation of FISH can be achieved with the recently released automated SureFISH platform (Dako Omnis, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Its utility has been reported in HER2 amplification of breast and gastric carcinoma and ALK-rearranged lung cancer. Here, we examined the utility of automated SureFISH for the identification of rearrangement signals in translocation-related sarcomas (TRSs), including 11 EWSR1-rearranged and 10 synovial sarcoma cases, compared with non-automated conventional FISH using the same specimens...
July 22, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735504/low-genetic-diversity-and-functional-constraint-of-mirna-genes-participating-pollen-pistil-interaction-in-rice
#6
Kun Wang, Xin Wang, Ming Li, Tao Shi, Pingfang Yang
In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the expression and evolution of rice miRNA genes participating pollen-pistil interaction that is crucial to rice yield. Pollen-pistil interaction is an essential reproductive process for all flowering plants. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are important noncoding small RNAs that regulate mRNA levels in eukaryotic cells, there is little knowledge about which miRNAs involved in the early stages of pollen-pistil interaction in rice and how they evolve under this conserved process...
July 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735495/neuroanatomical-and-resting-state-eeg-power-correlates-of-central-hearing-loss-in-older-adults
#7
Nathalie Giroud, Sarah Hirsiger, Raphaela Muri, Andrea Kegel, Norbert Dillier, Martin Meyer
To gain more insight into central hearing loss, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness and surface area, speech-relevant resting state EEG power, and above-threshold auditory measures in older adults and younger controls. Twenty-three older adults and 13 younger controls were tested with an adaptive auditory test battery to measure not only traditional pure-tone thresholds, but also above individual thresholds of temporal and spectral processing. The participants' speech recognition in noise (SiN) was evaluated, and a T1-weighted MRI image obtained for each participant...
July 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735458/the-efficacy-of-lapatinib-and-nilotinib-in-combination-with-radiation-therapy-in-a-model-of-nf2-associated-peripheral-schwannoma
#8
Iddo Paldor, Sara Abbadi, Nicolas Bonne, Xiaobu Ye, Fausto J Rodriguez, David Rowshanshad, MariaLisa Itzoe, Veronica Vigilar, Marco Giovannini, Henry Brem, Jaishri O Blakeley, Betty M Tyler
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), a neurogenetic condition manifest by peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) throughout the neuroaxis for which there are no approved therapies. In vitro and in vivo studies presented here examine agents targeting signaling pathways, angiogenesis, and DNA repair mechanisms. In vitro dose response assays demonstrated potent activity of lapatinib and nilotinib against the mouse schwannoma SC4 (Nf2 (-/-)) cell line. We then examined the efficacy of everolimus, nilotinib, lapatinib, bevacizumab and radiation (RT) as mono- and combination therapies in flank and sciatic nerve in vivo NF2-PNST models...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735452/characterization-of-polymeric-substance-classes-in-cereal-based-beverages-using-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation-with-a-multi-detection-system
#9
Georg Krebs, Thomas Becker, Martina Gastl
Cereal-based beverages contain a complex mixture of various polymeric macromolecules including polysaccharides, peptides, and polyphenols. The molar mass of polymers and their degradation products affect different technological and especially sensory parameters of beverages. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractive index detection (dRI) or UV detection (UV) is a technique for structure and molar mass distribution analysis of macromolecules commonly used for pure compound solutions...
July 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735448/inhibitory-effects-of-andrographolide-on-activated-macrophages-and-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#10
Swati Gupta, Kamla Prasad Mishra, Shashi Bala Singh, Lilly Ganju
Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plant Andrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied...
July 22, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735443/retinoic-acid-regulates-avian-lung-branching-through-a-molecular-network
#11
Hugo Fernandes-Silva, Patrícia Vaz-Cunha, Violina Baranauskaite Barbosa, Carla Silva-Gonçalves, Jorge Correia-Pinto, Rute Silva Moura
Retinoic acid (RA) is of major importance during vertebrate embryonic development and its levels need to be strictly regulated otherwise congenital malformations will develop. Through the action of specific nuclear receptors, named RAR/RXR, RA regulates the expression of genes that eventually influence proliferation and tissue patterning. RA has been described as crucial for different stages of mammalian lung morphogenesis, and as part of a complex molecular network that contributes to precise organogenesis; nonetheless, nothing is known about its role in avian lung development...
July 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735414/bone-mechanobiology-in-mice-toward-single-cell-in-vivo-mechanomics
#12
Ariane Scheuren, Esther Wehrle, Felicitas Flohr, Ralph Müller
Mechanically driven bone (re)modeling is a multiscale process mediated through complex interactions between multiple cell types and their microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanisms of how cells respond to mechanical signals are still unclear and are at the focus of the field of bone mechanobiology. Traditionally, this complex process has been addressed by reducing the system to single scales and cell types. It is only recently that more integrative approaches have been established to study bone mechanobiology across multiple scales in which mechanical load at the organ level is related to molecular responses at the cellular level...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735399/probing-posttranslational-redox-modifications
#13
Patrick Treffon, Michael Liebthal, Wilena Telman, Karl-Josef Dietz
Reactive molecular species (RMS) can damage DNA, lipids, and proteins but as signaling molecules they also affect the regulatory state of the cell. RMS consist of reactive oxygen (ROS), nitrogen (RNS), and carbonyl species (RCS). Besides their potentially destructive nature, RMS are able to modify proteins at the posttranslational level, resulting in regulation of structure, activity, interaction as well as localization. This chapter addresses methods to analyze and quantify posttranslational redox modifications in vitro and ex vivo, such as sulfenic acid generation of cysteine residues and oxidative carbonylation of proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735398/phosphoproteomics-analysis-for-probing-plant-stress-tolerance
#14
Christof Rampitsch
Protein phosphorylation is a key signaling mechanism during the plant biotic and abiotic stress response. Signaling cascades communicate between the cell surface, where the stress is perceived, and the nucleus, where a response can be enacted. Many of these signals involve the specific, transient phosphorylation of proteins by kinases, a signal which is usually amplified through cascades. The advent of high-throughput phosphoproteomics, pioneered mainly in yeast and mammalian cells, has made it possible to discover novel phosphorylation events rapidly and efficiently in a data-dependent manner and this has greatly enlarged our understanding of the plant's response to stress...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735393/generation-of-a-stress-inducible-luminescent-arabidopsis-and-its-use-in-genetic-screening-for-stress-responsive-gene-deregulation-mutants
#15
Si-In Yu, Byeong-Ha Lee
In order to understand plant stress tolerance and its application, it is important to identify the signaling components involved in the stress-regulated gene expression. One initial step for this is generation of a stress-inducible luminescent Arabidopsis and its use in genetic mutant screening. Here, we describe how to generate a transgenic Arabidopsis line harboring a single copy of the STABILIZED1 (STA1) promoter-driven luciferase transgene (STA1p-LUC) as an example. STA1 is a pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp6p homolog and is induced by cold and heat stresses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735392/mining-and-quantifying-in-vivo-molecular-interactions-in-abiotic-stress-acclimation
#16
Thorsten Seidel, Derya Kirasi
Stress acclimation is initialized by sensing the stressor, transducing the signal, and inducing the response. In particular, the signal transduction is driven by protein-protein interactions and the response might involve de novo complex formation, shifts in subcellular localization and, thus, transportation that is mediated by other proteins. The investigation of protein-protein interactions and their regulation upon abiotic stress is crucial for a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms. FRET measurements by sensitized emission allow for the analysis of protein-protein interactions in real time and have a high potential to provide new insights into the regulation of protein-protein interaction with respect to subcellular localization and time...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735390/the-role-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-plant-stress-tolerance
#17
Yuepeng Song, Deqiang Zhang
Plants must adapt to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses ; thus, sensing and responding to environmental signals is imperative for their survival. Moreover, understanding these responses is imperative for efforts to improve plant yield and consistency. Regulation of transcript levels is a key aspect of the plant response to environmental signals. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years with the advance of high-throughput sequencing technologies. As important biological regulators, lncRNAs have been implicated in a wide range of developmental processes and diseases in animals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735389/the-fundamental-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-plant-stress-response
#18
Michael Liebthal, Karl-Josef Dietz
Chemical, physical, and biotic factors continuously vary in the natural environment. Such parameters are considered as stressors if the magnitude of their change exceeds the current acclimation norm of the plant. Activation of genetic programs allows for conditional expansion of the acclimation norm and depends on specific sensing mechanisms, intracellular communication, and regulation. The redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network plays a fundamental role in directing the acclimation response. These highly reactive compounds like H2O2 are generated and scavenged under normal conditions and participate in realizing a basal acclimation level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735388/epigenetics-and-rna-processing-connections-to-drought-salt-and-aba
#19
Min May Wong, Geeng Loo Chong, Paul E Verslues
There have been great research advances in epigenetics, RNA splicing, and mRNA processing over recent years. In parallel, there have been many advances in abiotic stress and Abscisic Acid (ABA) signaling. Here we overview studies that have examined stress-induced changes in the epigenome and RNA processing as well as cases where disrupting these processes changes the plant response to abiotic stress. We also highlight some examples where specific connections of stress or ABA signaling to epigenetics or RNA processing have been found...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735374/changes-in-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-women-following-obesity-surgery-bypass
#20
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Natalia Yumi Noronha, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Bruno Affonso Parente de Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Vitor Caressato Pinhanelli, Wilson Salgado Junior, Ana Julia Machry, Wilson Araújo da Silva Junior, Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza, Júlio Sérgio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
BACKGROUND: Differential gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is poorly characterized. Markers of these processes may provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these events. The main goal of this study was to identify changes in PBMC gene expression in women with obesity before and 6 months after RYGB-induced weight loss. METHODS: The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of PBMCs from 13 obese women was analyzed before and 6 months after RYGB; the RNA of PBMCs from nine healthy women served as control...
July 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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