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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245136/small-maf-functions-in-the-maintenance-of-germline-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-testis
#1
Sharon Wui Sing Tan, George W Yip, Toshio Suda, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts generated during normal cellular metabolism, and redox states have been shown to influence stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment across phyla. However, the downstream effectors of ROS signaling that control stem cell behavior remain largely unexplored. Here, we used the Drosophila testis as an in vivo model to identify ROS-induced effectors that are involved in the differentiation process of germline stem cells (GSCs). In the Affymetrix microarray analysis, 152 genes were either upregulated or downregulated during GSC differentiation induced by elevated levels of ROS, and a follow-up validation of the gene expression by qRT-PCR showed a Spearman's rho of 0...
December 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245132/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-response-to-pb-exposure-in-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#2
Chao Huang, Rongzhong Wang, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Cui Lai, Jiachao Zhang, Zhihua Xiao, Jia Wan, Piao Xu, Xiaomin Gong, Wenjing Xue, Xiaoya Ren
Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. Using white-rot fungi as biosorbents for heavy metals removal is an attractive alternative owing to its good performance and low cost. However, the molecular mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance in white-rot fungi has not yet been fully elucidated. This study identified and analyzed the lead (Pb)-induced transcriptional changes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a well-known heavy metal hyperaccumulating white-rot fungus. The results confirmed its outstanding ability in Pb tolerance and effective defense system...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245127/exogenous-allantoin-increases-arabidopsis-seedlings-tolerance-to-nacl-stress-and-regulates-expression-of-oxidative-stress-response-genes
#3
Solmaz Irani, Christopher D Todd
Allantoin is a nitrogenous compound derived from purine catabolism that contributes to nitrogen recycling in plants. Accumulation of allantoin in plant tissues and a potential role in protection of plants from abiotic stress conditions has been identified. The present work shows that application of exogenous allantoin increased stress tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings when germinated on, or subjected to the media containing NaCl. Allantoin-induced tolerance to NaCl stress was associated with decreased production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in seedlings...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245119/dceus-based-focal-parametric-perfusion-imaging-of-microvessel-with-single-pixel-resolution-and-high-contrast
#4
Diya Wang, Mengnan Xiao, Hong Hu, Yu Zhang, Zhe Su, Shanshan Xu, Yujin Zong, Mingxi Wan
This study aimed to develop a focal microvascular contrast-enhanced ultrasonic parametric perfusion imaging (PPI) scheme to overcome the tradeoff between the resolution, contrast, and accuracy of focal PPI in the tumor. Its resolution was limited by the low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of time-intensity-curves (TICs) induced by multiple limitations, which deteriorated the accuracy and contrast of focal PPI. The scheme was verified by the in-vivo perfusion experiments. Single-pixel TICs were first extracted to ensure PPI with the highest resolution...
December 2, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245117/gold-nanoflowers-synthesized-using-acanthopanacis-cortex-extract-inhibit-inflammatory-mediators-in-lps-induced-raw264-7-macrophages-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-pathways
#5
Sungeun Ahn, Priyanka Singh, Mi Jang, Yu-Jin Kim, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Shakina Yesmin Simu, Yeon Ju Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
We reported the rapid synthesis (<8s) of gold nanoparticles at room temperature using Acanthopanacis cortex extract (A-AuNPs). We characterized the A-AuNPs using several analytical techniques and found that nano-flower type A-AuNPs, which are known to possess a coarse surface with a high surface to volume ratio, conferring these particles with high binding capacity for various biological molecules. After confirming the stability of the nanoparticles, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of A-AuNPs in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
November 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245075/evidence-of-coexisting-microemulsion-droplets-in-oil-in-water-emulsions-revealed-by-2d-dosy-1h-nmr
#6
Tarek S Awad, Dalal Asker, Laurence S Romsted
Optimizing the macroscopic properties, shelf-life and stability of emulsion products requires a better understanding of the microstructural characteristics such as the type (nano, micro and macro) and the relative distribution of components (i.e., oil and surfactant) within the emulsion droplets. We used Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY NMR) to evaluate these characteristics in model oil-in-water emulsion containing Tween 80 and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). At low MCT concentrations, the solutions were transparent but from 1 to 5 wt% MCT, they became translucent then opaque...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245072/phloretin-attenuates-mucus-hypersecretion-and-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoke
#7
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245068/overexpression-of-microrna-375-impedes-platelet-derived-growth-factor-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-fetal-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-janus-kinase-2
#8
Yamei Ji, Xin Yang, Huixia Su
The abnormal proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells play a critical role in airway remodeling during the development of asthma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of ASM cell proliferation and migration in airway remodeling. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-375 in the regulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced fetal ASM cell proliferation and migration. Our results showed that miR-375 expression was significantly decreased in fetal ASM cells that were treated with PDGF...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245067/lin28a-functionally-modulates-bupivacaine-induced-dorsal-root-ganglion-neuron-apoptosis-through-trka-activation
#9
Liangsheng Yu, Yuanxu Jiang, Bin Tang
PURPOSE: Lin-28 Homolog A gene (Lin28a) is an important regulator in nerve system. In this study, we investigated the functional mechanism of Lin28a during the process of bupivacaine (BUP)-induced neuronal apoptosis of spinal cord dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). METHODS: Young mouse DRGNs were cultured in vitro and treated with series concentrations of BUP. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Corresponding Lin28a mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot (WB) assays...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245051/magnesium-phosphate-ceramics-incorporating-a-novel-indene-compound-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-bone-regeneration-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Ju Ang Kim, Hui-Suk Yun, Young-Ae Choi, Jung-Eun Kim, So-Young Choi, Tae-Geon Kwon, Young Kyung Kim, Tae-Yub Kwon, Myung Ae Bae, Nak Jeong Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Hong-In Shin, Eui Kyun Park
Incorporating bioactive molecules into synthetic ceramic scaffolds is challenging. In this study, to enhance bone regeneration, a magnesium phosphate (MgP) ceramic scaffold was incorporated with a novel indene compound, KR-34893. KR-34893 induced the deposition of minerals and expression of osteoblast marker genes in primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and a mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. Analysis of the mode of action showed that KR-34893 induced the phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and subsequently the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7, accompanied by SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation...
December 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245047/polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic-acid-facilitates-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-8-secretion-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-via-the-jak-stat3-and-p38-mapk-signal-transduction-pathways
#11
Zhang Ying Zhu, Cong Zhuo Jia, Jian Min Luo, Li Wang
Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) is a viral dsRNA analoguethat promotes wounds healing, accelerates re-epithelialization, granulation and neovascularization, and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Little is known about polyI:C mediated induction of inflammatory mediators in human dermal fibroblast (HDFs), which form the primary scaffold for epithelial cells covering the wound. Here, we found that polyI:C enhances IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and induces of IL-6 and IL-8 production in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner in HDFs...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245030/osmotin-a-plant-defense-tool-against-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#12
REVIEW
Hakim, Abid Ullah, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Shaban, Aamir Hamid Khan, Muna Alariqi, Summia Gul, Zhang Jun, Sun Lin, Jianying Li, Shuangxia Jin, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis
Plants are prone to a number of pathogens and abiotic stresses that cause various disorders. However, plants possess a defense mechanism to cope with these stresses. The osmotin protein belongs to the PR-5 family of Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, which are produced in response to diseases caused by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Osmotin uses a signal transduction pathway to inhibit the activity of defensive cell wall barriers and increases its own cytotoxic efficiency. However, in response to cytotoxic effects, this pathway stimulates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers changes in the cell wall and enables osmotin's entrance into the plasma membrane...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245018/regulation-of-mavs-activation-through-post-translational-modifications
#13
REVIEW
Bingyu Liu, Chengjiang Gao
RLRs (including RIG-I and MDA5) are the main receptors that recognize cytoplasmic viral RNA. Upon binding of viral RNA, RIG-I and MDA5 recruit mitochondria-localized MAVS to activate the downstream antiviral signaling. MAVS forms prion-like aggregates on the mitochondria after virus infection. The regulatory mechanisms for MAVS activation have been defined in various studies. Here, we summarize the recent advances about MAVS roles in antiviral immunity, discuss the regulation of MAVS activation, and suggest interesting areas for future research...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245015/snapshot-abscisic-acid-signaling
#14
Felix Hauser, Zixing Li, Rainer Waadt, Julian I Schroeder
Abscisic acid is a key phytohormone produced in response to abiotic stress conditions and is an activator of abiotic stress resistance mechanisms and a regulator during diverse developmental stages in plants. This SnapShot explores how ABA signaling operates and coordinates resistance during stress responses and modulates plant development.
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244975/review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-wound-healing-new-therapeutic-targets
#15
B Palmieri, M Vadalà, C Laurino
The restoration of the skin barrier in acute and chronic wounds is controlled by several molecular mechanisms that synergistically regulate cell kinetics, enzymatic functions, and neurovascular activation. These pathways include genetic and epigenetic activation, which modulate physiological wound healing. Our review describes the genetic background of skin repair, namely transcription-independent diffusible damage signals, individual variability, epigenetic mechanism, controlled qualitative traits, post-translational mechanisms, antioxidants, nutrients, DNA modifications, bacteria activation, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative stress...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244962/expression-of-the-frizzled-receptors-and-their-co-receptors-in-calcified-human-aortic-valves
#16
Ateeque Siddique, Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Ryan Buyting, Hamood Al-Kindi, Hossny Alaws, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
The cellular mechanisms that induce calcific aortic stenosis are yet to be unravelled. Wnt signaling is increasingly being considered as a major player in the disease process. However, the presence of Wnt Frizzled receptors (Fzd) and co-receptors LRP5 and 6 in normal and diseased human aortic valves remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to determine Fzd receptor expression in normal and calcified human aortic valve tissue, as well as human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) isolated from calcified and normal human aortic valves...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244943/electrical-programming-of-soft-matter-using-temporally-varying-electrical-inputs-to-spatially-control-self-assembly
#17
Kun Yan, Yi Liu, Jitao Zhang, Santiago O Correa, Wu Shang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai, William E Bentley, Jana Shen, Giuliano Scarcelli, Christopher B Raub, Xiao-Wen Shi, Gregory F Payne
The growing importance of hydrogels in translational medicine has stimulated the development of top-down fabrication methods, yet often these methods lack the capabilities to generate the complex matrix architectures observed in biology. Here we show that temporally varying electrical signals can cue a self-assembling polysaccharide to controllably form a hydrogel with complex internal patterns. Evidence from theory and experiment indicate that internal structure emerges through a subtle interplay between: the electrical current which triggers self-assembly; and the electrical potential (or electric field) which recruits and appears to orient the polysaccharide chains at the growing gel front...
December 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244903/dermal-fibroblast-in-cutaneous-development-and-healing
#18
REVIEW
Venkata Thulabandu, Demeng Chen, Radhika P Atit
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering...
December 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244899/spatial-response-of-synthetic-microdiamond-and-diode-detectors-measured-with-kilovoltage-synchrotron-radiation
#19
Duncan J Butler, Toby Beveridge, Joerg Lehmann, Christopher P Oliver, Andrew W Stevenson, Jayde Livingstone
PURPOSE: To map the spatial response of four solid-state radiation detectors of types commonly used for radiotherapy dosimetry. METHODS: PTW model 60016 Diode P, 60017 Diode E, 60018 Diode SRS and 60019 microDiamond detectors were radiographed using a high resolution conventional X-ray system. Their spatial response was then investigated using a 0.1 mm diameter beam of 95 keV average energy photons generated by a synchrotron. The detectors were scanned through the beam while their signal was recorded as a function of position, to map the response...
December 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#20
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
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