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Darpan Chakraborty, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, Hanoch Kaphzan
Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Use of weak direct current stimulation (DCS) allowed isolation and quantification of changes in axon terminal biophysics, relevant to both suprathreshold (e...
June 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
X Y Chen, R X Sun, W Y Zhang, T Liu, Y H Zheng, Y Wu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between M2-polarized macrophages and early response in multiple myeloma and its molecular mechanism. Methods: Two hundred and forty bone marrow biopsy tissue were collected and M2-polarized macrophages were stained by anti-CD163 monoclonal antibody. In vitro M2-polarized macrophages were derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 cells and identified by flow cytometry. Two myeloma cell lines RPMI 8226 and U266 were co-cultured with M2 macrophages using a transwell system...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
M Sh Zoromba
A new (p-toluidine) oligomer (PTO) was facile synthesized and economically routed via chemical oxidative polymerization by potassium dichromate as an initiator in an acidic aqueous medium at room temperature. The characterization of (p-toluidine) oligomer (PTO) has been described by various techniques including Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), UV-Visible measurements, Mass spectra, H NMR, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Solvatochromism of PTO was studied in different polaritiy solvents such as acetic acid, acetone, dimethyl formamide, ethanol, isopropanol, chloroform, p-xylene, dichloromethane and carbon teterachloride...
June 22, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Gimena Pérez-Ortega, Guadalupe Esther Angeles-López, Arturo Argueta-Villamar, María Eva González-Trujano
Morelos State is one of the regions of Mexico where several plant species are used in traditional medicine. Species from Tagetes genus (Asteraceae) are reported as useful in infusion to treat stomachache and intestinal diseases, but also as tranquilizers. In this study, medicinal uses of T. erecta including its depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS) were explored by interviewing healers and merchants of local markets of Morelos State, and by investigation of the phytochemical and pharmacological tranquilizing properties...
June 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tímea Orosz, Nóra Grecsó, Gyula Lajkó, Zsolt Szakonyi, Ferenc Fülöp, Daniel W Armstrong, István Ilisz, Antal Péter
Polar-ionic and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separations of limonene-based cyclic β-amino acid enantiomers were carried out by using macrocyclic glycopeptide-based chiral selectors applying Chirobiotic T, TAG and R columns. The effects of additives, concentration of the co- and counter-ions and the temperature in polar-ionic mobile phase systems were studied. The influence of pH, MeOH content and alcohol additives were investigated in the reversed-phase mode. The difference in the change in standard enthalpy Δ(ΔH°), entropy Δ(ΔS°), and free energy Δ(ΔG°) was calculated from the linear van't Hoff plots derived from the ln α vs 1/T curves in the temperature range 5-40°C...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Daria Ruth Galimberti, Alberto Milani, Matteo Tommasini, Chiara Castiglioni, Marie-Pierre Gaigeot
Four models for the calculation of the IR spectrum of gas phase molecules and clus- ters from molecular dynamics simulations are presented with the aim to reduce the computational cost of the usual Fourier transform (FT) of the time correlation function of the dipole moment. These models are based on the VDOS, FT of time correlation function of velocities, and Atomic Polar Tensors (APT). The models differ from each other by the number of APTs inserted into the velocities correlation function. Excellent accuracy is achieved by the model adopting a weighted linear combination of a few se- lected APTs adapted for the rotation of the molecule (model D)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Yang Xia, Ruyi Fang, Zhen Xiao, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Rongjun Yan, Xianghong Lu, Chu Liang, Jun Zhang, Xinyong Tao, Wenkui Zhang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most attractive candidates for the next-generation energy storage system. However, the intrinsic insulating nature of sulfur and the notorious polysulfide shuttle are the major obstacles, which hinder the commercial application of Li-S battery. Confining sulfur into conductive porous carbon matrices with designed polarized surfaces is regarded as a promising and effective strategy to overcome above issues. Herein, we propose to use microalgaes (Schizochytrium sp.) as low-cost, renewable carbon/nitrogen precursors and biological templates to synthesize N-doped porous carbon microspheres (NPCMs)...
June 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Man Suk Song, Seon Bin Choi, Yong Kim
ZnTe nanotrees and nanowires were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by physical vapor transport. Sn from a fluorine-doped tin oxide layer catalyzed the growth at a growth temperature of 320 ˚C. Both, the stem and branch nanowires, grew along 〈0001〉 in the rarely observed wurtzite structure. SnTe nanostructures were formed in the liquid catalyst and simultaneously ZnTe nanowire grew under Te-limited conditions, which made the formation of the wurtzite structure energetically favorable. Through polarization-dependent and power-dependent micro-photoluminescence measurements from individual wurtzite nanowires at room temperature, we could determine the so far unknown fundamental bandgap of wurtzite ZnTe, which was 2...
June 27, 2017: Nano Letters
Jan B Metternich, Denis Gennadievich Artiukhin, Mareike C Holland, Maximilian von Bremen-Kühne, Johannes Neugebauer, Ryan Gilmour
Iteratively executed with exquisite spatial and temporal control, the selective isomerization of polarized alkenes underpins a plethora of complex biological processes ranging from natural product biosynthesis through to the mammalian visual cycle. However, Nature's proficiency conceals the inherent difficulties in replicating this contra-thermodynamic transformation in the laboratory. Recently, we disclosed the first highly Z-selective isomerization of polarized alkenes, employing the cinnamoyl chromophore as a retinal surrogate under UV-irradiation (402 nm) with (-)-riboflavin (vitamin B2) as an inexpensive, organic photocatalyst (J...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Swagata Roy, Pradip Thakur, Nur Amin Hoque, Biswajoy Bagchi, Nayim Sepay, Farha Khatun, Arpan Kool, Sukhen Das
Herein we report, a simplistic prototype approach to develop an "Organic Photovoltaic Self-charging Energy Storage Cell (OPSESC)" rooted with bio-polymer folic acid (FA) modified high dielectric and electroactive β crystal enriched poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) composite (PFA) thin film. Comprehensive and exhaustive characterizations of the synthesized PFA composite films validate the proper formation of β-polymorphs in PVDF. Significant improvement of both β-phase crystallization (F (β) ~ 71.4%) and dielectric constant (ε ~ 218 at 20 Hz for PFA 7...
June 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiqiang Wan, JinMing Zhang, Jian Yu, Jun Zhang
Cellulose aerogel membranes (CAMs) are proposed as a matrix for gel polymer electrolyte to fabricate lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with superior thermal stability. The CAMs are obtained from a cellulose/ionic liquid solution via a dissolution-regeneration-supercritical drying route. The presence of high porosity, the nanoporous network structure and numerous polar hydroxyl groups benefits the quick absorption of liquid electrolytes for gelation of the CAMs and improves the ionic conductivity of the gelled CAMs...
June 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Thomas, N A Idris, D A Collings
Pontamine fast scarlet 4B is a red paper and textiles dye that has recently been introduced as a fluorescent probe for plant cell walls. Pontamine exhibits bifluorescence, or fluorescence dependent on the polarization of the excitation light: Because cellulose is aligned within the cell wall, pontamine-labelled cell walls exhibit variable fluorescence as the excitation polarization is modulated. Thus, bifluorescence measurements require polarized excitation that can be directly or indirectly modulated. In our confocal microscopy observations of various cellulose samples labelled with pontamine, we modulated excitation polarization either through sample rotation or by the confocal's scanfield rotation function...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Cristian C Villa, Juana J Silber, Ruben Dario Falcone, N Mariano Correa
In this work, the absorption and emission behavior of the cationic hemicyanine trans-4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (HC) in reverse micelles (RMs) formed by the catanionic surfactants: benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium-1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-BHD) and cetyltrimethylammonium-1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-CTA) has been investigated. Our results show that the HC spectroscopic behavior changes when the dye is dissolved in AOT-BHD or in AOT-CTA RMs. While HC undergoes an intramolecular charge-transfer process upon excitation in AOT-CTA RMs, in AOT-BHD RMs this process is inhibited due to a specific interaction between HC and the polar head group of the BHD+ cation...
June 27, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Uzma Azeem Awan, Shaukat Ali, Amna Mir Shahnawaz, Irsa Shafique, Atiya Zafar, Muhammad Abdul Rauf Khan, Tahseen Ghous, Azhar Saleem, Saiqa Andleeb
The spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. Herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Serratia marcesnces by the agar disc diffusion method...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Justin Crest, Alba Diz-Muñoz, Dong-Yuan Chen, Dan A Fletcher, David Bilder
How organ-shaping mechanical imbalances are generated is a central question of morphogenesis, with existing paradigms focusing on asymmetric force generation within cells. We show here that organs can be sculpted instead by patterning anisotropic resistance within their extracellular matrix (ECM). Using direct biophysical measurements of elongating Drosophila egg chambers, we document robust mechanical anisotropy in the ECM-based basement membrane (BM) but not the underlying epithelium. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) on wild-type BM in vivo reveals an A-P symmetric stiffness gradient, which fails to develop in elongation-defective mutants...
June 27, 2017: ELife
Jun Yong Choi, Rita Fuerst, Anna M Knapinska, Alexander B Taylor, Lyndsay Smith, Xiaohang Cao, P John Hart, Gregg B Fields, William R Roush
We describe the use of comparative structural analysis and structure-guided molecular design to develop potent and selective inhibitors (10d and (S)-17b) of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13). We applied a three-step process, starting with a comparative analysis of the X-ray crystallographic structure of compound 5 in complex with MMP-13 with published structures of known MMP-13·inhibitor complexes followed by molecular design and synthesis of potent but nonselective zinc-chelating MMP inhibitors (e.g., 10a and 10b)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mengna Bai, Dandan Lu, Jun Li
For the symmetric reaction OH + H2O → H2O + OH, ∼48 000 data points are sampled and calculated at the level of the explicitly correlated unrestricted coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations with the augmented correlation-consistent polarized triple zeta basis set (CCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ). The data set is then employed to fit the full dimensional accurate potential energy surface (PES) by using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method, resulting in a total root mean square error (RMSE) of 0...
June 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Francisco M Martínez-Santiesteban, Thien Phuoc Dang, Heeseung Lim, Albert P Chen, Timothy J Scholl
In vivo pH mapping in tissue using hyperpolarized hydrogencarbonate-(13) C has been proposed as a method to study tumor growth and treatment and other pathological conditions related to pH changes. The finite spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) of hyperpolarized media are a significant limiting factor for in vivo imaging. Relaxation times can be measured at standard magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3.0 T etc.), but no such data are available at low fields, where T1 values can be significantly shorter. This information is required to determine the potential loss of polarization as the agent is dispensed and transported from the polarizer to the MRI scanner...
June 27, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
Vishnuvardhan Reddy Sultanpuram, Thirumala Mothe, Sasikala Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana Chintalapati
Two novel (14B(T) and 7B) Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from Lonar soda lake, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains 14B(T) and 7B were identified as belonging to the class Firmibacteria and were most closely related to Bacillus halodurans LMG 7121(T) (99.7 and 99.8%, respectively), Bacillus okuhidensis LMG 22468(T) (99.1 and 99.2%, respectively) and other members in the genus Bacillus (<97.0%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness studies indicated that the strains 14B(T) and 7B were distantly related to B...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Sascha Hein, Javier Tapia, Panaghiotis Bazos
Contemporary dental patients present with high expectations and demand seamless optical integration of restorative interventions. As a result, clinicians and technicians are required to develop methodologies that remain practical yet increase the accuracy and objectivity of shade analysis and estimation. There have been significant advances in digital technologies over the past 20 years, with digital photography being at the forefront. Digital photography has made an immediate and profound impact on applied clinical dentistry, primarily due to instantaneous image visualization and distribution...
2017: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
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