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Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Essam Hammam, Jalal Basahi, Iqbal Ismail, Ibrahim Hassan, Talal Almeelbi
The excited state hydrogen bonding dynamics of BBVN in hydrogen donating methanol solvent was explored at the TD-BMK/cc-pVDZ level of theory with accounting for the bulk environment effects at the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The heteroatoms of the BBVN laser dye form hydrogen bonds with four methanol molecules. In the formed BBVN-(MeOH)4 complex, the A-type hydrogen bond (N…HO), of an average strength of 25kJmol(-1), is twofold stronger than the B-type (O…HO) one. Upon photon absorption, the total HB binding energy increases from 78...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Laura Hermosilla, Marcos Caroli Rezende, Vanderlei Gageiro Machado, Rafaela I Stock
The cationic halochromism and thermohalochromism of four phenolate dyes conjugated with aryl moieties substituted with one or two nitro groups were investigated in the presence of organic (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide and benzyltriethylammonium chloride) and inorganic (sodium perchlorate) salts, in hydrogen-bond donating (water, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-propanol) and hydrogen-bond accepting (acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide) solvents. Although a positive halochromic response was observed in water for tetraalkylammonium salts, their thermohalochromic behavior was negligible...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
William Schafer
Nematodes comprise one of the largest phyla in the animal kingdom, both in terms of individual numbers and species diversity. Although only 20,000-30,000 species have been described, it is estimated that the true number ranges between 100,000 and 10 million. Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial species are all widespread, and some nematodes have even been isolated from such inhospitable environments as deserts, hot springs, and polar seas. Some nematode species are parasitic, with either plant or animal hosts; other species are free-living microbivores, scavengers, or predators of insects or other nematodes...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Enrico Condemi, Denis Prim, Rebecca Brönnimann, Jonathan Fusco, Simon Crelier, Olimpia Mamula Steiner, Jean-Manuel Segura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chimia
Ramaz Khomeriki, Levan Chotorlishvili, Igor Tralle, Jamal Berakdar
We uncover and identify the regime for a magnetically and ferroelectrically controllable negative refraction of light traversing multiferroic, oxide-based metastructure consisting of alternating nanoscopic ferroelectric (SrTiO2) and ferromagnetic (Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, YIG) layers. We perform analytical and numerical simulations based on discretized, coupled equations for the self-consistent Maxwell/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic dynamics and obtain a biquadratic relation for the refractive index. Various scenarios of ordinary and negative refraction in different frequency ranges are analyzed and quantified by simple analytical formula that are confirmed by full-fledge numerical simulations...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
Elena Meirzadeh, Liel Sapir, Hagai Cohen, Sidney R Cohen, David Ehre, Daniel Harries, Meir Lahav, Igor Lubomirsky
The riddle of anomalous polar behavior of the centrosymmetric crystal of α-glycine is resolved by the discovery of a polar, several hundred nanometer thick hydrated layer, created at the {010} faces during crystal growth. This layer was detected by two independent pyroelectric analytical methods: (i) periodic temperature change technique (Chynoweth) at ambient conditions and (ii) contactless X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum. The total polarization of the surface layer is extremely large, yielding ≈1 μC·cm(-2), and is preserved in ultrahigh vacuum, but disappears upon heating to 100 °C...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Matthias Wohlgemuth, Roland Mitric
We introduce a general theoretical approach for the simulation of photochemical dynamics under the influence of circularly polarized light in order to explore the possibility of generating enantiomeric enrichment through polarized-light-selective photochemistry. The method is applied to the simulation of the photolysis of alanine, a prototype chiral amino acid. We show that a systematic enantiomeric enrichment can be obtained depending on the helicity of the circularly polarized light that induces the excited state photochemistry of alanine...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Wen Zhang, Fujian Zhao, Deqiu Huang, Xiaoling Fu, Xian Li, Xiaofeng Chen
Host immune response induced by foreign bone biomaterials plays an important role in determining their fate after implantation. Hence, it is well worth designing advanced bone substitute materials with beneficial immunomodulatory properties to modulate the host-material interactions. Bioactive glasses (BG), with excellent osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, are regarded as important biomaterials in the field of bone regeneration. In order to explore a novel BG-based osteoimmunomodulatory implant with the capacity of potentially enhancing bone regeneration, it is a possible way to regulate the local immune microenvironment through manipulating macrophage polarization...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhi Zhu, Nan Sheng, Haiping Fang, Rongzheng Wan
Thermal noise is of fundamental importance to many processes. Traditionally, thermal noise has been treated as white noise on the macroscopic scale. Using molecular dynamics simulations and power spectrum analysis, we show that the thermal noise of solute molecules in water is non-white on the molecular scale, which is in contrast to the conventional theory. In the frequency domain from 2 × 10(11) Hz to 10(13) Hz, the power spectrum of thermal noise for polar solute molecules resembles the spectrum of 1/f noise...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zohar A Arnon, Andreas Vitalis, Aviad Levin, Thomas C T Michaels, Amedeo Caflisch, Tuomas P J Knowles, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Ehud Gazit
The dynamic nature of supramolecular polymers has a key role in their organization. Yet, the manipulation of their dimensions and polarity remains a challenge. Here, the minimalistic diphenylalanine building block was applied to demonstrate control of nano-assemblies growth and shrinkage using microfluidics. To fine-tune differential local environments, peptide nanotubes were confined by micron-scale pillars and subjected to monomer flows of various saturation levels to control assembly and disassembly. The small-volume device allows the rapid adjustment of conditions within the system...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Stephen Douglas Atkinson, Craig Randall Banner
Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14...
October 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
Andrew Palii, Boris Tsukerblat
In this article we consider two coupled tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) units accommodating electron pairs, which play the role of cells in molecular quantum cellular automata. It is supposed that the Coulombic interaction between instantly localized electrons within the cell markedly inhibits the transfer processes between the redox centers. Under this condition, as well as due to the vibronic localization of the electron pair, the cell can encode binary information, which is controlled by neighboring cells...
October 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mariete B Moreira, Camila F N Da Silva, Rafaela B P Pesci, Victor M Deflon, Sofia Nikolaou
We synthesized and characterized a series of oxo-centered carbonyl-triruthenium complexes with the general formula [Ru3O(CH3COO)6(L)2(CO)], where L = 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (dmpz) (1), isonicotinamide (adpy) (2), 4-acetylpyridine (acpy) (3), 3-methylpyridine (3-pic) (4), 4-methylpyridine (4-pic) (5), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-tbpy) (6), 4-(dimethyl)aminopyridine (dmap) (7), or 4-aminopyridine (ampy) (8); we also investigated the photoreactivity of these complexes. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction helped to elucidate the structures of 1·H2O, 7·C2H4Cl2, and 8...
October 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Juliane Krüger, Christian Ehm, Dieter Lentz
Catalytic hydrodefluorination of perfluoroallylbenzene with Cp2TiH in THF is unselective and yields a variety of previously unknown compounds, predominantly activated in the allylic position. Several different mechanisms have been examined in detail using solvent corrected (THF) DFT(M06-2X) calculations for the archetypal perfluorinated olefin perfluoropropene and perfluoroallylbenzene: (a) single electron transfer, (b) hydrometallation/fluoride elimination, (c) σ-bond metathesis (allylic or vinylic), and (d) nucleophilic vinylic substitution (SNV, w/o Ti-F contacts in the TS)...
October 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Claude R Joiris, Karin Boos, Diederik D'Hert, Dominik A Nachtsheim
The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross's gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus...
2016: Scientifica
Habiba O Usman, Carey D Balaban
BACKGROUND: Evidence of serotonergic involvement in vestibular pathway contributions to migraine and balance disorders is compelling. Serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are expressed extensively in inner ear ganglia of monkeys and rats. The serotonergic 5-HT1F receptor is also a target of triptans. This study describes its distribution in vestibular and trigeminal ganglia of monkeys. METHODS: Using primary polyclonal antibodies raised against oligopeptides specific for the human 5-HT1F receptor, neuronal somatic area and intensity of immunoreactive vestibular and trigeminal ganglia were quantified...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Li-Yun Wang, Jian-Hua Yi, Hang-Chao Xu, Xiao-Fang Wu, Dan-Yang Li, Jing Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-selenium diet on the liver and kidneys of rats and explore the role of macrophage polarization into M1 and M2 phenotypes in liver and kidney injuries. METHODS: Twenty-four rats (12 female and 12 male) were randomly divided into control group and low-selenium group and fed with normal chow (dietary selenium of 0.18 mg/kg) and low-selenium diet (dietary selenium of 0.02 mg/kg) for 109 days. After the feeding, the rats were sacrificed for HE staining to observe liver and kidney pathologies, and immunohistochemistry was performed for analyzing CCR7, CD206, CD163-positive cell numbers in the liver and kidneys...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Takashi Yamashita, Yoshihide Asano, Takashi Taniguchi, Kouki Nakamura, Ryosuke Saigusa, Shunsuke Miura, Tetsuo Toyama, Takehiro Takahashi, Yohei Ichimura, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Maria Trojanowska, Shinichi Sato
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem inflammatory and vascular disease resulting in extensive tissue fibrosis. Glycyrrhizin, clinically used for chronic hepatic diseases and itching dermatitis, modulates the pathological processes of inflammation, vasculopathy, and fibrosis in human diseases and their animal models. Therefore, we investigated a potential impact of glycyrrhizin on the key pathological manifestations of SSc, including inflammation, vasculopathy, and tissue fibrosis, with bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice mimicking the fibrotic and inflammatory components of SSc and endothelial cell-specific Fli1 knockout mice recapitulating SSc vasculopathy...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Lauren Platts, Samuel J Darby, Robert J Falconer
The positively charged amino acids are commonly used excipients in biopharmaceutical formulations for stabilization of therapeutic proteins, yet the mechanisms for their modulation of protein stability are poorly understood. In this study, both lysine and histidine are shown to affect the thermal stability of myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme through a combination of mechanisms governed by their respective functional side chains and glycine, similar to arginine. This study provides evidence that at low concentrations, lysine and histidine interact with proteins by a combination of (1) direct electrostatic interactions with negatively charged side chains, (2) possible binding to high-affinity hydrophobic binding sites, and (3) glycine-mediated weak interactions with peptide backbone and polar side chains...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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