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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#1
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923120/long-oskar-controls-mitochondrial-inheritance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Thomas Ryan Hurd, Beate Herrmann, Julia Sauerwald, Justina Sanny, Markus Grosch, Ruth Lehmann
Inherited mtDNA mutations cause severe human disease. In most species, mitochondria are inherited maternally through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Genes that specifically control the inheritance of mitochondria in the germline are unknown. Here, we show that the long isoform of the protein Oskar regulates the maternal inheritance of mitochondria in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that, during oogenesis, mitochondria accumulate at the oocyte posterior, concurrent with the bulk streaming and churning of the oocyte cytoplasm...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922945/staphylococcal-biofilms-and-immune-polarization-during-prosthetic-joint-infection
#3
Casey M Gries, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcal species are a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, where the placement of foreign materials increases infection risk. Indwelling medical devices and prosthetic implants are targets for staphylococcal cell adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm products actively suppress proinflammatory microbicidal responses, as evident by macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. With the rise in prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, together with the recalcitrance of biofilm infections to antibiotic therapy, it is imperative to better understand the mechanism of crosstalk between biofilm-associated bacteria and host immune cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922761/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-integrin-regulates-the-collective-migration-of-epithelial-cells
#4
Zachary T Colburn, Jonathan C R Jones
α6β4 integrin is localized in a unique punctate distribution at the cell-substratum interface along the leading front of single, front-rear polarized, A549 cells. These puncta are interspersed between focal adhesions and lack association with the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of β4 integrin in A549 cells inhibits their directed migration, with knockdown cells exhibiting large focal adhesions and reduced actin dynamics. Despite these changes, the speed of knockdown cells is equivalent to controls cells. Interestingly, in such cells, α6 integrin retains its punctate distribution...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922645/graphene-as-a-photothermal-actuator-for-control-of-lipid-mesophase-structure
#5
Matthew D J Quinn, Tao Wang, Joanne D Du, Ben J Boyd, Adrian Hawley, Shannon M Notley
The optical density of pristine graphene is high and broad in the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum positioning this material as a highly efficient photothermal agent for in vivo applications. In this study, surfactant assisted exfoliated graphene was incorporated within bulk lipid samples of varying lipid types: glyceryl monoether, glyceryl monooleate and phytantriol. The pristine graphene sheets did not disrupt the packing of the liquid crystals while being in sufficiently intimate contact to provide localized heating and induce phase transitions...
December 6, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922132/wideband-helicity-dependent-spoof-surface-plasmon-polaritons-coupling-metasurface-based-on-dispersion-design
#6
Guoxiang Dong, Hongyu Shi, Yuchen He, Anxue Zhang, Xiaoyong Wei, Yongyong Zhuang, Bai Du, Song Xia, Zhuo Xu
The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have many potential application due to their local field enhancement and sub-wavelength characteristics. Recently, the gradient metasurface is introduced to couple the spoof SPPs in microwave frequency band. One of the most important issue which should be solved is the narrowband of spoof SPPs coupling on the gradient metasurface. Here, the metasurface is proposed to achieve the wideband helicity dependent directional spoof SPPs coupling for circular polarized light. Our research show that the coupling frequency of spoof SPPs on the gradient metasurface is determined by the dispersion of the metasurface, so the coupling frequency can be controlled by dispersion design...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922091/an-increased-duplication-of-zrs-region-that-caused-more-than-one-supernumerary-digits-preaxial-polydactyly-in-a-large-chinese-family
#7
Bin Wang, Yutao Diao, Qiji Liu, Hongqiang An, Ruiping Ma, Guosheng Jiang, Nannan Lai, Ziwei Li, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Lin Zhao, Qiang Guo, Zhen Zhang, Rong Sun, Xia Li
Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the presence of one or more supernumerary digits on the thumb side. It had been identified that point mutation or genomic duplications of the long-range limb-specific cis-regulator - zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) cause PPD or other limb deformities such as syndactyly type IV (SD4) and Triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS). Most previously reported cases involved with no more than one extra finger; however, the role of the point mutation or genomic duplications of ZRS in the case of more than one redundant finger polydactyly remains unclear...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922004/annually-resolved-north-atlantic-marine-climate-over-the-last-millennium
#8
D J Reynolds, J D Scourse, P R Halloran, A J Nederbragt, A D Wanamaker, P G Butler, C A Richardson, J Heinemeier, J Eiríksson, K L Knudsen, I R Hall
Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ(18)O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ(18)O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921456/capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry-as-a-tool-for-untargeted-metabolomics
#9
Antonia García, Joanna Godzien, Ángeles López-Gonzálvez, Coral Barbas
Highly polar and ionic metabolites, such as sugars, most amino acids, organic acids or nucleotides are not retained by conventional reversed-phase LC columns and polar stationary phases and hydrophilic-interaction LC lacks of robustness, which is still limiting their applications for untargeted metabolomics where reproducibility is a must. Biological samples such as blood, urine or even tissues include many hydrophilic compounds secreted from cells, their analysis is essential for biomarker discovery, disease progression or treatment effects...
January 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921117/mcp1-triggers-monocyte-dysfunctions-during-abnormal-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#10
Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Jinteng Li, Yuxi Li, Shan Wang, Xiaohua Wu, Suhe Sun, Shuizhong Cen, Hongjun Su, Wen Deng, Zhenhua Liu, Yi Ouyang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pathological osteogenesis and inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of AS and the pathological relationship between osteogenesis and inflammation in this disease remain largely unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of osteogenic differentiation and immunoregulation. Recently, we demonstrated that MSCs from AS patients (ASMSCs) have a greater potential for osteogenic differentiation than MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs), which therefore seems to be a component of pathological osteogenesis in AS...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921081/a-fungus-specific-protein-domain-is-essential-for-rasa-mediated-morphogenetic-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Qusai Al Abdallah, Tiffany S Norton, Amy M Hill, Lawrence L LeClaire, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920954/drosophila-chem-mutations-disrupt-epithelial-polarity-in-drosophila-embryos
#12
José M Zamudio-Arroyo, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R)5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920895/organosilane-functionalization-of-nanostructured-indium-tin-oxide-films
#13
R Pruna, F Palacio, M Martínez, O Blázquez, S Hernández, B Garrido, M López
Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920526/in-vitro-inflammatory-effects-of-hard-metal-wc-co-nanoparticle-exposure
#14
Andrea L Armstead, Bingyun Li
Identifying the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important area of research as the number of nanomaterial-based consumer and industrial products continually rises. In addition, the potential inflammatory effects resulting from pulmonary NP exposure are emerging as an important aspect of nanotoxicity. In this study, the toxicity and inflammatory state resulting from tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) NP exposure in macrophages and a coculture (CC) of lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and macrophages (THP-1) at a 3:1 ratio were examined...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920433/polarization-conversion-when-focusing-cylindrically-polarized-vortex-beams
#15
Alexey P Porfirev, Andrey V Ustinov, Svetlana N Khonina
Currently, cylindrical beams with radial or azimuthal polarization are being used successfully for the optical manipulation of micro- and nano-particles as well as in microscopy, lithography, nonlinear optics, materials processing, and telecommunication applications. The creation of these laser beams is carried out using segmented polarizing plates, subwavelength gratings, interference, or light modulators. Here, we demonstrate the conversion of cylindrically polarized laser beams from a radial to an azimuthal polarization, or vice versa, by introducing a higher-order vortex phase singularity...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920213/inhibition-of-sik2-and-sik3-during-differentiation-enhances-the-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-of-macrophages
#16
Nicola J Darling, Rachel Toth, J Simon C Arthur, Kristopher Clark
The Salt-Inducible Kinases (SIKs) control a novel molecular switch regulating macrophage polarization. Pharmacological inhibition of the SIKs induces a macrophage phenotype characterized by the secretion of high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10 and the secretion of very low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα. The SIKs therefore represent attractive new drug targets for the treatment of macrophage-driven diseases, but which of the three isoforms, SIK1, SIK2 or SIK3 would be appropriate to target remains unknown...
December 5, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919703/prediction-and-mechanism-elucidation-of-analyte-retention-on-phospholipid-stationary-phases-iam-hplc-by-in-silico-calculated-physico-chemical-descriptors
#17
Giacomo Russo, Lucia Grumetto, Francesco Barbato, Giulio Vistoli, Alessandro Pedretti
The present study proposes a method for an in silico calculation of phospholipophilicity. Phospholipophilicity is intended as the measure of analyte affinity for phospholipids; it is currently assessed by HPLC measures of analyte retention on phosphatidylcholine-like stationary phases (IAM - Immobilized Artificial Membrane) resulting in log kW(IAM) values. Due to the amphipathic and electrically charged nature of phospholipids, retention on these stationary phases results from complex mechanisms, being affected not only by lipophilicity (as measured by n-octanol/aqueous phase partition coefficients, log P) but also by the occurrence of polar and/or electrostatic intermolecular interaction forces...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919534/adsorption-of-acid-extractable-organics-from-oil-sands-process-affected-water-onto-biomass-based-biochar-metal-content-matters
#18
Tazul I Bhuiyan, Jin K Tak, Sebastian Sessarego, Don Harfield, Josephine M Hill
The impact of biochar properties on acid-extractable organics (AEO) adsorption from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was studied. Biochar from wheat straw with the highest ash content (14%) had the highest adsorption capacity (0.59 mg/g) followed by biochar from pulp mill sludge, switchgrass, mountain pine, hemp shives, and aspen wood. The adsorption capacity had no obvious trend with surface area, total pore volume, bulk polarity and aromaticity. The large impact of metal content was consistent with the carboxylates (i...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#19
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918938/cell-polarity-in-plants-the-yin-and-yang-of-cellular-functions
#20
REVIEW
Jiyan Qi, Thomas Greb
Spatial organization is fundamental for the performance of living organisms and is reflected in a distinct distribution of structures and molecules down to the subcellular level. In particular, eukaryotic cells harbor a vast range of possibilities for distributing organelles, the cytoskeleton or the extracellular matrix in an active and highly regulated manner. An asymmetric or polar distribution is rather the rule than the exception and often reflects a particular position or orientation of a cell within a multicellular body...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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