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Morad Chughtai, John J Kelly, Jared M Newman, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Anil Bhave, Michael C Kolczun, Michael A Mont
This study evaluated the use of telerehabilitation during the postoperative period for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Specifically, this study evaluated the following: (1) patient compliance and adherence to the program, (2) time spent performing physical therapy exercises, (3) the usability of the virtual rehabilitation platform, and (4) clinical outcome scores in a selected primary knee arthroplasty cohort. A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent TKA ( n  = 18) or UKA ( n  = 139)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Joel D Ernst, Amber Cornelius, Ludovic Desvignes, Jacqueline Tavs, Brian A Norris
Infection with M. tuberculosis is associated with inconsistent and incomplete elimination of the bacteria, despite development of antigen-specific T cell responses. One mechanism employed by M. tuberculosis is to limit availability of antigen for activation of CD4 T cells. We examined the utility of systemic administration of epitope peptides to activate pre-existing T cells in mice infected with M. tuberculosis. We found that systemic peptide administration: 1) selectively activates T cells specific for the epitope peptide; 2) loads MHC class II on lung macrophages and dendritic cells; 3) activates CD4 T cells in the lung parenchyma; 4) has little antimycobacterial activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Piotr Klukowski, Michal Augoff, Maciej Zieba, Maciej Drwal, Adam Gonczarek, Michal J Walczak
Motivation: Automated selection of signals in protein NMR spectra, known as peak picking, has been studied for over 20 years, nevertheless existing peak picking methods are still largely deficient. Accurate and precise automated peak picking would accelerate the structure calculation, and analysis of dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. Recent advancement in handling big data, together with an outburst of machine learning techniques, offer an opportunity to tackle the peak picking problem substantially faster than manual picking and on par with human accuracy...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jiang He, Yuzu Zhao, Erhu Zhao, Xianxing Wang, Zhen Dong, Yibiao Chen, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui
Background: The cancer-testis specific gene Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) is a testis-specific gene that is reactivated in many human cancers, but its functions in glioblastoma remain unclear. Here, we assessed the significance of OIP5 in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of glioblastoma for the first time. Methods: An immunohistochemistry assay was performed to detect OIP5 expression changes in glioblastoma patients. Overall survival analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of OIP5...
March 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Christos Dimitrakopoulos, Sravanth Kumar Hindupur, Luca Häfliger, Jonas Behr, Hesam Montazeri, Michael N Hall, Niko Beerenwinkel
Motivation: Several molecular events are known to be cancer-related, including genomic aberrations, hypermethylation of gene promoter regions, and differential expression of microRNAs. These aberration events are very heterogeneous across tumors and it is poorly understood how they affect the molecular makeup of the cell, including the transcriptome and proteome. Protein interaction networks can help decode the functional relationship between aberration events and changes in gene and protein expression...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Marine Landa, Stéphane Blain, Jérôme Harmand, Sébastien Monchy, Alain Rapaport, Ingrid Obernosterer
In the Southern Ocean, natural iron fertilization in the wake of islands leads to annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms associated with enhanced heterotrophic activity through the release of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally how diatom-derived DOM affects the composition of Southern Ocean winter water bacterial communities and to identify the most responsive taxa. A bacterial community collected in the naturally iron-fertilized region off Kerguelen Island (KEOPS2 October-November 2011) was grown onboard in continuous cultures, on winter water alone or amended with diatom-derived DOM supplied at identical DOC concentrations...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Qiaozhen Meng, Zhenling Peng, Jianyi Yang
Motivation: Coenzyme A (CoA)-protein binding plays an important role in various cellular functions and metabolic pathways. However, no computational methods can be employed for CoA-binding residues prediction. Results: We developed three methods for the prediction of CoA- and CoA derivatives-binding residues, including an ab-initio method SVMpred, a template-based method TemPred, and a consensus-based method CoABind. In SVMpred, a comprehensive set of features are designed from two complementary sequence profiles and the predicted secondary structure and solvent accessibility...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Clément Niel, Christine Sinoquet, Christian Dina, Ghislain Rocheleau
Motivation: Large scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are tools of choice for discovering associations between genotypes and phenotypes. To date, many studies rely on univariate statistical tests for association between the phenotype and each assayed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). However, interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered when tackling the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Epistasis analysis at large scale entails a prohibitive computational burden when addressing the detection of more than two interacting SNPs...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Pei-Hui Wang, Sin-Yee Fung, Wei-Wei Gao, Jian-Jun Deng, Yun Cheng, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Ting-Hin Ho, Ching-Ping Chan, Yan Zhang, Kin-Hang Kok, Wanling Yang, Chi-Ping Chan, Dong-Yan Jin
STING is a core adaptor in innate nucleic acid sensing in mammalian cells, on which different sensing pathways converge to induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Particularly, STING is activated by 2'3'-cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide containing mixed phosphodiester linkages and produced by cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. Here, we reported on a novel transcript isoform of STING designated STING-β that dominantly inhibits innate nucleic acid sensing. STING-β without transmembrane domains was widely expressed at low levels in various human tissues and viral induction of STING-β correlated inversely with IFN-β production...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yilun Deng, Yuejuan Qin, Subramanya Srikantan, Anqi Luo, Zi-Ming Cheng, Shahida K Flores, Kris S Vogel, Exing Wang, Patricia L M Dahia
The TMEM127 tumor suppressor gene encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function mutated in pheochromocytomas and, rarely, in renal cancers. Tumors with inactivating TMEM127 mutations have increased mTORC1 signaling by undefined mechanisms. Here we report that TMEM127 interacts with the lysosome-anchored complex comprised of Rag GTPases, the LAMTOR pentamer (or 'ragulator') and vATPase, which controls amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. We found that in nutrient-rich conditions TMEM127 expression reduces mTORC1 recruitment to Rags...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Saeideh Tasharrofi, Hossein Taghdisian, Abdollah Golchoobi
In this study, pure and ternary adsorption of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), ethylbenzene (EB), and carbon monoxide (CO) on different arrays of zigzag double wall carbon nanotube was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The internal diameters of nanotube were fixed at 2r = 50.17 Å while nanotube wall distances were different values from d = 0 Å to d = 150 Å. Pure simulation results indicated that adsorption quantity of H2 S and EB in low pressure ranges of P = 1.9 bar to P = 3...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Deepak Reddy Gade, Amareswararao Makkapati, Rajesh Babu Yarlagadda, Godefridus J Peters, B S Sastry, V V S Rajendra Prasad
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer treatment. Acridones have the potential to reverse MDR and sensitize cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the chemosensitization potential of acridones by employing various molecular modelling techniques. Pharmacophore modeling was performed for the dataset of chemosensitizing acridones earlier proved for cytotoxic activity against MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Gaussian-based QSAR studies also performed to predict the favored and disfavored region of the acridone molecules...
February 24, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Pollyana Trigueiro, Silvia Pedetti, Baptiste Rigaud, Sebastien Balme, Jean-Marc Janot, Ieda M G Dos Santos, Régis Gougeon, Maria G Fonseca, Thomas Georgelin, Maguy Jaber
Wine chemistry inspires and challenges with its complexity and intriguing composition. In this context, the composites based on the use of a model protein, a polyphenol of interest and montmorillonite in a model hydroalcoholic solution have been studied. A set of experimental characterization techniques highlighted the interactions between the organic and the inorganic parts in the composite. The amount of the organic part was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) informed about the stacking/exfoliation of the layers in the composites...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Elianny Domínguez-Tejo, Graciela Metternicht, Emma L Johnston, Luke Hedge
Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
David M Thal, Ziva Vuckovic, Christopher J Draper-Joyce, Yi-Lynn Liang, Alisa Glukhova, Arthur Christopoulos, Patrick M Sexton
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins and are important drug targets for many human diseases. In the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the determination of atomic structures of GPCRs with over 200 structures from 53 unique receptors having been solved. Technological advances in protein engineering and X-ray crystallography have driven much of the progress to date. However, recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy have facilitated the structural determination of three new structures of active-state GPCRs in complex with heterotrimeric G protein...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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