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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#1
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646798/social-context-matters-ethnicity-discrimination-and-stress-reactivity
#2
David Busse, Ilona S Yim, Belinda Campos
Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646781/%C3%AE-potential-evidences-silanol-heterogeneity-induced-by-metal-contaminants-at-the-quartz-surface-implications-in-membrane-damage
#3
Cristina Pavan, Francesco Turci, Maura Tomatis, Mara Ghiazza, Dominique Lison, Bice Fubini
Among the physico-chemical features responsible for the so-called "variability of quartz hazard", a key role has been assigned to the silica surface charge, evaluated by means of ζ potential measurement. The ζ potential of silica describes the protonation state of silanols which, in turn, determine interactions with cell membranes. To gain a molecular understanding of the role of silanols in silica pathogenicity, we conducted a systematic investigation of the variation of the ζ potential as a function of pH (ζ plot titration curve) on a large set of respirable quartz particles with different levels of metal contaminants...
June 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646761/regulation-on-the-aggregation-induced-emission-aie-of-dna-templated-silver-nanoclusters-by-bsa-and-its-hydrolysates
#4
Wei-Xian Wang, Yuqing Wu, Hong-Wei Li
The aggregation-induced emission (AIE) phenomenon of the metal nanoclusters (NCs) has been discovered quite recently, which is considered to be creative to improve the optical properties of NCs upon ligand aggregation. In the present study, we report an AIE system for double-stranded DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (AgNCs-dsDNA) by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) in solution, which induce a moderate emission enhancement of AgNCs (5-fold) and a blue-shift through a loosen interaction. In addition, significant luminescence enhancement (30-fold) is further stimulated by the addition of digestive enzyme to the system by altering the surface structure of the aggregated particles...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646724/zinc-and-calcium-alter-the-relationship-between-mitochondrial-respiration-ros-and-membrane-potential-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-liver-mitochondria
#5
Mahmoud S Sharaf, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
At excess levels, zinc (Zn) disrupts mitochondrial functional integrity and induces oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Although much is known about the modulation of Zn toxicity by calcium (Ca) in fish, their interactions at the mitochondrial level have scarcely been investigated. Here we assessed the individual and combined effects of Zn and Ca on the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential (ΔΨmt) in rainbow trout liver mitochondria. We tested if cation uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a prerequisite for Zn- and/or Ca-induced alteration of mitochondrial function...
June 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#6
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646689/association-between-maternal-urinary-chromium-and-premature-rupture-of-membranes-in-the-healthy-baby-cohort-study-in-china
#7
Sha Huang, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Bin Zhang, Aifen Zhou, Tongzhang Zheng, Zhengmin Qian, Zheng Huang, Shi Lu, Zhong Chen, Youjie Wang, Xinyun Pan, Wenqian Huo, Shuna Jin, Yangqian Jiang, Shunqing Xu
Chromium exposure from increasing industrial releases has become a threat for pregnant women due to the potential health effects on vulnerable embryos. Previous studies have suggested that maternal chromium exposure is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but no epidemiological research has been conducted to examine the relationship between chromium exposure and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). This study aimed at investigating the association of maternal urinary chromium exposure levels with PROM and was performed with 5408 pregnant women recruited from 2012 to 2014 in the city of Wuhan, China...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646681/proteomic-analysis-of-developing-wheat-grains-infected-by-powdery-mildew-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici
#8
Jie Li, Xi-Wen Yang, Yong-Chun Li, Ji-Shan Niu, De-Xian He
Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) infection greatly interferes with the normal source-sink relationships and always causes tremendous loss of yield and quality in wheat. To better understand the impact of this pathogen on grain development, proteome characterization during grain development in susceptible wheat cultivar Xinong 979 infected by powdery mildew was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 111 differentially expressed protein spots representing 85 unique proteins and six expression patterns showed a chronological description of wheat grain formation...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646680/the-experiences-of-supporting-learning-in-pairs-of-nursing-students-in-clinical-practice
#9
Hanna Holst, Lise-Lotte Ozolins, David Brunt, Ulrica Hörberg
The purpose of this study is to describe how supervisors experience supporting nursing students' learning in pairs on a Developing and Learning Care Unit in Sweden. The present study has been carried out with a Reflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) approach founded on phenomenology. A total of 25 lifeworld interviews were conducted with supervisors who had supervised pairs of students. The findings reveal how supervisors support students' learning in pairs through a reflective approach creating learning space in the encounter with patients, students and supervisors...
June 9, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646659/analysis-of-recombinant-monoclonal-antibodies-in-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-a-generic-method-development-approach
#10
Balázs Bobály, Valentina D'Atri, Alain Beck, Davy Guillarme, Szabolcs Fekete
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a well-established technique for the separation and analysis of small polar compounds. A recently introduced widepore stationary phase expanded HILIC applications to larger molecules, such as therapeutic proteins. In this paper, we present some generic HILIC conditions adapted for a wide range of FDA and EMA approved recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) species and for an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC). Seven approved mAbs possessing various isoelectric point (pI) and hydrophobicity as well as a cysteine conjugated ADC were used in this study...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646631/synthesis-of-novel-and-functionally-selective-non-competitive-muscarinic-antagonists-as-chemical-probes
#11
John F Boulos, Jan Jakubik, John M Boulos, Jelena Momirov, Alena Randakova
Muscarinic receptors are known to play important biological roles and are drug targets for several human diseases. In a pilot study, novel muscarinic antagonists were synthesized and used as chemical probes to obtain additional information of the muscarinic pharmacophore. The design of these ligands made use of current orthosteric and allosteric models of drug-receptor interactions together with chemical motifs known to achieve muscarinic receptor selectivity. This approach has led to the discovery of several non-competitive muscarinic ligands that strongly bind at a secondary receptor site...
June 24, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646592/influence-of-inspiratory-resistive-loading-on-expiratory-muscle-fatigue-in-healthy-humans
#12
Carli M Peters, Joseph F Welch, Paolo B Dominelli, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Lee M Romer, Donald C McKenzie, A William Sheel
Expiratory resistive loading elicits inspiratory as well as expiratory muscle fatigue, suggesting parallel co-activation of the inspiratory muscles during expiration. It is unknown whether the expiratory muscles are similarly co-activated to the point of fatigue during inspiratory resistive loading (IRL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether IRL elicits expiratory as well as inspiratory muscle fatigue. Healthy male subjects (n = 9) underwent isocapnic IRL (60% maximal inspiratory pressure, 15 breaths∙min(-1) , 0...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646589/new-promising-method-for-the-challenging-synthesis-of-5-acyl-2-amino-3-cyanothiophenes-chemisry-and-fluorescent-properties
#13
Kseniya I Lugovik, Alexander K Eltyshev, Enrico Benassi, Nataliya P Belskaya
Independent of the substrate structure and reaction conditions, 2-cyano-3-aminothioacrilonitriles, which contains two active electrophilic centers, were shown to interact with various active halo methylene compounds under mild conditions to afford 5-acyl-2-amino-3-cyanothiophenes as the only products. A series of new polyfunctional thiophene derivatives with a rare combination of functionalities were synthesized and their photophysical properties were experimentally and computationally investigated. The calculated electronic characteristics of the ground and excited states were compared to the experimental results, which provided a good understanding of the relationship between the optoelectronic properties and the molecular structures...
June 24, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646582/comprehensive-mathematical-model-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-valid-for-physiological-up-to-pathological-conditions
#14
Margit Heiske, Thierry Letellier, Edda Klipp
We developed a mathematical model of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that allows for a precise description of mitochondrial function with respect to the respiratory flux and the ATP production. The model reproduced flux-force relationships under various experimental conditions (state 3 and 4, uncoupling, shortage of respiratory substrate) as well as time courses, exhibiting correct P/O ratios. The model was able to reproduce experimental threshold curves for perturbations of the respiratory chain complexes, the F1 F0 -ATP synthase, the ADP/ATP carrier, the phosphate/OH carrier, and the proton leak...
June 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#15
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646556/injury-induced-maladaption-and-dysregulation-of-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-subunit-proteins-and-its-contribution-to-neuropathic-pain-development
#16
REVIEW
Nian Gong, John Park, Z David Luo
Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play important roles in physiological functions including modulations of neurotransmitter release, neuronal network activities, intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. Some pathological conditions, including nerve injuries, can cause dysregulation of VGCCs and their subunits. This in turn can lead to functional maladaption of VGCCs and their subunits, which can contribute to development of disorders such as pain sensations. This review summarized recent findings related to maladaptive changes of dysregulated VGCC alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cav α2 δ1 ) with a focus on exploration of mechanisms underlying contribution of Cav α2 δ1 to pain signal transduction...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646552/targeting-histone-deacetylase-4-ubc9-impairs-dna-repair-for-radiosensitization-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#17
Chiao-Ling Tsai, Wei-Lin Liu, Feng-Ming Hsu, Po-Sheng Yang, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Kai-Yuan Tzen, Ann-Lii Cheng, Pei-Jer Chen, Jason Chia-, Hsien Cheng
Several strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been investigated. One approach was to develop radiosensitizing compounds. Because histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is highly expressed in liver cancer and known to regulate oncogenesis through chromatin structure remodeling and controlling protein access to DNA, we postulated that HDAC4 inhibition might enhance radiation's effect on HCC cells. HCC cell lines (Huh7 and PLC5) and an ectopic xenograft were pretreated with HDAC inhibitor or shRNA to knock down expression of HDAC4, and then irradiated (2...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646489/functional-analysis-of-p-ala253_leu254insasn-mutation-in-pls3-responsible-for-x-linked-osteoporosis
#18
Lianqing Wang, Qiaoli Zhai, Peiqing Zhao, Xinxin Xiang, Xiaowei Zhang, Wenxiu Tian, Tao Li
Mutations in Plastin-3 (PLS3) have been identified as a cause of X-linked osteoporosis. To reveal the molecular mechanism of PLS3 on osteoporosis, we characterized the p.Ala253_Leu254insAsn mutation in PLS3. We first identified Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) as a binding partner of PLS3 and the mutation disrupted the interaction between them. We then confirmed the roles of PLS3 and LCP1 in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) , which was weakened by the mutant PLS3. Moreover, the interaction between PLS3 and LCP1 was enhanced under a low concentration of extracellular Ca(2+) ...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646456/using-comics-to-promote-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-the-asian-american-and-pacific-islander-communities
#19
Jiayan Linda Wang, Nazia Acevedo, Georgia Robins Sadler
There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646447/microbial-transformations-of-selenite-by-methane-oxidizing-bacteria
#20
Abdurrahman S Eswayah, Thomas J Smith, Andreas C Scheinost, Nicole Hondow, Philip H E Gardiner
Methane-oxidizing bacteria are well known for their role in the global methane cycle and their potential for microbial transformation of wide range of hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon pollution. Recently, it has also emerged that methane-oxidizing bacteria interact with inorganic pollutants in the environment. Here, we report what we believe to be the first study of the interaction of pure strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria with selenite. Results indicate that the commonly used laboratory model strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, are both able to reduce the toxic selenite (SeO3(2-)) but not selenate (SeO4(2-)) to red spherical nanoparticulate elemental selenium (Se(0)), which was characterized via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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