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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332309/how-have-leaves-of-mycoheterotrophic-plants-evolved-from-the-view-point-of-a-developmental-biologist
#1
Hirokazu Tsukaya
How mycoheterotrophs have evolved and how they are sustained are an enigma. Structural analyses of the plastid genome and phylogenetic analyses of mycoheterotrophs have been used to identify mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular genetic studies have also revealed the mechanism for plant-fungi interactions. However, the evolution of the small, scale-like vegetative leaves of mycoheterotrophs is unknown. As almost all genes determining leaf size affect the floral organ sizes, it is highly implausible that loss-of-function mutations in leaf size regulators caused the evolution of smaller foliage leaves in mycoheterotrophs...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332299/similarity-search-combined-with-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-for-novel-hache-inhibitor-scaffolds
#2
Nadia Melo Borges, Geraldo Rodrigues Sartori, Jean F R Ribeiro, Josmar R Rocha, João B L Martins, Carlos A Montanari, Ricardo Gargano
The main purpose of this study was to address the performance of virtual screening methods based on ligands and the protein structure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to retrieve novel human AChE (hAChE) inhibitors. In addition, a protocol was developed to identify novel hit compounds and propose new promising AChE inhibitors from the ZINC database with 10 million commercially available compounds. In this sense, 3D similarity searches using rapid overlay of chemical structures and similarity analysis through comparison of electrostatic overlay of docked hits were used to retrieve AChE inhibitors from collected databases...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332292/in-vivo-analysis-of-calcium-levels-and-glutathione-redox-status-in-arabidopsis-epidermal-leaf-cells-infected-with-the-hypersensitive-response-inducing-bacteria-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-avrb-pstavrb
#3
Fabrizio Gandolfo Doccula, Laura Luoni, Smrutisanjita Behera, Maria Cristina Bonza, Alex Costa
Plants react to the attack of pathogen microorganisms by mounting appropriate and efficient downstream defense responses often involving a form of localized cell death called hypersensitive response (HR).Here we describe an innovative and noninvasive protocol based on in vivo bioimaging technique coupled with utilization of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors that allows to monitor and analyze intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics and changes of the glutathione redox status taking place in plant organs during plant interaction with the HR-inducing bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (PstAvrB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332288/ros-and-cell-death-in-tomato-roots-infected-by-meloidogyne-incognita
#4
Paola Leonetti
Phytoparasitic nematodes are plant pests causing serious problems to a broad range of hosts, and Meloidogyne species are widely recognized as the most damaging among the root knot nematode groups. During the incompatible interaction between avirulent pathogens and resistant tomato cultivars, juvenile nematode invasions provoke a defense cascade, culminating in hypersensitive responses. Methods to detect the key molecules involved in oxidative metabolism of the infected tomato roots are described here.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332284/measurement-of-hypersensitive-cell-death-triggered-by-avirulent-bacterial-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#5
Zahra Imanifard, Elodie Vandelle, Diana Bellin
The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful and complex defense reactions to survive to pathogen attacks during an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Local programmed cell death accompanies the hypersensitive response at the site of infection to prevent pathogen growth and spread. A precise quantitative assessment of this form of programmed cell death is essential to unravel the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Here, we first describe the optimization of a Trypan Blue staining protocol for quantitatively measuring the HR-cell death in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332222/efficacy-of-crocus-sativus-saffron-in-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-associated-with-post-menopausal-hot-flashes-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Ladan Kashani, Sophia Esalatmanesh, Farzaneh Eftekhari, Samrand Salimi, Tahereh Foroughifar, Farnaz Etesam, Hamideh Safiaghdam, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Shahin Akhondzadeh
PURPOSE: Due to concerns regarding the side effects of hormone therapy, many studies have focused on the development of non-hormonal agents for treatment of hot flashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes. METHODS: Sixty women with post-menopausal hot flashes participated in this study. The patients randomly received either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice per day) or placebo for 6 weeks...
January 13, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332170/mirna-mrna-crosstalk-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-based-on-the-tcga-database
#8
Guan-Jiang Huang, Meng-Si Luo, Guo-Ping Chen, Min-Yi Fu
BACKGROUND: The functional characterization of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to be associated with the pathophysiology of the disease, but it is still a challenging task to elucidate the pathogenesis of microRNAs and disease. In addition, the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the development of LSCC still needs further exploration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, to identify miRNAs that play a key role in LSCC, we analyzed miRNA and mRNA sequence data from 162 LSCC samples from the TCGA database, and screened specific miRNAs and mRNAs by differential gene expression analysis...
January 13, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332162/roles-of-irisin-in-the-linkage-from-muscle-to-bone-during-mechanical-unloading-in-mice
#9
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332151/1h-13c-and-15n-backbone-and-partial-side-chain-resonance-assignments-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-hiv-1-pr55gag-encompassed-in-ncp15
#10
Valéry Larue, Marjorie Catala, Anissa Belfetmi, Loussiné Zargarian, Olivier Mauffret, Carine Tisné
During HIV-1 assembly, the Pr55Gag polyprotein precursor (Gag) interacts with the genomic RNA, with lipids of the plasma membrane, with host proteins (ALIX, TSG101) through the ESCRT complex, with the viral protein Vpr and are involved in intermolecular interactions with other Pr55Gag proteins. This network of interactions is responsible for the formation of the viral particle, the selection of genomic RNA and the packaging of Vpr. The C-terminal domain of Gag encompassed in NCp15 is involved in the majority of these interactions, either by its nucleocapsid or its p6 domains...
January 13, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#11
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332099/association-between-the-intron-8-vntr-polymorphism-of-the-dat1-gene-and-crack-cocaine-addiction
#12
Anderson R Stolf, Diana Müller, Jaqueline B Schuch, Gláucia C Akutagava-Martins, Luciano S P Guimaraes, Claudia M Szobot, Ricardo Halpern, Felix H P Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Tatiana Roman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare allele and genotype frequencies of a 30-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, located at intron 8, between adult crack cocaine users and nonaddicted individuals. Due to its involvement in drug addiction, this gene is a good candidate for molecular studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 239 current adult crack abusers or dependents from in- and outpatient clinics and 211 control individuals was collected in Brazil...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332051/the-impact-of-music-on-the-self-in-dementia
#13
Amee Baird, William Forde Thompson
In this review, we consider how the onset and progression of dementia can disrupt one's sense of self, and propose that music is an ideal tool for alleviating this distressing symptom. Various aspects of the self can be impaired in people with dementia, depending on how the self is defined. There are anecdotal reports that music can 'bring people back to themselves' in the face of dementia, but there have been scarce empirical investigations of this topic. Motivated by a consideration of the existing literature, we outline a novel theoretical framework that accounts for the relationship between music and the self in people with dementia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332049/free-heme-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-fatal-liaison-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Elisabeth Chiziane, Henriette Telemann, Martin Krueger, Juliane Adler, Jürgen Arnhold, A Alia, Jörg Flemmig
While the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, an increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and oxidative processes are major pathological mechanism of the disease. The interaction of Aβ with free heme leads to the formation of peroxidase-active Aβ-heme complexes. However, enzyme-kinetic data and systematic mutational studies are still missing. These aspects were addressed in this study to evaluate the role of Aβ-heme complexes in AD. The enzyme-kinetic measurements showed peroxidase-specific pH- and H2O2-dependencies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332038/sex-influences-the-accuracy-of-subjective-memory-complaint-reporting-in-older-adults
#15
Erin E Sundermann, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Leah H Rubin, Mark W Bondi
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are required when diagnosing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), although their relationship with objective memory performance and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. We investigated whether the sex of the patient/participant moderates these associations. Participants were 940 normal control (NC) and aMCI participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SMC were assessed via the memory scale of the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-reports and categorized into "overestimates," "comparable estimates", and "underestimates" of SMC...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332037/increased-vulnerability-of-the-hippocampus-in-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-app-and-triple-repeat-tau
#16
Andrew Arner, Edward Rockenstein, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Deborah Masliah, Bahar Salehi, Anthony Adame, Cassia Overk, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Rissman
 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common tauopathy, characterized by progressive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. While pathology associated with the 4-repeat (4R) tau isoform is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, both 3R and 4R tau isoforms accumulate in AD. Many studies have investigated interactions between Aβ and 4R tau in double transgenic mice, but few, if any, have examined the effects of Aβ with 3R tau. To examine this relationship, we crossed our APP751 mutant line with our recently characterized 3R tau mutant model to create a bigenic line (hAPP-3RTau) to model AD neuropathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332010/oligogenic-genetic-variation-of-neurodegenerative-disease-genes-in-980-postmortem-human-brains
#17
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Juvid Aryaman, Ian Wilson, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Nick Jones, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that multiple rare genetic variants in genes causing monogenic forms of neurodegenerative disorders interact synergistically to increase disease risk or reduce the age of onset, but these studies have not been validated in large sporadic case series. METHODS: We analysed 980 neuropathologically characterised human brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease-dementia with Lewy bodies (PD-DLB), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) and age-matched controls...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332000/how-good-are-doctors-at-introducing-themselves-hellomynameis
#18
Peter Gillen, Sue Faye Sharifuddin, Muireann O'Sullivan, Alison Gordon, Eva M Doherty
BACKGROUND: This explorative study was triggered by the '#hellomynameis' campaign initiated by Dr Kate Granger in the UK. Our objectives were twofold: first, to measure rates of introduction in an Irish hospital setting by both consultant and non-consultant hospital doctors. Second to establish whether such practices were associated with patient perceptions of the doctor/patient interaction. METHOD: A patient 'exit' survey was undertaken following doctor-patient consultations in both acute (surgical and medical assessment units) and elective settings (outpatient clinics)...
January 13, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331988/airflow-limitation-in-people-living-with-hiv-and-matched-uninfected-controls
#19
Andreas Ronit, Jens Lundgren, Shoaib Afzal, Thomas Benfield, Ashley Roen, Amanda Mocroft, Jan Gerstoft, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jørgen Vestbo, Susanne D Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. Lung function was assessed using FEV1 and FVC, while airflow limitation was defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC and by FEV1/FVC<0...
January 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331962/splicing-variant-of-wdfy4-augments-mda5-signalling-and-the-risk-of-clinically-amyopathic-dermatomyositis
#20
Yuta Kochi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yuya Kondo, Akari Suzuki, Eiryo Kawakami, Ryosuke Hiwa, Yukihide Momozawa, Manabu Fujimoto, Masatoshi Jinnin, Yoshiya Tanaka, Takashi Kanda, Robert G Cooper, Hector Chinoy, Simon Rothwell, Janine A Lamb, Jiří Vencovský, Heřman Mann, Koichiro Ohmura, Keiko Myouzen, Kazuyoshi Ishigaki, Ran Nakashima, Yuji Hosono, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hidenaga Kawasumi, Yukiko Iwasaki, Hiroshi Kajiyama, Tetsuya Horita, Mariko Ogawa-Momohara, Akito Takamura, Shinichiro Tsunoda, Jun Shimizu, Keishi Fujio, Hirofumi Amano, Akio Mimori, Atsushi Kawakami, Hisanori Umehara, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Hajime Sano, Yoshinao Muro, Tatsuya Atsumi, Toshihide Mimura, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Takayuki Sumida, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune diseases in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. To identify genetic factors of IIM including polymyositis, dermatomyositis (DM) and clinically amyopathic DM (CADM), we performed the first genome-wide association study for IIM in an Asian population. METHODS: We genotyped and tested 496 819 single nucleotide polymorphism for association using 576 patients with IIM and 6270 control subjects...
January 13, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
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