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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920954/drosophila-chem-mutations-disrupt-epithelial-polarity-in-drosophila-embryos
#3
José M Zamudio-Arroyo, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R)5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920949/development-of-olfactory-epithelium-and-associated-structures-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#4
Olga Sapoznikov, Petr Cizek, Frantisek Tichy
The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919988/up-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-cd24-expression-is-associated-with-malignant-transformation-but-favorable-prognosis-of-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Min-Kyung Yeo, Yong-Moon Lee, In-Ock Seong, Song-Yi Choi, Kwang-Sun Suh, Kyu Sang Song, Choong-Sik Lee, Jin Man Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim
AIM: Cluster of differentiation 24 (CD24) is known to be a putative marker of stem cell and tumor metastasis. This study aimed to verify the clinicopathological value of CD24 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of seven whole-tissue sections of malignant polyps including the sequence non-neoplastic colorectal tissue-adenoma-CRAC, 48 adenomas and 161 CRACs arranged as tissue microarray were examined by immunohistochemistry for CD24 protein expression...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919896/cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate-no-donor-prodrug-pyrro-c3d-enhances-azithromycin-susceptibility-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms
#6
Samuel A Collins, Michael J Kelso, Ardeshir Rineh, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Janice Coles, Claire L Jackson, Georgia D Halladay, Woolf T Walker, Jeremy S Webb, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Gary J Connett, Martin Feelisch, Saul N Faust, Jane S A Lucas, Raymond N Allan
OBJECTIVES: PYRRO-C3D is a cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO)-donor prodrug designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of PYRRO-C3D against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) biofilms and examine the role of NO in reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. METHODS: The activity of PYRRO-C3D on in vitro NTHi biofilms was assessed through CFU enumeration and confocal microscopy...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919079/receptor-usage-dictates-hiv-1-restriction-by-human-trim5%C3%AE-in-dendritic-cell-subsets
#7
Carla M S Ribeiro, Ramin Sarrami-Forooshani, Laurentia C Setiawan, Esther M Zijlstra-Willems, John L van Hamme, Wikky Tigchelaar, Nicole N van der Wel, Neeltje A Kootstra, Sonja I Gringhuis, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
The most prevalent route of HIV-1 infection is across mucosal tissues after sexual contact. Langerhans cells (LCs) belong to the subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that line the mucosal epithelia of vagina and foreskin and have the ability to sense and induce immunity to invading pathogens. Anatomical and functional characteristics make LCs one of the primary targets of HIV-1 infection. Notably, LCs form a protective barrier against HIV-1 infection and transmission. LCs restrict HIV-1 infection through the capture of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and subsequent internalization into Birbeck granules...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917898/incomplete-and-delayed-sox2-deletion-defines-residual-ear-neurosensory-development-and-maintenance
#8
Martina Dvorakova, Israt Jahan, Iva Macova, Tetyana Chumak, Romana Bohuslavova, Josef Syka, Bernd Fritzsch, Gabriela Pavlinkova
The role of Sox2 in neurosensory development is not yet fully understood. Using mice with conditional Islet1-cre mediated deletion of Sox2, we explored the function of Sox2 in neurosensory development in a model with limited cell type diversification, the inner ear. In Sox2 conditional mutants, neurons initially appear to form normally, whereas late- differentiating neurons of the cochlear apex never form. Variable numbers of hair cells differentiate in the utricle, saccule, and cochlear base but sensory epithelium formation is completely absent in the apex and all three cristae of the semicircular canal ampullae...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917158/a-zebrafish-model-for-chlamydia-infection-with-the-obligate-intracellular-pathogen-waddlia-chondrophila
#9
Alexander G J Fehr, Maja Ruetten, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Lisbeth Nufer, Andrea Voegtlin, Angelika Lehner, Gilbert Greub, Philip S Crosier, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Lloyd Vaughan
Obligate intracellular chlamydial bacteria of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are important pathogens of terrestrial and marine vertebrates, yet many features of their pathogenesis and host specificity are still unknown. This is particularly true for families such as the Waddliacea which, in addition to epithelia, cellular targets for nearly all Chlamydia, can infect and replicate in macrophages, an important arm of the innate immune system or in their free-living amoebal counterparts...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#10
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914912/identification-of-foxj1-effectors-during-ciliogenesis-in-the-foetal-respiratory-epithelium-and-embryonic-left-right-organiser-of-the-mouse
#11
Michael Stauber, Marina Weidemann, Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz, Katharina Lobschat, Leonie Alten, Michaela Mai, Anja Beckers, Michael Kracht, Achim Gossler
Formation of motile cilia in vertebrate embryos is essential for proper development and tissue function. Key regulators of motile ciliogenesis are the transcription factors FOXJ1 and NOTO, which are conserved throughout vertebrates. Downstream target genes of FOXJ1 have been identified in a variety of species, organs and cultured cell lines; in murine embryonic and foetal tissues, however, FOXJ1 and NOTO effectors have not been comprehensively analysed and our knowledge of the downstream genetic programme driving motile ciliogenesis in the mammalian lung and ventral node is fragmentary...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914026/limbal-stem-cell-and-oral-mucosal-epithelial-transplantation-from-ex-vivo-cultivation-in-lscd-induced-rabbits-histology-and-immunologic-study-of-the-transplant-epithelial-sheet
#12
Napaporn Tananuvat, Kanokkan Bumroongkit, Chainarong Tocharusa, Umnat Mevatee, Aphisek Kongkaew, Somsanguan Ausayakhun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (CLET and COMET) in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)-induced rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three rabbits each. Limbal tissue was harvested from the first group, and oral mucosal biopsy was obtained from the second group. The tissues were cultured using an explant technique with amniotic membrane as a substrate and co-culture with the 3T3 fibroblast and air-lifting method...
December 2, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912887/nephroprotective-effects-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-against-ischemic-reperfusion-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Marcus Felipe Bezerra da Costa, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Mauren Cristina Villalta Arrieta, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Alexandre Braga Libório, Renata Sousa Alves, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in kidney is commonly related to acute kidney injury (AKI), essentially through oxidative stress. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from the essential oil of a variety of plants, including chamomile, which has important antioxidant activity. STUDY DESIGN: This study intends to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of (-)-α-bisabolol (Bis) in both in vivo and in vitro models of kidney I/R. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to right nephrectomy, followed by ischemia by clamping of the renal artery in the left kidney for 60min...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911568/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-mesenchymal-transition-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-response-to-chronic-inflammation-by-viral-rna-patterns
#14
Bing Tian, Igor Patrikeev, Lorenzo Ochoa, Gracie Vargas, KarryAnne K Belanger, Julia Litvinov, Istvan Boldogh, Bill T Ameredes, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multi-cellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll like receptor (TLR)3 pathway by extracellular poly(I:C) induces innate signaling through the NFkB transcription factor in human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs), prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition and activation of a fibrotic program...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903865/imaging-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-human-skin-reveals-depth-dependent-hypoxia-and-malignant-potential-for-diagnosis
#15
Dimitra Pouli, Mihaela Balu, Carlo A Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Francisca Rius-Diaz, Ronald M Harris, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Irene Georgakoudi
Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902418/effects-of-the-glucocorticoid-betamethasone-on-the-interaction-of-candida-albicans-with-human-epithelial-cells
#16
Ágnes Jakab, Selene Mogavero, Toni M Förster, Marina Pekmezovic, Nadja Jablonowski, Viktor Dombrádi, István Pócsi, Bernhard Hube
The glucocorticoid betamethasone (BM) is frequently employed in the clinical practice because of its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of BM (1 and 2 mM) on the ability of Candida albicans to adhere to, invade and damage oral, intestinal or vaginal epithelial cells, as well as to elicit cytokine and chemokine release. BM at 2 mM concentration stimulated adherence of C. albicans to vaginal cells and facilitated the invasion of intestinal and vaginal epithelia without influencing the growth rate of invading C...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#17
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894419/epidermal-cell-turnover-across-tight-junctions-based-on-kelvin-s-tetrakaidecahedron-cell-shape
#18
Mariko Yokouchi, Toru Atsugi, Mark van Logtestijn, Reiko J Tanaka, Mayumi Kajimura, Makoto Suematsu, Mikio Furuse, Masayuki Amagai, Akiharu Kubo
In multicellular organisms, cells adopt various shapes, from flattened sheets of endothelium to dendritic neurons, that allow the cells to function effectively. Here, we elucidated the unique shape of cells in the cornified stratified epithelia of the mammalian epidermis that allows them to achieve homeostasis of the tight junction (TJ) barrier. Using intimate in vivo 3D imaging, we found that the basic shape of TJ-bearing cells is a flattened Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron (f-TKD), an optimal shape for filling space...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889464/enterocyte-purge-and-rapid-recovery-is-a-resilience-reaction-of-the-gut-epithelium-to-pore-forming-toxin-attack
#19
Kwang-Zin Lee, Matthieu Lestradet, Catherine Socha, Stefanie Schirmeier, Antonin Schmitz, Caroline Spenlé, Olivier Lefebvre, Céline Keime, Wennida M Yamba, Richard Bou Aoun, Samuel Liegeois, Yannick Schwab, Patricia Simon-Assmann, Frédéric Dalle, Dominique Ferrandon
Besides digesting nutrients, the gut protects the host against invasion by pathogens. Enterocytes may be subjected to damage by both microbial and host defensive responses, causing their death. Here, we report a rapid epithelial response that alleviates infection stress and protects the enterocytes from the action of microbial virulence factors. Intestinal epithelia exposed to hemolysin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by Serratia marcescens, undergo an evolutionarily conserved process of thinning followed by the recovery of their initial thickness within a few hours...
November 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888337/claudins-vital-partners-in-transcellular-and-paracellular-transport-coupling
#20
REVIEW
Dorothee Günzel
Tight junction (TJ) strands between epithelial or endothelial cells are formed by claudins, a protein family comprising up to 27 members in mammals. Although many more proteins are involved in the formation of TJ complexes, claudins are the only TJ proteins that are able to form TJ-like strands when overexpressed in cells that are normally devoid of TJs (e.g., fibroblasts). Within the paracellular cleft, the extracellular domains of claudins provide the matrix that seals the paracellular pathway. However, within this matrix, some claudins act as channels that specifically allow certain ions to cross this barrier...
November 25, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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