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Hari Ram, Hardik Makadia, Gagan Mehta, Shadab Mohammad, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Nimisha Singh, Geeta Singh
INTRODUCTION: The term oro-antral fistula is understood to mean of fistular canal covered with epithelia which may or may not be filled with granulation tissue or polyposis of the sinus mucous membrane. With the presence of a fistula the sinus is permanently open, which enables the passage of microbial flora of the oral cavity into the maxillary sinus and the occurrence of inflammation with all possible consequences. Every now and then various researchers have proposed innumerable techniques to treat this defect...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Mauricio A Salinas-Santander, Elizabeth Bazan-Mendoza, Marisol Espinoza-Ruiz, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana Bustamante, Celia N Sanchez-Dominguez
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population, but it has also been widely diagnosed in the Mexican population. Production of viscous secretions affects the secretory epithelia and the respiratory condition usually leads to death. The relationship between the CFTR genotype and the disease phenotype is not well understood. Other risk factors such as genetic and autoimmune influence the development of this disease. We analyzed the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism (+1858 C/T, rs2476601) in 78 DNA samples from CF patients and 232 healthy controls from northeast Mexico using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length (PCR-RFLP) method...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Antoine Ducuing, Stéphane Vincent
The actin cable is a supracellular structure that embryonic epithelia produce to close gaps. However, the action of the cable remains debated. Here, we address the function of the cable using Drosophila dorsal closure, a paradigm to understand wound healing. First, we show that the actin cytoskeleton protein Zasp52 is specifically required for actin cable formation. Next, we used Zasp52 loss of function to dissect the mechanism of action of the cable. Surprisingly, closure dynamics are perfect in Zasp52 mutants: the cable is therefore dispensable for closure, even in the absence of the amnioserosa...
October 17, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Michele Balsamo, Chandrani Mondal, Guillaume Carmona, Leslie M McClain, Daisy N Riquelme, Jenny Tadros, Duan Ma, Eliza Vasile, John S Condeelis, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Frank B Gertler
During tumor progression, alternative splicing gives rise to different Mena protein isoforms. We analyzed how Mena11a, an isoform enriched in epithelia and epithelial-like cells, affects Mena-dependent regulation of actin dynamics and cell behavior. While other Mena isoforms promote actin polymerization and drive membrane protrusion, we find that Mena11a decreases actin polymerization and growth factor-stimulated membrane protrusion at lamellipodia. Ectopic Mena11a expression slows mesenchymal-like cell motility, while isoform-specific depletion of endogenous Mena11a in epithelial-like tumor cells perturbs cell:cell junctions and increases membrane protrusion and overall cell motility...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Janet C Tait, Evan W Mercer, Lucie Gerber, George N Robertson, William S Marshall
In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Leyla Kocgozlu, Thuan Beng Saw, Anh Phuong Le, Ivan Yow, Murat Shagirov, Eunice Wong, René-Marc Mège, Chwee Teck Lim, Yusuke Toyama, Benoit Ladoux
The control of tissue growth, which is a key to maintain the protective barrier function of the epithelium, depends on the balance between cell division and cell extrusion rates [1, 2]. Cells within confluent epithelial layers undergo cell extrusion, which relies on cell-cell interactions [3] and actomyosin contractility [4, 5]. Although it has been reported that cell extrusion is also dependent on cell density [6, 7], the contribution of tissue mechanics, which is tightly regulated by cell density [8-12], to cell extrusion is still poorly understood...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ivana V Yang, Brent S Pedersen, Andrew H Liu, George T O'Connor, Dinesh Pillai, Meyer Kattan, Rana Tawil Misiak, Rebecca Gruchalla, Stanley J Szefler, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn Kercsmar, Adam Richards, Allen D Stevens, Christena A Kolakowski, Melanie Makhija, Christine A Sorkness, Rebecca Z Krouse, Cynthia Visness, Elizabeth J Davidson, Corinne E Hennessy, Richard J Martin, Alkis Togias, William W Busse, David A Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Given the strong environmental influence on both epigenetic marks and allergic asthma in children, the epigenetic alterations in respiratory epithelia might provide insight into allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation and gene expression changes associated with childhood allergic persistent asthma. METHODS: We compared genomic DNA methylation patterns and gene expression in African American children with persistent atopic asthma (n = 36) versus healthy control subjects (n = 36)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Heng Cai, Hongxing Li, Jingmin Li, Xiaoyan Li, Yana Li, Yan Shi, Dong Wang
Although abnormal activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and in most HCC cell lines, the mechanism by which the Shh pathway promotes the development of HCC remains uncertain. Using a liver cancer model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) which mimics the process from liver injury, abnormal hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatocirrhosis to hepatocyte canceration, we investigated the abnormal activation of the Shh pathway by examining the expression of Shh, patched-1 (Ptch), smoothened (SMO), and glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli1) genes...
October 15, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Donghong Li, Lihong Chen, Huifang Wang, Hongli Yang, Yuping Dai, Cuige Yu, Yun Dong
AIM: A newly developed cervical cancer screening method - folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining utilizes methylene blue internalized by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis to stain cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. We test the clinical feasibility of this method in this study. METHODS: A total of 14 344 women who were at least 21 years old and had been sexually active, participated in the study. In gynecological clinics, participants underwent cervical cancer screening with folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining followed by cytology sampling...
October 14, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Fernanda Paula Yamamoto Silva, Andrielle Dias, Carolinne Almeida Coelho, Eliete Neves Guerra, Ana Elizia Mascarenhas Marques, Daniel de Almeida Decurcio, Andrea Mantesso, Sérgio Elias Vieira Cury, Brunno Santos de Freitas Silva
Multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas are benign odontogenic tumors that present distinct biological behavior. The investigation of stem cells has become an important branch of tumor biology, with several studies addressing the possible role of these cells in tumor growth, angiogenesis, progression, infiltration and invasiveness. This study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of CD90(Thy-1) and P75NTR stem cell markers in multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas. Seventeen (17) samples of ameloblastomas (multicystic, n = 10; unicystic, n = 7) were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions and graded semi-quantitatively...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Pardeep Kumar, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Kirandeep Bhullar, Hyungjun Yang, Bruce A Vallance, Lijun Xia, Qingwei Luo, James M Fleckenstein
At present, there is no vaccine for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), an important cause of diarrheal illness. Nevertheless, recent microbial pathogenesis studies have identified a number of molecules produced by ETEC that contribute to its virulence and which provide novel antigenic targets to complement canonical vaccine approaches. EtpA is a secreted two-partner adhesin, that is conserved within the ETEC pathovar. EtpA interacts with the tips of ETEC flagella to promote bacterial adhesion, toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by forming molecular bridges between the bacteria and the epithelial surface...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Defne Yalçın Yeler, Murat Aydın, Peyami Turgay Hocaoğlu, Melike Koraltan, Hakan Özdemir, Tuğba Kotil, Mehmet Gül
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) appear mainly in the oral air of patients with halitosis. It seems that VSCs are directly involved in the pathogenesis of gingival diseases. In previous studies, short-term (7 hours-4 days), high concentrations (5-400 ppm) of H2S applications on periodontal tissues have been evaluated in a culture medium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of lower (equivalent to halitosis) concentrations of H2S on rat gingival tissue for longer-term inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Hao Chen, Robert Klein, Stacy Arnold, Setsuko Chambers, Wenxin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests the fallopian tube as the origin for ovarian high grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). We attempted to identify the tubal cytological features that allow us to distinguish malignant from benign conditions. METHODS: Tubal specimens (n = 56) were collected from patients who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) due to various clinical indications. A standard procedure to collect fallopian tube brushings from freshly received surgical specimens was developed...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Xuefeng Deng, Peng Xu, Wei Zou, Weiran Shen, Jianxin Peng, Kaiyu Liu, John F Engelhardt, Ziying Yan, Jianming Qiu
: Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelia air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (PLoS Pathog., 2016; 12:e1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
S Kang, C Zhang, T Ohno, M Azuma
The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway regulates immune responses and maintains homeostasis. Here, we identified a unique expression of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) on masticatory mucosae in the oral cavity. B7-H1 was physiologically expressed on the dorsal surface of the tongue, gingiva, and hard palate. Other squamous epithelia and other structures of the epithelia did not express B7-H1 in the steady state. Physiological B7-H1 expression on masticatory mucosae was limited on prickle cells, and its expression on basal keratinocytes (KCs) was strictly regulated...
October 12, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Benoit Aigouy, Daiki Umetsu, Suzanne Eaton
Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marta Wieczorek, Annette Czernik
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a fatal autoimmune blistering disease associated with an underlying malignancy. It is a newly recognized blistering disease, which was first recognized in 1990 by Dr Anhalt who described an atypical pemphigus with associated neoplasia. In 2001, Nguyen proposed the term paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome because of the recognition that the condition affects multiple organ systems. PNP presents most frequently between 45 and 70 years old, but it also occurs in children and adolescents...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Daijirou Arakawa, Arisa Ito, Fumitaka Osakada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Yuichi Uchino, Ashley M Woodward, Pablo Argüeso
Mucins are a group of highly glycosylated glycoproteins responsible for the protection of wet-surfaced epithelia. Recent data indicate that transmembrane mucins differ in their contribution to the protective function of the ocular surface, with MUC16 being the most effective barrier on the apical surface glycocalyx. Here, we investigated the role of the mucoprotective drug rebamipide in the regulation of transmembrane mucin biosynthesis using stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Erik Tenland, Gisela Håkansson, Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used as a benchmark to compare the immunogenicity of new vaccines against tuberculosis. This live vaccine is administered intradermal, but several new studies show that changing the route to mucosal immunisation represents an improved strategy. We analysed the immunomodulatory functions of BCG on human neutrophils and primary airway epithelial cells (AECs), as the early events of mucosal immune activation are unclear. Neutrophils and the primary epithelial cells were found to express the IL-17A receptor subunit IL-17RA, while the expression of IL-17RE was only observed on epithelial cells...
2016: PloS One
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