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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781132/egr2-mediates-the-differentiation-of-mouse-uterine-stromal-cells-responsiveness-to-hb-egf-during-decidualization
#1
Liang Yue, Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Qing Yang, Xue-Chao Tian, Lian-Wen Zheng, Bin Guo
Although Egr2 is involved in regulating the folliculogenesis and ovulation, there is almost no data describing its physiological function in embryo implantation and decidualization. Here, we showed that Egr2 mRNA was distinctly accumulated in subluminal stromal cells around implanting blastocyst on day 5 of pregnancy as well as in estrogen-activated implantation uterus. Estrogen induced the expression of Egr2 in uterine epithelia. Elevated expression of Egr2 mRNA was also observed in the decidual cells. Silencing of Egr2 by specific siRNA weakened the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and reduced the expression of Ccnd1, Ccnd3, Cdk4, and Cdk6...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778753/sm22-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-actin-rich-structures-generated-during-bacterial-infections
#2
Michael Dominic Chua, Kevin Jay Hipolito, Onisukomen Benny Singerr, Julian Solway, Julian Andrew Guttman
The host actin cytoskeleton is utilized by an assortment of pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause disease in their hosts. Two prominently studied actin-hijacking bacteria are enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. EPEC form actin-rich pedestals atop its host cells to move across the intestinal epithelia, while Listeria monocytogenes generate branched actin networks arranged as actin clouds around the bacteria and as comet tails for propulsion within and amongst their host cells...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777801/computer-simulation-of-neutral-drift-among-limbal-epithelial-stem-cells-of-mosaic-mice
#3
John D West, Richard L Mort, Robert E Hill, Steven D Morley, J Martin Collinson
The use of mice that are mosaic for reporter gene expression underlies many lineage-tracing studies in stem cell biology. For example, using mosaic LacZ reporter mice, it was shown that limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) around the periphery of the cornea maintain radial sectors of the corneal epithelium and that radial stripe numbers declined with age. Originally, the corneal results were interpreted as progressive, age-related loss or irreversible inactivation of some LESC clones. In this study we used computer simulations to show that these results could also be explained by stochastic replacement of LESCs by neighbouring LESCs, leading to neutral drift of LESC populations...
May 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774026/critical-role-of-alternative-m2-skewing-in-mir-155-deletion-mediated-protection-of-colitis
#4
Jintao Li, Ji Zhang, Hongxia Guo, Shimin Yang, Weiping Fan, Nan Ye, Zhiqiang Tian, Tiantian Yu, Guoping Ai, Zigang Shen, Haiyang He, Ping Yan, Hui Lin, Xue Luo, Hongli Li, Yuzhang Wu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response in the intestine. MicroRNA (miR)-155 is frequently expressed and functions in many immune cell types. Besides its function in adaptive immunity, miR-155 is a key regulator of the innate immune response in macrophages, dendritic cells, and even in epithelia cells. Although the roles of miR-155 within T and B lymphocytes in colitis have been reported, its function in innate immune cells has not been thoroughly examined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773109/recombinant-%C3%AB-defensin-126-promotes-bull-sperm-binding-to-bovine-oviductal-epithelia
#5
A Lyons, F Narciandi, E Donnellan, J Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, C O' Farrelly, P Lonergan, K G Meade, S Fair
Primate β-defensin 126 regulates the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviductal epithelial cells invitro. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression in the cauda epididymis of the bull, but there have been few studies on its functional role in cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm binding to bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) explants. BBD126 has been shown to be highly resistant to the standard methods of dissociation used in other species and, as a result, corpus epididymal spermatozoa, which have not been exposed to the protein, were used to study the functional role of BBD126...
May 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771197/emerging-insights-into-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#6
K A Alamoud, M A Kukuruzinska
Head and neck cancer presents primarily as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a debilitating malignancy fraught with high morbidity, poor survival rates, and limited treatment options. Mounting evidence indicates that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in the pathobiology of HNSCC. Wnt/β-catenin signaling affects multiple cellular processes that endow cancer cells with the ability to maintain and expand immature stem-like phenotypes, proliferate, extend survival, and acquire aggressive characteristics by adopting mesenchymal traits...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769782/graft-versus-host-disease-presenting-as-fibrosing-alopecia-in-a-pattern-distribution-a-model-for-pathophysiological-understanding-of-cicatricial-pattern-hair-loss
#7
Hudson Dutra Rezende, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias, Ralph Michel Trüeb
A case of cutaneous graft versus host disease (GvHD) presenting as fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) is discussed, possibly providing a mechanistic model for a better understanding of the pathogenic events underlying cicatricial pattern hair loss. The implication of a follicular inflammation and fibrosis associated with patterned hair loss has emerged from several independent studies. Eventually, Zinkernagel and Trüeb reported a peculiar type of cicatricial pattern hair loss with histopathological features consistent with lichen planopilaris (LPP) associated with androgenetic alopecia (AGA)...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767852/membrane-tethered-syntaxin-4-locally-abrogates-e-cadherin-function-and-activates-smad-signals-contributing-to-asymmetric-mammary-epithelial-morphogenesis
#8
Yuina Hirose, Kota Shirai, Yohei Hirai
Spatial and temporal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event for the generation of asymmetric epithelial architectures. We found that only restricted cell populations in the morphogenic mammary epithelia extrude syntaxin-4, a plasmalemmal t-SNARE protein, and that epithelial cell clusters with artificial heterogenic presentation of extracellular syntaxin-4 undergo asymmetric morphogenesis. A previous study revealed that inducible expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 causes EMT-like cell behaviors in the clonal mammary epithelial cells, where laminin-mediated signals were abolished so that cells readily succumb to initiate EMT...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766388/molecular-evolution-of-metaplasia-to-adenocarcinoma-in-the-esophagus
#9
REVIEW
William M Grady, Ming Yu
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a condition where the normal squamous epithelia is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia in response to chronic gastroesophageal acid reflux. In a minority of individuals, BE can progress to low- and high-grade dysplasia and eventually to intra-mucosal and then invasive carcinoma. BE provides researchers with a unique model to characterize the process by which a carcinoma arises from its precursor lesion. Molecular studies of BE have demonstrated that it is not simply a metaplastic tissue, but rather it harbors frequent alterations that are also present in dysplastic BE and in EAC...
May 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#10
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760215/specific-binding-to-differentially-expressed-human-ceacams-determines-the-outcome-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections-along-the-female-reproductive-tract
#11
Epshita A Islam, Varun C Anipindi, Ian Francis, Yazdan Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Stacey Xu, Nelly Leung, Anna Sintsova, Mohsen Amin, Charu Kaushic, Lee M Wetzler, Scott D Gray-Owen
The gonococcal Opa proteins are an antigenically variable family of surface adhesins that bind human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5 and/or CEACAM6, cell surface glycoproteins that are differentially expressed on a broad spectrum of human cells and tissues. While presumed to be important for infection, the significance of various Opa-CEACAM mediated cellular interactions in the context of the genital tract has remained unclear. Here, we observe that CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 are differentially expressed on epithelia lining the upper and lower portions of the human female genital tract, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757291/virus-delivery-of-crispr-guides-to-the-murine-prostate-for-gene-alteration
#12
Maria Riedel, Martin F Berthelsen, Latifa Bakiri, Erwin F Wagner, Martin K Thomsen
With an increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identification of new tumor drivers or modulators is crucial. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) for prostate cancer are hampered by tumor heterogeneity and its complex microevolution dynamics. Traditional prostate cancer mouse models include, amongst others, germline and conditional knockouts, transgenic expression of oncogenes, and xenograft models. Generation of de novo mutations in these models is complex, time-consuming, and costly. In addition, most of traditional models target the majority of the prostate epithelium, whereas human prostate cancer is well known to evolve as an isolated event in only a small subset of cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755451/autoantibody-signaling-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-development-of-an-integrated-model
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Sajda, Animesh A Sinha
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin blistering disease effecting both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Blister formation in PV is known to result from the binding of autoantibodies (autoAbs) to keratinocyte antigens. The primary antigenic targets of pathogenic autoAbs are known to be desmoglein 3, and to a lesser extent, desmoglein 1, cadherin family proteins that partially comprise the desmosome, a protein structure responsible for maintaining cell adhesion, although additional autoAbs, whose role in blister formation is still unclear, are also known to be present in PV patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754957/pharmacological-inhibition-of-the-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf5-rescues-f508del-cftr-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-epithelia
#14
Elvira Sondo, Federico Falchi, Emanuela Caci, Loretta Ferrera, Elisa Giacomini, Emanuela Pesce, Valeria Tomati, Sine Mandrup Bertozzi, Luca Goldoni, Andrea Armirotti, Roberto Ravazzolo, Andrea Cavalli, Nicoletta Pedemonte
In cystic fibrosis (CF), deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the CFTR channel is associated with misfolding and premature degradation of the mutant protein. Among the known proteins associated with F508del-CFTR processing, the ubiquitin ligase RNF5/RMA1 is particularly interesting. We previously demonstrated that genetic suppression of RNF5 in vivo leads to an attenuation of intestinal pathological phenotypes in CF mice, validating the relevance of RNF5 as a drug target for CF. Here, we used a computational approach, based on ligand docking and virtual screening, to discover inh-02, a drug-like small molecule that inhibits RNF5...
April 26, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754876/bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-antagonizes-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-avian-auditory-epithelium
#15
Rebecca M Lewis, Jesse J Keller, Liangcai Wan, Jennifer S Stone
Permanent hearing loss is often a result of damage to cochlear hair cells, which mammals are unable to regenerate. Non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds replace damaged hair cells and restore hearing function, but mechanisms controlling regeneration are not understood. The secreted protein bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) regulates inner ear morphogenesis and hair cell development. To investigate mechanisms controlling hair cell regeneration in birds, we examined expression and function of BMP4 in the auditory epithelia (basilar papillae) of chickens of either sex after hair cell destruction by ototoxic antibiotics...
May 2, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752569/widespread-expression-of-perilipin-5-in-normal-human-tissues-and-in-diseases-is-restricted-to-distinct-lipid-droplet-subpopulations
#16
Merita Hashani, Hagen Roland Witzel, Lena Maria Pawella, Judith Lehmann-Koch, Jens Schumacher, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, Martina Schnölzer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Beate Katharina Straub
Diseases associated with the accumulation of lipid droplets are increasing in western countries. Lipid droplet biogenesis, structure and degradation are regulated by proteins of the perilipin family. Perilipin 5 has been shown to regulate basal lipolysis in oxidative tissues. We examine perilipin 5 in normal human tissues and in diseases using protein biochemical and microscopic techniques. Perilipin 5 was constitutively located at small lipid droplets in skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes and brown adipocytes...
May 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751628/the-double-face-of-mucin-type-o-glycans-in-lectin-mediated-infection-and-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Julia Borkowski, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Epithelial human blood group antigens (HBGAs) on O-glycans play roles in pathogen binding and the initiation of infection, while similar structures on secretory mucins exert protective functions. These double-faced features of O-glycans in infection and innate immunity are reviewed based on two instructive examples of bacterial and viral pathogens. Helicobacter pylori represents a class 1 carcinogen in the human stomach. By expressing blood group antigen-binding adhesin ( BabA ) and LabA adhesins that bind to Lewis-b and LacdiNAc, respectively, H...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751397/microplastic-accumulation-patterns-and-transfer-of-benzo-a-pyrene-to-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-gills-and-zebrafish-embryos
#18
Annika Batel, Flora Borchert, Hannes Reinwald, Lothar Erdinger, Thomas Braunbeck
Since only a few studies have investigated effects of microplastics (MPs) by routes other than ingestion, this study was designed to analyze the accumulation patterns and transfer of toxic substances associated with microplastic exposure by simple attachment to (1) adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) gills and (2) zebrafish embryos. Two sizes of fluorescently labelled polymers (1-5 and 10-20 μm) loaded with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were used to analyze fate, accumulation and transfer of microplastic-associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on gills and embryos...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750109/mediastinal-cysts-with-mullerian-differentiation
#19
Hiroyuki Miura, Jun Miura, Hiroshi Hirano
Mediastinal cysts with Mullerian differentiation are characterized by oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive cell linings. We treated four patients with mediastinal cysts with Mullerian differentiation. All patients were female, from 46 to 52 years old, and had BMIs greater than 26 kg/m2 . All but one patient with cough were asymptomatic. The tumours were located in the paravertebral areas around the Th-1-7 vertebrae. There was no left/right difference. All of the preoperative diagnoses were bronchial cysts...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750004/testicular-microlithiasis-in-a-clinically-healthy-cynomolgus-monkey-macaca-fascicularis
#20
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
The present article describes an occurrence of testicular microlithiasis in a cynomolgus monkey from a routine regulatory toxicology study. The monkey was from a negative control group. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by multiple extracellular mineralized calculi within seminiferous tubular epithelia of both testes without any tissue reaction or abnormal condition such as cryptorchidism, testicular neoplasm, or hypogonadism. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports on spontaneous testicular microlithiasis in nonhuman primates...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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