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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926502/limbal-cysts-a-subset-exhibiting-cornea-specific-cytokeratins
#1
Norman C Charles, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, Ilyse D Haberman, Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Ula V Jurkunas
Two cases of limbal cysts lined by nonkeratinizing epithelium were studied with a panel of cytokeratins. One was a long-standing lesion in a 30-year-old man, whereas the other was excised from a 40-year-old man following pterygium surgery. Each cyst was immunostained with a panel of cytokeratins that were specific exclusively and separately for corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The epithelial lining of each cyst was CK12 positive for corneal epithelium and CK13 negative for conjunctival epithelium. It is hypothesized that a subset of corneoscleral cysts contain corneal epithelium, probably derived from a type of limbal stem cell differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#2
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923859/upregulation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-colonic-epithelia-reprograms-metabolism-and-promotes-carcinogenesis
#3
Ches'Nique M Phillips, John Zatarain, Michael E Nicholls, Craig Porter, Steve G Widen, Ketan Thanki, Paul Johnson, Muhammad U Jawad, Mary Pat Moyer, James W Randall, Judith L Hellmich, Manjit Maskey, Suimin Qiu, Thomas Wood, Nadiya Druzhyna, Bartosz Szczesny, Katalin Modis, Csaba Szabo, Celia Chao, Mark R Hellmich
The transsulfuration enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and its product hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are aberrantly upregulated in colorectal cancers, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression by both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether the CBS/H2S axis plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we report upregulation of CBS in human biopsies of precancerous adenomatous polyps and show that forced upregulation of CBS in an adenoma-like colonic epithelial cell line is sufficient to induce metabolic and gene expression profiles characteristic of colorectal cancer cells...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921916/inversed-expression-patterns-of-s100a4-and-e-cadherin-in-cervical-cancers-implication-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Ming Liu, Jia Liu, Bin Yang, Xue Gao, Ling-Lu Gao, Qing-You Kong, Peng Zhang, Hong Li
Cervical cancer/CC is the third commonest female malignancy worldwide. The aggressive growth and distal metastases are the leading causes of CC mortality, which is largely due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition/EMT. Fibroblast specific protein S100A4 promotes cancer metastasis and epithelial type cadherin/E-cadherin play pivotal roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Therefore, the expression patterns of S100A4 and E-cadherin reflect statuses of EMT of carcinoma cells. However, S100A4 expression and its relevance with E-cadherin and HPV16 infection in cervical cancers remain unknown...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916430/therapeutic-approaches-to-cftr-dysfunction-from-discovery-to-drug-development
#5
Hongyu Li, Emanuela Pesce, David N Sheppard, Ashvani K Singh, Nicoletta Pedemonte
Cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations have complex effects on the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. They disrupt its processing to and stability at the plasma membrane and function as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. Here, we review therapeutic strategies to overcome defective CFTR processing and stability. Because CF mutations have multiple impacts on the assembly of CFTR protein, combination therapy with several pharmacological chaperones is likely to be required to rescue mutant CFTR expression at the plasma membrane...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916356/molecular-characterization-of-polymeric-immunoglobulin-receptor-and-expression-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge-in-carassius-auratus
#6
Li Wang, Jie Zhang, Xianghui Kong, Chao Pei, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li
The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays a pivotal role in mucosal immune response by transporting polymeric immunoglobulins onto the surface of mucosal epithelia to protect animals from invading pathogens. In this study, the full-length cDNA of pIgR was firstly cloned in Qihe crucian carp (Carassius auratus), hereafter designated as CapIgR, by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The molecular characterization and expression of CapIgR were investigated...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915334/epithelial-organization-the-gut-and-beyond
#7
Nitesh Shashikanth, Sunil Yeruva, Ma Lora Drizella M Ong, Matthew A Odenwald, Roman Pavlyuk, Jerrold R Turner
Epithelial cells are essential to the survival and homeostasis of complex organisms. These cells cover the surfaces of all mucosae, the skin, and other compartmentalized structures essential to physiological function. In addition to maintenance of barriers that separate internal and external compartments, epithelia display a variety of organ-specific differentiated functions. Function is reflected in overall epithelial structure and organization, shape of individual cells, and proteins expressed by these cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912507/fast-track-development-of-an-in-vitro-3d-lung-immune-cell-model-to-study-aspergillus-infections
#8
P Chandorkar, W Posch, V Zaderer, M Blatzer, M Steger, C G Ammann, U Binder, M Hermann, P Hörtnagl, C Lass-Flörl, D Wilflingseder
To study interactions of airborne pathogens, e.g. Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus with upper and lower respiratory tract epithelial and immune cells, we set up a perfused 3D human bronchial and small airway epithelial cell system. Culturing of normal human bronchial or small airway epithelial (NHBE, SAE) cells under air liquid interphase (ALI) and perfusion resulted in a significantly accelerated development of the lung epithelia associated with higher ciliogenesis, cilia movement, mucus-production and improved barrier function compared to growth under static conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904313/immune-receptors-cd40-and-cd86-in-oral-keratinocytes-and-implications-for-oral-lichen-planus
#9
Alison Marshall, Antonio Celentano, Nicola Cirillo, Michiko Mirams, Michael McCullough, Stephen Porter
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic T-cell-mediated mucocutaneous inflammatory disease that targets stratified epithelia, including those lining the oral cavity. The intraoral variant of LP (OLP) is associated with interferon (IFN)-γ production by infiltrating T lymphocytes; however, the role of epithelial cells in the etiopathogenesis OLP is not completely understood. There is however a growing body of evidence regarding the involvement of epithelial-derived cytokines, immune receptors, and costimulatory molecules in the pathobiological processes that promote and sustain OLP...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904199/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-induces-hiv-1-proteasomal-degradation-in-mucosal-langerhans-cells
#10
Morgane Bomsel, Yonatan Ganor
The neuro-immune dialogue between peripheral neurons and Langerhans cells (LCs) within mucosal epithelia protects against incoming pathogens. LCs rapidly internalize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon its sexual transmission and then trans-infect CD4+ T-cells. We recently found that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted mucosally from peripheral neurons, inhibits LCs-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of CGRP-induced inhibition, focusing on HIV-1 degradation in LCs and its interplay with trans-infection...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901819/dna-methylation-changes-in-human-lung-epithelia-cells-exposed-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Marta I Sierra, Laura Rubio, Gustavo F Bayón, Isabel Cobo, Pablo Menendez, Paula Morales, Cristina Mangas, Rocio G Urdinguio, Virginia Lopez, Adolfo Valdes, Gerard Vales, Ricard Marcos, Ramon Torrecillas, Agustin F Fernández, Mario F Fraga
Humans are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles and, although many of their physiological effects have been described, the molecular mechanisms underlying them are still largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine the possible role of certain epigenetic mechanisms in the cellular response of human lung epithelial cells that are triggered by long-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The results showed that exposure to TiO2NPs had only minor effects on genome-wide DNA methylation...
September 13, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901280/neuronal-and-extraneuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
Michele Zoli, Susanna Pucci, Antonietta Vilella, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a super-family of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels that respond to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or other cholinergic ligands. These receptors are also the targets of drugs such as nicotine (the main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke) and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression and/or function of nAChRs is compromised in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900043/a-natural-ligand-for-the-orphan-receptor-gpr15-modulates-lymphocyte-recruitment-to-epithelia
#13
Thomas Suply, Sébastien Hannedouche, Nathalie Carte, Jianping Li, Bianka Grosshans, Michael Schaefer, Layla Raad, Valérie Beck, Solange Vidal, Agnès Hiou-Feige, Noémie Beluch, Samuel Barbieri, Johann Wirsching, Nadine Lageyre, Frank Hillger, Corinne Debon, Janet Dawson, Philip Smith, Vincent Lannoy, Michel Detheux, Francis Bitsch, Rocco Falchetto, Tewis Bouwmeester, Jeffrey Porter, Birgit Baumgarten, Keith Mansfield, José M Carballido, Klaus Seuwen, Frédéric Bassilana
GPR15 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found in lymphocytes. It functions as a co-receptor of simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 and plays a role in the trafficking of T cells to the lamina propria in the colon and to the skin. We describe the purification from porcine colonic tissue extracts of an agonistic ligand for GPR15 and its functional characterization. In humans, this ligand, which we named GPR15L, is encoded by the gene C10ORF99 and has some features similar to the CC family of chemokines...
September 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899944/novel-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-transcript-expressed-in-the-bovine-placenta-is-regulated-by-wnt-signaling
#14
Toshihiro Sakurai, So Nakagawa, Hanako Bai, Rulan Bai, Kazuya Kusama, Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi, Kazuyuki Kaneko, Kosuke Iga, Jiro Yasuda, Takayuki Miyazawa, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are involved in placentation; perhaps the most well-known ERV s are the syncytins, actively transcribed env genes involved in cell-cell fusion and possible morphological variations. However, ERVs other than syncytins that play an important role in placental development have not been well characterized. To identify ERV genes expressed during the onset of placentation in the bovine species, we characterized the expression profiles of bovine conceptus transcripts during the peri-attachment period using RNA-seq analysis, and confirming some candidates through real-time PCR...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#15
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899691/transcriptome-modulation-of-bovine-trophoblast-cells-in-vitro-by-neospora-caninum
#16
Pilar Horcajo, Laura Jiménez-Pelayo, Marta García-Sánchez, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Esther Collantes-Fernández, Daniel Rozas, Nina Hambruch, Christiane Pfarrer, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora
Neospora caninum is one of the most efficient transplacentally transmitted pathogens in cattle and is a cause of abortion in this domestic species. The invasion and proliferation of Neospora caninum in the placenta and its dissemination to the foetus are crucial events in the outcome of an infection. In the bovine placenta, the placentomes are formed by maternal caruncles, which are delimited by a maternal epithelium and foetal cotyledons, which are delimited by an epithelial layer named the trophoblast. These epithelia form a physical barrier against foetal infection...
September 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895793/food-stabilizing-antioxidants-increase-nutrient-bioavailability-in-the-in-vitro-model
#17
Magdalena Mika, Agnieszka Wikiera, Anna Antończyk, Maja Grabacka
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether antioxidants may enhance bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates and therefore increase the risk of obesity development. METHODS: We tested how supplementation with antioxidants (0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], α-tocopherol, and green tea catechins) of a diet containing butter and wheat bread affects bioavailability of fats and carbohydrates. The absorption of the in vitro digested diet was estimated in the intestinal epithelia model of the Caco-2 cells cultured in Transwell chambers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894270/a-novel-role-for-nanog-as-an-early-cancer-risk-marker-in-patients-with-laryngeal-precancerous-lesions
#18
Juan P Rodrigo, M Ángeles Villaronga, Sofía T Menéndez, Francisco Hermida-Prado, Miquel Quer, Isabel Vilaseca, Eva Allonca, Daniel Pedregal Mallo, Aurora Astudillo, Juana M García-Pedrero
NANOG is a master regulator of embryonic stem cell pluripotency, found to be frequently aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including laryngeal carcinomas. This study investigates for the first time the role of NANOG expression in early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and its potential utility as cancer risk marker. NANOG protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using two large independent cohorts of patients with laryngeal precancerous lesions, and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and laryngeal cancer risk...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893859/adherens-junctions-and-desmosomes-coordinate-mechanics-and-signaling-to-orchestrate-tissue-morphogenesis-and-function-an-evolutionary-perspective
#19
Matthias Rübsam, Joshua A Broussard, Sara A Wickström, Oxana Nekrasova, Kathleen J Green, Carien M Niessen
Cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes are crucial to couple intercellular adhesion to the actin or intermediate filament cytoskeletons, respectively. As such, these intercellular junctions are essential to provide not only integrity to epithelia and other tissues but also the mechanical machinery necessary to execute complex morphogenetic and homeostatic intercellular rearrangements. Moreover, these spatially defined junctions serve as signaling hubs that integrate mechanical and chemical pathways to coordinate tissue architecture with behavior...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892046/targeting-nuclear-receptors-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-as-concurrent-therapy-to-inhibit-development-of-chemoresistant-tumors
#20
J S K Chan, M K Sng, Z Q Teo, H C Chong, J S Twang, N S Tan
Most anticancer therapies to date focus on druggable features of tumor epithelia. Despite the increasing repertoire of treatment options, patient responses remain varied. Moreover, tumor resistance and relapse remain persistent clinical challenges. These observations imply an incomplete understanding of tumor heterogeneity. The tumor microenvironment is a major determinant of disease progression and therapy outcome. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the dominant cell type within the reactive stroma of tumors...
September 11, 2017: Oncogene
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