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Melanopsin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910447/orexin-a-suppresses-signal-transmission-to-dopaminergic-amacrine-cells-from-outer-and-inner-retinal-photoreceptors
#1
Sheng-Nan Qiao, Wei Zhou, Lei-Lei Liu, Dao-Qi Zhang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Purpose: The neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina; however, their role in visual function is unclear. This study investigates whether and how orexins modulate signal transmission to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) from both outer retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) and inner retinal photoreceptors (melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells [ipRGCs]). Methods: A whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record light-induced responses from genetically labeled DACs in flat-mount mouse retinas...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882814/opsin-3-and-4-mediate-light-induced-pulmonary-vasorelaxation-that-is-potentiated-by-g-protein-receptor-kinase-2-inhibition
#2
Sebastian Barreto Ortiz, Daijiro Hori, Yohei Nomura, Xin Yun, Haiyang Jiang, Hwanmee Yong, James Chen, Sam Paek, Deepesh Pandey, Gautam Sikka, Anil Bhatta, Andrew Gillard, Jochen Steppan, Jae Hyung Kim, Hideo Adachi, Viachaslau Barodka, Lewis Romer, Steven S An, Larissa A Shimoda, Lakshmi Santhanam, Dan E Berkowitz
We recently demonstrated that blue light induces vasorelaxation in the systemic mouse circulation, a phenomenon mediated by the non-visual G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) melanopsin (opsin 4; Opn4). Here we tested the hypothesis that non-visual opsins mediate photorelaxation in the pulmonary circulation. We discovered Opsin 3 (Opn3), Opn4, and G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs) and in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), where the opsins interact directly with GRK2 as demonstrated with a proximity ligation assay...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880021/long-term-expression-of-melanopsin-and-channelrhodopsin-causes-no-gross-alterations-in-the-dystrophic-dog-retina
#3
B Ameline, K-T Tshilenge, M Weber, M Biget, L Libeau, R Caplette, A Mendes-Madeira, N Provost, C Guihal, S Picaud, P Moullier, V Pichard, T Cronin, C Isiegas
Several preclinical studies have investigated the potential of algal channelrhodopsin and human melanopsin as optogenetic tools for vision restoration. In the present study, we assessed the potentially deleterious effects of long-term expression of these optogenes on the diseased retina in a large animal model of retinal degeneration, the RPE65-deficient Briard dog model of Leber congenital amaurosis. Intravitreal injection of adeno-associated virus vectors expressing channelrhodopsin and melanopsin had no effect on retinal thickness over a 16-month period post injection...
September 7, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874778/the-impact-of-temporal-modulations-in-irradiance-under-light-adapted-conditions-on-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nuclei-scn
#4
Rachel Dobb, Franck Martial, Daniel Elijah, Riccardo Storchi, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
Electrophysiological responses of SCN neurons to light steps are well established, but responses to more natural modulations in irradiance have been much less studied. We address this deficit first by showing that variations in irradiance for human subjects are biased towards low temporal frequencies and small magnitudes. Using extracellular recordings we show that neurons in the mouse SCN are responsive to stimuli with these characteristics, tracking sinusoidal modulations in irradiance best at lower temporal frequencies and responding to abrupt changes in irradiance over a range of commonly encountered contrasts...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871236/non-visual-photopigments-effects-of-constant-light-emitting-diode-light-exposure-on-the-inner-retina-of-wistar-rats
#5
María M Benedetto, Mario E Guido, María A Contin
The retina is part of the central nervous system specially adapted to capture light photons and transmit this information to the brain through photosensitive retinal cells involved in visual and non-visual activities. However, excessive light exposure may accelerate genetic retinal diseases or induce photoreceptor cell (PRC) death, finally leading to retinal degeneration (RD). Light pollution (LP) caused by the characteristic use of artificial light in modern day life may accelerate degenerative diseases or promote RD and circadian desynchrony...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801634/mapping-physiological-inputs-from-multiple-photoreceptor-systems-to-dopaminergic-amacrine-cells-in-the-mouse-retina
#6
Xiwu Zhao, Kwoon Y Wong, Dao-Qi Zhang
In the vertebrate retina, dopamine is synthesized and released by a specialized type of amacrine cell, the dopaminergic amacrine cell (DAC). DAC activity is stimulated by rods, cones, and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells upon illumination. However, the relative contributions of these three photoreceptor systems to the DAC light-induced response are unknown. Here we found that rods excite dark-adapted DACs across a wide range of stimulation intensities, primarily through connexin-36-dependent rod pathways...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782536/immunolesion-of-melanopsin-neurons-causes-gonadal-regression-in-pekin-drakes-anas-platyrhynchos-domesticus
#7
H Potter, E Alenciks, K Frazier, A Porter, G S Fraley
Several light sensitive receptors have been described in the avian brain that are thought to regulate the reproductive axis independently from the eyes and pineal gland.Recently, our lab has described the presence of three of these photoneuroendocrine systems in the Pekin duck: opsin, opsin 5, & melanopsin. We set out to test the hypothesis that melanopsin receptive neurons are necessary to maintain seasonal reproductive status along with growth and development in the Pekin drake. To accomplish these goals we first investigated 50-week-old Pekin drakes that were housed in the aviary at Hope College under long day length (18 hrs lights on) conditions in floor pens...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758193/melanopsin-ganglion-cell-outer-retinal-dendrites-morphologically-distinct-and-asymmetrically-distributed-in-the-mouse-retina
#8
Katelyn B Sondereker, Jessica R Onyak, Shakib W Islam, Christopher L Ross, Jordan M Renna
A small population of retinal ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751938/led-lights-with-hidden-intensity-modulated-blue-channels-aiming-for-enhanced-subconscious-visual-responses
#9
Garen Vartanian, Kwoon Y Wong, Pei-Cheng Ku
A new form of light-emitting diode (LED) light suitable for general illumination is proposed to enhance subconscious, nonimage-forming visual responses, which are essential to our well-being. Pulsing light has been shown to reduce photoreceptor adaptation and elicit stronger subconscious visual responses at an indoor illumination level. Using the silent substitution technique, a melanopsin-selective flicker can be added into white light. A linear optimization algorithm was developed to suppress any perceivable fluctuation of light intensity and colors of illuminated objects...
June 2017: IEEE Photonics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716667/pupillometric-evaluation-of-the-melanopsin-containing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mitochondrial-and-non-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#10
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Henrik Lund-Andersen
In recent years, chromatic pupillometry is used in humans to evaluate the activity of melanopsin expressing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Blue light is used to stimulate the ipRGCs and red light activates the rod/cone photoreceptors. The late re-dilation phase of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708670/color-pupillography-in-dorsal-midbrain-syndrome
#11
Carina B Kelbsch, Fumiatsu Maeda, Torsten Strasser, Tobias M Peters, Barbara J C Wilhelm, Helmut M Wilhelm
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pupil response to chromatic stimuli in patients with lesions in the dorsal midbrain and possibly gain new insights into the afferent pupillary pathways. METHODS: Color pupillography was performed in 5 patients with dorsal midbrain syndrome (DMS), and their results were compared with those of 20 healthy control subjects. We used full-field red stimuli (605 nm) that primarily address the rod/cone system and blue stimuli (420 nm) that preferentially activate intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) directly, with a duration of 4 seconds and a stimulus intensity of 28 lx corneal illumination under mesopic conditions...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697776/exposure-to-blue-light-during-lunch-break-effects-on-autonomic-arousal-and-behavioral-alertness
#12
Emi Yuda, Hiroki Ogasawara, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano
BACKGROUND: Exposures to melanopsin-stimulating (melanopic) component-rich blue light enhance arousal level. We examined their effects in office workers. Eight healthy university office workers were exposed to blue and orange lights for 30 min during lunch break on different days. We compared the effects of light color on autonomic arousal level assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and behavioral alertness by psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT). Heart rate was higher and high-frequency (HF, 0...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697361/vision-melanopsin-as-a-raumgeber
#13
Manuel Spitschan, Geoffrey K Aguirre
Two new studies show that neural systems receiving inputs from the melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells encode spatial information and therefore see the world in more detail than previously thought.
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660274/pupillary-light-reflexes-in-severe-photoreceptor-blindness-isolate-the-melanopic-component-of-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cells
#14
Jason Charng, Samuel G Jacobson, Elise Heon, Alejandro J Roman, David B McGuigan, Rebecca Sheplock, Mychajlo S Kosyk, Malgorzata Swider, Artur V Cideciyan
Purpose: Pupillary light reflex (PLR) is driven by outer retinal photoreceptors and by melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of the inner retina. To isolate the melanopic component, we studied patients with severe vision loss due to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) caused by gene mutations acting on the outer retina. Methods: Direct PLR was recorded in LCA patients (n = 21) with known molecular causation and severe vision loss...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649427/global-rise-of-potential-health-hazards-caused-by-blue-light-induced-circadian-disruption-in-modern-aging-societies
#15
REVIEW
Megumi Hatori, Claude Gronfier, Russell N Van Gelder, Paul S Bernstein, Josep Carreras, Satchidananda Panda, Frederick Marks, David Sliney, Charles E Hunt, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Toshiharu Furukawa, Kazuo Tsubota
Mammals receive light information through the eyes, which perform two major functions: image forming vision to see objects and non-image forming adaptation of physiology and behavior to light. Cone and rod photoreceptors form images and send the information via retinal ganglion cells to the brain for image reconstruction. In contrast, nonimage-forming photoresponses vary widely from adjustment of pupil diameter to adaptation of the circadian clock. nonimage-forming responses are mediated by retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642483/masking-of-a-circadian-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish-involves-the-thalamo-habenula-pathway
#16
Qian Lin, Suresh Jesuthasan
Changes in illumination can rapidly influence behavior that is normally controlled by the circadian clock. This effect is termed masking. In mice, masking requires melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that detect blue light and project to the thalamus. It is not known whether masking is wavelength-dependent in other vertebrates, nor is it known whether the thalamus is also involved or how it influences masking. Here, we address these questions in zebrafish. We find that diel vertical migration, a circadian behavior in larval zebrafish, is effectively triggered by blue, but not by red light...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#17
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
August 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589149/dexamethasone-modulates-nonvisual-opsins-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-clock-genes-in-danio-rerio-zem-2s-cells
#19
Jennifer Caroline Sousa, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Maria Nathalia Moraes, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Here we report, for the first time, the differential cellular distribution of two melanopsins (Opn4m1 and Opn4m2) and the effects of GR agonist, dexamethasone, on the expression of these opsins and clock genes, in the photosensitive D. rerio ZEM-2S embryonic cells. Immunopositive labeling for Opn4m1 was detected in the cell membrane whereas Opn4m2 labeling shows nuclear localization, which did not change in response to light. opn4m1, opn4m2, gr, per1b, and cry1b presented an oscillatory profile of expression in LD condition...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578927/synergistic-signaling-by-light-and-acetylcholine-in-mouse-iris-sphincter-muscle
#20
Qian Wang, Wendy Wing Sze Yue, Zheng Jiang, Tian Xue, Shin H Kang, Dwight E Bergles, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Stefan Offermanns, King-Wai Yau
The mammalian pupillary light reflex (PLR) involves a bilateral brain circuit whereby afferent light signals in the optic nerve ultimately drive iris-sphincter-muscle contraction via excitatory cholinergic parasympathetic innervation [1, 2]. Additionally, the PLR in nocturnal and crepuscular sub-primate mammals has a "local" component in the isolated sphincter muscle [3-5], as in amphibians, fish, and bird [6-10]. In mouse, this local PLR requires the pigment melanopsin [5], originally found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) [11-19]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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