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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649427/global-rise-of-potential-health-hazards-caused-by-blue-light-induced-circadian-disruption-in-modern-aging-societies
#1
REVIEW
Megumi Hatori, Claude Gronfier, Russell N Van Gelder, Paul S Bernstein, Josep Carreras, Satchidananda Panda, Frederick Marks, David Sliney, Charles E Hunt, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Toshiharu Furukawa, Kazuo Tsubota
Mammals receive light information through the eyes, which perform two major functions: image forming vision to see objects and non-image forming adaptation of physiology and behavior to light. Cone and rod photoreceptors form images and send the information via retinal ganglion cells to the brain for image reconstruction. In contrast, nonimage-forming photoresponses vary widely from adjustment of pupil diameter to adaptation of the circadian clock. nonimage-forming responses are mediated by retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642483/masking-of-a-circadian-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish-involves-the-thalamo-habenula-pathway
#2
Qian Lin, Suresh Jesuthasan
Changes in illumination can rapidly influence behavior that is normally controlled by the circadian clock. This effect is termed masking. In mice, masking requires melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that detect blue light and project to the thalamus. It is not known whether masking is wavelength-dependent in other vertebrates, nor is it known whether the thalamus is also involved or how it influences masking. Here, we address these questions in zebrafish. We find that diel vertical migration, a circadian behavior in larval zebrafish, is effectively triggered by blue, but not by red light...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#3
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
June 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589149/dexamethasone-modulates-nonvisual-opsins-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-clock-genes-in-danio-rerio-zem-2s-cells
#5
Jennifer Caroline Sousa, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Maria Nathalia Moraes, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Here we report, for the first time, the differential cellular distribution of two melanopsins (Opn4m1 and Opn4m2) and the effects of GR agonist, dexamethasone, on the expression of these opsins and clock genes, in the photosensitive D. rerio ZEM-2S embryonic cells. Immunopositive labeling for Opn4m1 was detected in the cell membrane whereas Opn4m2 labeling shows nuclear localization, which did not change in response to light. opn4m1, opn4m2, gr, per1b, and cry1b presented an oscillatory profile of expression in LD condition...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578927/synergistic-signaling-by-light-and-acetylcholine-in-mouse-iris-sphincter-muscle
#6
Qian Wang, Wendy Wing Sze Yue, Zheng Jiang, Tian Xue, Shin H Kang, Dwight E Bergles, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Stefan Offermanns, King-Wai Yau
The mammalian pupillary light reflex (PLR) involves a bilateral brain circuit whereby afferent light signals in the optic nerve ultimately drive iris-sphincter-muscle contraction via excitatory cholinergic parasympathetic innervation [1, 2]. Additionally, the PLR in nocturnal and crepuscular sub-primate mammals has a "local" component in the isolated sphincter muscle [3-5], as in amphibians, fish, and bird [6-10]. In mouse, this local PLR requires the pigment melanopsin [5], originally found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) [11-19]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552384/light-induced-retinal-degeneration-causes-a-transient-downregulation-of-melanopsin-in-the-rat-retina
#7
Diego García-Ayuso, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, María P Villegas Pérez
In this work we study the effects of an acute light-induced retinal degeneration on the population of melanopsin positive retinal ganglion cells (m(+)RGCs) and the expression of the melanopsin protein in the retina. The m(+)RGCs may be more resistant than other RGCs to lesion, but the effects of an acute light exposure in this population are unknown. Albino rats were exposed to white light (3000 lux) continuously for 48 h and processed 0, 3, 7 or 30 days after light exposure (ALE). Whole-mounted retinas were immunodetected with antibodies against melanopsin, Brn3a, and rhodopsin to study the populations of m(+)RGC, Brn3a(+)RGC and rods (which are the most abundant photoreceptors in the rat retina)...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549093/autoantibodies-in-melanoma-associated-retinopathy-recognize-an-epitope-conserved-between-trpm1-and-trpm3
#8
Robert M Duvoisin, Tammie L Haley, Gaoying Ren, Iwona Strycharska-Orczyk, James P Bonaparte, Catherine W Morgans
Purpose: Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with malignant melanoma and the presence of anti-retinal autoantibodies, including autoantibodies against transient receptor potential melanopsin 1 (TRPM1), a cation channel expressed by both melanocytes and retinal bipolar cells. The goal of this study was to further map the antigenic epitope. Methods: Patient sera were tested by immunofluorescence and Western blotting on HEK293 cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TRPM1 fusion constructs and mouse retina sections...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545362/insight-into-the-role-of-photoreception-and-light-intervention-for-sleep-and-neuropsychiatric-behaviour-in-the-elderly
#9
Katharina Wulff, Russell G Foster
Light exerts influences on many physiological and behavioural functions in humans. These functions can be described as image-forming (IF) and non-image forming (NIF) visual processes, both originating in the retina of the eye. Image-forming refers to vision; the process of detecting and distinguishing shapes and colour of objects. Non-image forming refers to detecting level of light intensity or brightness of ambient space, which affects basal physiology such as cycles of rest and activity or the endocrine system...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545361/applying-melanopic-lux-to-measure-biological-light-effects-on-melatonin-suppression-and-subjective-sleepiness
#10
Claudia Nowozin, Amely Wahnschaffe, Andrea Rodenbeck, Jan de Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Ruslan Kozakov, Heinz Schöpp, Mirjam Münch, Dieter Kunz
In the beginning of this century a novel photopigment, melanopsin, was discovered in a sub-class of retinal ganglion cells and its action spectrum was described. Shortly after, it became clear that melanopsin is one major contributor to non-visual eye-mediated effects of light on e.g. the circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral systems. First applied studies pointed out that these non-visual effects of light are relevant for wellbeing, performance and general health. A standardized measurement quantity for these non-visual effects does not exist, but would ease application...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535270/intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-sleep-efficiency-and-depression-in-advanced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Michelle L Maynard, Andrew J Zele, Anthony S Kwan, Beatrix Feigl
Purpose: Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) input to multiple brain regions including those for pupil control, circadian rhythms, sleep and mood regulation. Here we measured ipRGC function and its relationship to sleep quality and depression in patients with advanced AMD. Methods: The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 53 patients with advanced AMD (age 78.8 ± 8.8 years) and in 20 healthy controls (age 72...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532353/ocular-photoreception-for-circadian-rhythm-entrainment-in-mammals
#12
Russell N Van Gelder, Ethan D Buhr
Circadian rhythms are self-sustained, approximately 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. These rhythms are entrained to an exactly 24-h period by the daily light-dark cycle. Remarkably, mice lacking all rod and cone photoreceptors still demonstrate photic entrainment, an effect mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). These cells utilize melanopsin (OPN4) as their photopigment. Distinct from the ciliary rod and cone opsins, melanopsin appears to function as a stable photopigment utilizing sequential photon absorption for its photocycle; this photocycle, in turn, confers properties on ipRGCs such as sustained signaling and resistance from photic bleaching critical for an irradiance detection system...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#13
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#14
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522986/retinal-ganglion-cells-and-circadian-rhythms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
There is increasing awareness on the role played by circadian rhythm abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The characterization of the circadian dysfunction parallels the mounting evidence that the hallmarks of neurodegeneration also affect the retina and frequently lead to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to different degrees of optic neuropathy. In the RGC population, there is the subgroup of cells intrinsically photosensitive and expressing the photopigment melanopsin [melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs)], which are now well known to drive the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491019/shared-and-differential-retinal-responses-against-optic-nerve-injury-and-ocular-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Arturo Ortin-Martinez, Giuseppe Rovere, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Fernando Lucas-Ruiz, Maria C Sanchez-Migallon, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, Marcelino Aviles-Trigueros, María P Villegas-Pérez, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide, affects primarily retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. The pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood, but it is currently believed that damage to RGC axons at the optic nerve head plays a major role. Rodent models to study glaucoma include those that mimic either ocular hypertension or optic nerve injury. Here we review the anatomical loss of the general population of RGCs (that express Brn3a; Brn3a(+)RGCs) and of the intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (that express melanopsin; m(+)RGCs) after chronic (LP-OHT) or acute (A-OHT) ocular hypertension and after complete intraorbital optic nerve transection (ONT) or crush (ONC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420980/loss-of-melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cell-subtypes-and-dendritic-degeneration-in-the-aging-human-retina
#17
Gema Esquiva, Pedro Lax, Juan J Pérez-Santonja, José M García-Fernández, Nicolás Cuenca
In mammals, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are, among other things, involved in several non-image-forming visual functions, including light entrainment of circadian rhythms. Considering the profound impact of aging on visual function and ophthalmic diseases, here we evaluate changes in mRGCs throughout the life span in humans. In 24 post-mortem retinas from anonymous human donors aged 10-81 years, we assessed the distribution, number and morphology of mRGCs by immunostaining vertical retinal sections and whole-mount retinas with antibodies against melanopsin...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414048/light-and-the-laboratory-mouse
#18
Stuart N Peirson, Laurence A Brown, Carina A Pothecary, Lindsay A Benson, Angus S Fisk
Light exerts widespread effects on physiology and behaviour. As well as the widely-appreciated role of light in vision, light also plays a critical role in many non-visual responses, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, pupil constriction, heart rate, hormone release and learning and memory. In mammals, responses to light are all mediated via retinal photoreceptors, including the classical rods and cones involved in vision as well as the recently identified melanopsin-expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412540/melanopsin-expressing-retinal-ganglion-cells-are-resistant-to-cell-injury-but-not-always
#19
Birgitte Georg, Anna Ghelli, Carla Giordano, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli, Jens Hannibal, Chiara La Morgia
Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs deputed to non-image forming functions of the eye such as synchronization of circadian rhythms to light-dark cycle. These cells are characterized by unique electrophysiological, anatomical and biochemical properties and are usually more resistant than conventional RGCs to different insults, such as axotomy and different paradigms of stress. We also demonstrated that these cells are relatively spared compared to conventional RGCs in mitochondrial optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and Dominant Optic Atrophy)...
April 12, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399269/loss-of-melanopsin-expressing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Elisabeth Anne Obara, Jens Hannibal, Steffen Heegaard, Jan Fahrenkrug
Purpose: Photo-entrainment of the circadian clock is mediated by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) located in the retina. Patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR) show impairment of light regulated circadian activity such as sleep disorders, altered blood pressure, and abnormal melatonin secretion. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of DR on the expression of mRGCs in the human retina. Methods: The expression of mRGCs and RGCs was determined in eye sections containing retinal tissue from patients with DR (n = 6) and respective age-matched controls (n = 8) using immunohistochemistry by costaining with antibodies against RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS), which identified RGCs and melanopsin which identified the mRGCs...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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