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Ian R Tofler, Brandon M Hyatt, David S Tofler
Extreme sports, defined as sporting or adventure activities involving a high degree of risk, have boomed since the 1990s. These types of sports attract men and women who can experience a life-affirming transcendence or "flow" as they participate in dangerous activities. Extreme sports also may attract people with a genetic predisposition for risk, risk-seeking personality traits, or underlying psychiatric disorders in which impulsivity and risk taking are integral to the underlying problem. In this report, we attempt to illustrate through case histories the motivations that lead people to repeatedly risk their lives and explore psychiatry's role in extreme sports...
2018: Permanente Journal
Amber D Walker-Bolton, Joyce A Parga
Sexual selection for honest behavioral displays of quality has driven the development of remarkably complex courtship behavior in many animal species. Olfactory displays are often overlooked as an area of inquiry compared to auditory and visual displays. Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) scent marking of substrates has been studied extensively, although the male olfactory displays of anointing and wafting tails to females has received relatively little attention. We studied the role of male olfactory displays to females, evaluating whether such signals function as honest, costly signals of male dominance status in two groups of wild L...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Steffen Landgraf, Isabella von Treskow, Michael Osterheider
Sexual scripts, that is, the mental representations of sexual behavior, are highly influenced by mating strategies and sexual experience. The relationship between these factors and sexual scripts is, however, poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed how long-term (e.g., "sex in a relationship") and short-term (e.g., "one-night stand") strategies, as well as experience with highly scripted sexual practices (BDSM: bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism), influence verbalized sexual script composition and detailedness...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Leslie Gordon Simons, Tara E Sutton, Sarah Shannon, Mark T Berg, Frederick X Gibbons
During adolescence, one's status among peers is a major concern. Such status is often largely a function of popularity and establishing oneself as "cool." While there are conventional avenues to achieving status among adolescents, engaging in adult-like, or pseudomature, behaviors such as substance use or sexual activity is a frequent occurrence. Although past research has examined the consequences of adolescent delinquency, what remains unclear is the long-term fate of adolescents who are both popular and antisocial...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Willy Pedersen, Sébastien Tutenges, Sveinung Sandberg
BACKGROUND: In this study, we use assemblage theory to investigate the link between alcohol use and one-night stands. METHODS: The data come from qualitative interviews conducted with 104 young participants in the night-time economy. RESULTS: We show that: (i) alcohol-fuelled sexual explorations (e.g. erotic fantasizing, flirting and sex) are of paramount importance for young partygoers; (ii) sexualized territories (e.g. private parties, rural feasts and the backseat of cars) significantly shape the experience and performance of one-night stands; and (iii) contrary to previous research, one-night stands are to a large degree associated with pleasure-the immediate pleasure of having sex and the long-term pleasure of telling about it to others...
September 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
J Wortham, A Miller
Social environments can have an impact on the interactions between the sexes, specifically pre-courtship behaviors. Sexual selection theory may explain social interactions of the sexes, where males display and attract mates more than females. These behaviors may intensify in a sexual environment. It was hypothesized that individuals would display more in a sexualized environment compared to a non-sexualized location. This research sampled N = 880 participants at a university in a southern state in North America and asked which unisex sunglasses they preferred...
June 2017: Heliyon
Courtney Eichorn, Michael Hrabar, Emma C Van Ryn, Bekka S Brodie, Adam J Blake, Gerhard Gries
BACKGROUND: Flies have some of the most elaborate visual systems in the Insecta, often featuring large, sexually dimorphic eyes with specialized "bright zones" that may have a functional role during mate-seeking behavior. The fast visual system of flies is considered to be an adaptation in support of their advanced flight abilities. Here, we show that the immense processing speed of the flies' photoreceptors plays a crucial role in mate recognition. RESULTS: Video-recording wing movements of abdomen-mounted common green bottle flies, Lucilia sericata, under direct light at 15,000 frames per second revealed that wing movements produce a single, reflected light flash per wing beat...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
Shin Nakamine
The present study examined the relations between sociosexuality and the desirability and the use of innocuous, direct, and cute-flippant opening lines. A total of 216 women rated the desirability of each type of opening line and answered the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R). A total of 198 men reported the use of types of opening lines and answered the SOI-R. The desirability of cute-flippant lines, which were the least preferred lines, was positively related to sociosexuality, while the use of cute lines was not associated with sociosexuality...
August 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Xavier Rossello, Derek M Yellon
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME and the LEADER trials have revealed a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin demonstrated a lower rate of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke compared to placebo. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, succeeded to demonstrate reduction on a composite outcome including first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. These two medications act through different mechanisms and has consequently shown different patterns of cardiovascular benefit...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Jarred M Whitlock, H Criss Hartzell
Anoctamin (ANO)/TMEM16 proteins exhibit diverse functions in cells throughout the body and are implicated in several human diseases. Although the founding members ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are Ca2+-activated Cl- channels, most ANO paralogs are Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblases that serve as channels facilitating the movement (scrambling) of phospholipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer. Phospholipid scrambling significantly alters the physical properties of the membrane and its landscape and has vast downstream signaling consequences...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
Julien Bogousslavsky, Laurent Tatu
Édouard Manet (1832-1883) is considered the 'father' of Impressionism and even of XXth century modern art. Manet's genius involved getting away from the classical narrative or historical topics and replacing them by the banality of daily life. Technically, he erased volumes into flat two-dimensional coloured planes, and distorted conventional perspective with often gross brushstrokes intentionally giving an 'unfinished' aspect to the work. It is little known that Manet had a very painful second part of his life, due to excruciating limb and chest pains, which developed in parallel with proprioceptive ataxia and gait imbalance...
2016: European Neurology
Andrew Huff, Toph Allen, Karissa Whiting, Nathan Breit, Brock Arnold
INTRODUCTION:  Beginning in 2015, Zika virus rapidly spread throughout the Americas and has been linked to neurological and autoimmune diseases in adults and babies. Developing accurate tools to anticipate Zika spread is one of the first steps to mitigate further spread of the disease. When combined, air traffic data and network simulations can be used to create tools to predict where infectious disease may spread to and aid in the prevention of infectious diseases. Specific goals were to: 1) predict where travelers infected with the Zika Virus would arrive in the U...
2016: PLoS Currents
Hannah Rosenberg, Skye McDonald, Jacob Rosenberg, R Frederick Westbrook
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether people with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) display a specific or a general impairment in emotion recognition compared with matched controls, whether these deficits might be accounted for by deficits in other cognitive processes, and whether emotion recognition predicts social functioning following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two participants with TBI and 32 matched controls took part in this study. DESIGN: Participants completed the Complex Audio-Visual Emotion Assessment Task (CAVEAT), a novel measure of emotion recognition, alongside measures of neuropsychological functioning...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
C Potard, R Courtois, R Clarisse, N Le Floc'h, M Thomine, C Réveillère
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. METHOD: The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ)...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
R V Gulkovskyi, S Y Chernushyn, S A Kravchenko, L A Livshits
It was shown that some mutations in a number of zinc finger protein (Znf) genes cause intellectual disability (ID). In our study in two affected siblings with ID exome analysis revealed the homozygous coding sequence (cds) indel rs386809049 in the ZNF527 gene. The c.806_808 deletion CAT and insertion TGTGCA (rs386809049) results in substitution of Pro269 and Tyr270 to Leu, Cys and Asn, located in the interdomain region of Zinc finger protein 527. The analyses of site orthologs revealed that Pro269 and Tyr270 amino acid positions are conserved across mammalian species, indicating that there may be an evolutionarily conserved function...
July 2015: T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i Genetika
Yun-Gang Luo, Ping Liu, Lin Shi, Yishan Luo, Lei Yi, Ang Li, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng, Defeng Wang
Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR) as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC) calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency...
2015: PloS One
Alisa Brockhoff, Markus Huff
UNLABELLED: Behavioral and electrophysiological studies on bistable images helped to trace the boundary between what perception owes to early visual processing, and what cognition adds to it. They demonstrated that passive sensory processing can be actively modulated in a top-down manner. For example, knowledge and intentional control has been shown to alternate percepts of the same stimulus. One reason for this phenomenon to occur is a change in the allocation of attention in the visual display...
2015: Journal of Vision
Minjeong Jeon, Paul De Boeck
A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al...
September 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Minjeong Jeon, Frank Rijmen
The new R package flirt is introduced for flexible item response theory (IRT) modeling of psychological, educational, and behavior assessment data. flirt integrates a generalized linear and nonlinear mixed modeling framework with graphical model theory. The graphical model framework allows for efficient maximum likelihood estimation. The key feature of flirt is its modular approach to facilitate convenient and flexible model specifications. Researchers can construct customized IRT models by simply selecting various modeling modules, such as parametric forms, number of dimensions, item and person covariates, person groups, link functions, etc...
June 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Ali Çiftçi, Aytul Kasapoglu
Violence is a leading problem that has a negative impact on daily living. Today, it continues to be an important topic owing to its widespread occurrence, especially among the youth. The main objective of this study is to specify the predictors that influence violence and depression observed among youth aged 15-18 years. While some of these factors are individual (age, gender, flirting, sports. etc.), the subjects' background, such as the family's education level, sibling number, etc., were investigated as social and environmental factors...
November 2015: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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