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Courtney Eichorn, Michael Hrabar, Emma C Van Ryn, Bekka S Brodie, Adam J Blake, Gerhard Gries
BACKGROUND: Flies have some of the most elaborate visual systems in the Insecta, often featuring large, sexually dimorphic eyes with specialized "bright zones" that may have a functional role during mate-seeking behavior. The fast visual system of flies is considered to be an adaptation in support of their advanced flight abilities. Here, we show that the immense processing speed of the flies' photoreceptors plays a crucial role in mate recognition. RESULTS: Video-recording wing movements of abdomen-mounted common green bottle flies, Lucilia sericata, under direct light at 15,000 frames per second revealed that wing movements produce a single, reflected light flash per wing beat...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
Shin Nakamine
The present study examined the relations between sociosexuality and the desirability and the use of innocuous, direct, and cute-flippant opening lines. A total of 216 women rated the desirability of each type of opening line and answered the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R). A total of 198 men reported the use of types of opening lines and answered the SOI-R. The desirability of cute-flippant lines, which were the least preferred lines, was positively related to sociosexuality, while the use of cute lines was not associated with sociosexuality...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Xavier Rossello, Derek M Yellon
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME and the LEADER trials have revealed a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin demonstrated a lower rate of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke compared to placebo. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, succeeded to demonstrate reduction on a composite outcome including first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. These two medications act through different mechanisms and has consequently shown different patterns of cardiovascular benefit...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Jarred M Whitlock, H Criss Hartzell
Anoctamin (ANO)/TMEM16 proteins exhibit diverse functions in cells throughout the body and are implicated in several human diseases. Although the founding members ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, most ANO paralogs are Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblases that serve as channels facilitating the movement (scrambling) of phospholipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer. Phospholipid scrambling significantly alters the physical properties of the membrane and its landscape and has vast downstream signaling consequences...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
Julien Bogousslavsky, Laurent Tatu
Édouard Manet (1832-1883) is considered the 'father' of Impressionism and even of XXth century modern art. Manet's genius involved getting away from the classical narrative or historical topics and replacing them by the banality of daily life. Technically, he erased volumes into flat two-dimensional coloured planes, and distorted conventional perspective with often gross brushstrokes intentionally giving an 'unfinished' aspect to the work. It is little known that Manet had a very painful second part of his life, due to excruciating limb and chest pains, which developed in parallel with proprioceptive ataxia and gait imbalance...
2016: European Neurology
Andrew Huff, Toph Allen, Karissa Whiting, Nathan Breit, Brock Arnold
INTRODUCTION:  Beginning in 2015, Zika virus rapidly spread throughout the Americas and has been linked to neurological and autoimmune diseases in adults and babies. Developing accurate tools to anticipate Zika spread is one of the first steps to mitigate further spread of the disease. When combined, air traffic data and network simulations can be used to create tools to predict where infectious disease may spread to and aid in the prevention of infectious diseases. Specific goals were to: 1) predict where travelers infected with the Zika Virus would arrive in the U...
2016: PLoS Currents
Hannah Rosenberg, Skye McDonald, Jacob Rosenberg, R Frederick Westbrook
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether people with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) display a specific or a general impairment in emotion recognition compared with matched controls, whether these deficits might be accounted for by deficits in other cognitive processes, and whether emotion recognition predicts social functioning following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two participants with TBI and 32 matched controls took part in this study. DESIGN: Participants completed the Complex Audio-Visual Emotion Assessment Task (CAVEAT), a novel measure of emotion recognition, alongside measures of neuropsychological functioning...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
C Potard, R Courtois, R Clarisse, N Le Floc'h, M Thomine, C Réveillère
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. METHOD: The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ)...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
R V Gulkovskyi, S Y Chernushyn, S A Kravchenko, L A Livshits
It was shown that some mutations in a number of zinc finger protein (Znf) genes cause intellectual disability (ID). In our study in two affected siblings with ID exome analysis revealed the homozygous coding sequence (cds) indel rs386809049 in the ZNF527 gene. The c.806_808 deletion CAT and insertion TGTGCA (rs386809049) results in substitution of Pro269 and Tyr270 to Leu, Cys and Asn, located in the interdomain region of Zinc finger protein 527. The analyses of site orthologs revealed that Pro269 and Tyr270 amino acid positions are conserved across mammalian species, indicating that there may be an evolutionarily conserved function...
July 2015: T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i Genetika
Yun-Gang Luo, Ping Liu, Lin Shi, Yishan Luo, Lei Yi, Ang Li, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng, Defeng Wang
Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR) as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC) calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency...
2015: PloS One
Alisa Brockhoff, Markus Huff
UNLABELLED: Behavioral and electrophysiological studies on bistable images helped to trace the boundary between what perception owes to early visual processing, and what cognition adds to it. They demonstrated that passive sensory processing can be actively modulated in a top-down manner. For example, knowledge and intentional control has been shown to alternate percepts of the same stimulus. One reason for this phenomenon to occur is a change in the allocation of attention in the visual display...
2015: Journal of Vision
Minjeong Jeon, Paul De Boeck
A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al...
September 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Minjeong Jeon, Frank Rijmen
The new R package flirt is introduced for flexible item response theory (IRT) modeling of psychological, educational, and behavior assessment data. flirt integrates a generalized linear and nonlinear mixed modeling framework with graphical model theory. The graphical model framework allows for efficient maximum likelihood estimation. The key feature of flirt is its modular approach to facilitate convenient and flexible model specifications. Researchers can construct customized IRT models by simply selecting various modeling modules, such as parametric forms, number of dimensions, item and person covariates, person groups, link functions, etc...
June 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Ali Çiftçi, Aytul Kasapoglu
Violence is a leading problem that has a negative impact on daily living. Today, it continues to be an important topic owing to its widespread occurrence, especially among the youth. The main objective of this study is to specify the predictors that influence violence and depression observed among youth aged 15-18 years. While some of these factors are individual (age, gender, flirting, sports. etc.), the subjects' background, such as the family's education level, sibling number, etc., were investigated as social and environmental factors...
November 2015: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Sonja Utz, Nicole Muscanell, Cameran Khalid
Recent news in the media has suggested that younger people are using popular social media such as Facebook less and are quickly adopting newer media, such as the self-destructing app Snapchat. Snapchat is unique in that it erases messages several seconds after they have been sent, affording its users a higher level of privacy. Yet, little research exists on Snapchat use in general, let alone its broader psychological implications. This article offers a preliminary comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use and psychological effects on romantic jealousy...
March 2015: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Andrew Gersick, Robert Kurzban
According to signaling theory and a large body of supporting evidence, males across many taxa produce courtship signals that honestly advertise their quality. The cost of producing or performing these signals maintains signal honesty, such that females are typically able to choose the best males by selecting those that produce the loudest, brightest, longest, or otherwise highest-intensity signals, using signal strength as a measure of quality. Set against this background, human flirting behavior, characterized by its frequent subtlety or covertness, is mysterious...
2014: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Ana Paula Silva, Marília Greco, Maria Arlene Fausto, Dirceu B Greco, Mariângela Carneiro
BACKGROUND: There has recently been an increase in HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed at investigating risk factors associated with incident HIV infection in a MSM cohort-Project Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: This is a nested case-control study in an ongoing open cohort of homosexual and bisexual men, carried out in 1994-2010, during which 1,085 volunteers were enrolled. Each HIV seroconverted volunteer (case) was compared with three randomly selected HIV negative controls, matched by admission date and age (±3 years)...
2014: PloS One
Mark A Babizhayev, Khava S Vishnyakova, Yegor E Yegorov
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, and telomere length (TL) may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. Hormone-brain-aging behavior-modulated telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state, and these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with advanced drug delivery and nutritional formulations...
March 2015: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Timothy H Yeung, Danielle R Horyniak, Alyce M Vella, Margaret E Hellard, Megan S C Lim
UNLABELLED: Background 'Sexting' is the exchange of sexually explicit material via communication technologies. Despite significant media attention, there has been little examination of sexting in the Australian setting. This study aimed to provide insight into sexting behaviours and attitudes among young Australians. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of people aged 16-29 years attending a music festival (n=1372). Correlates of lifetime sexting were determined using multivariate logistic regression...
September 2014: Sexual Health
A Alhamud, Paul A Taylor, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
PURPOSE: To evaluate the patterns of head motion in scans of young children and to examine the influence of corrective techniques, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We investigate changes that both retrospective (with and without diffusion table reorientation) and prospective (implemented with a short navigator sequence) motion correction induce in the resulting diffusion tensor measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pediatric subjects (aged 5-6 years) were scanned using 1) a twice-refocused, 2D diffusion pulse sequence, 2) a prospectively motion-corrected, navigated diffusion sequence with reacquisition of a maximum of five corrupted diffusion volumes, and 3) a T1 -weighted structural image...
May 2015: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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