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Xuesheng Zhang, Bingxin Fang, Tantan Wang, Hui Liu, Mingbao Feng, Li Qin, Rui Zhang
Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are considered as a class of sulfur-containing dioxin-like pollutants with ubiquitous occurrence in natural waters and potential ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. However, to date, no information is available regarding the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PCDPSs in aquatic species. In this study, the uptake and depuration kinetics of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl sulfide (4,4'-di-CDPS) in the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana were investigated through semi-static exposure...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sven-Erik Bursell, Stephanie J Fonda, Drew G Lewis, Mark B Horton
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and its complications are more common in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) than other US racial/ethnic populations. Prior reports of diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence in AI/AN are dated, and research on diabetic macular edema (DME) is limited. This study characterizes the recent prevalence of DR and DME in AI/AN using primary care-based teleophthalmology surveillance. METHODS: This is a multi-site, clinic-based, cross-sectional study of DR and DME...
2018: PloS One
Ben Allan Russell, Ashley Garton, Abeer Saeed Alshammari, David J S Birch, Yu Chen
Fluorescent protein-encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) offer a non-toxic means of sensing and imaging biological phenomena on the nanoscale. However, the biofunctionality of proteins encapsulating AuNCs has not been fully elucidated to date. Here we studied the biofunctionality of the second major drug binding site (Sudlow II) of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) encapsulated AuNCs after AuNC synthesis. L-Dopa, a fluorescent drug molecule associated with the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease, which commonly binds to the Sudlow II site, was used to study the availability of the site before and after AuNC synthesis through changes to its fluorescence characteristics...
June 20, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Glen Gawarkiewicz, Anna Malek Mercer
Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Volker Müller, Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury, Mirko Basen
A decade ago, a novel mechanism to drive thermodynamically unfavorable redox reactions was discovered that is used in prokaryotes to drive endergonic electron transfer reactions by a direct coupling to an exergonic redox reaction in one soluble enzyme complex. This process is referred to as flavinbased electron bifurcation, or FBEB. An important function of FBEB is that it allows the generation of reduced low-potential ferredoxin (Fdred ) from comparably high-potential electron donors such as NADH or molecular hydrogen (H2 )...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Gareth Bloomfield
Sex in social amoebae (or dictyostelids) has a number of striking features. Dictyostelid zygotes do not proliferate but grow to a large size by feeding on other cells of the same species, each zygote ultimately forming a walled structure called a macrocyst. The diploid macrocyst nucleus undergoes meiosis, after which a single meiotic product survives to restart haploid vegetative growth. Meiotic recombination is generally initiated by the Spo11 enzyme, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks. Uniquely, as far as is known among sexual eukaryotes, dictyostelids lack a SPO11 gene...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
William C Buhrman, William B Lyman, Russell C Kirks, Michael Passeri, Dionisios Vrochides
For over two decades, enhanced recovery pathways have been implemented in many surgical disciplines, most notably in colorectal surgery. Since 2001, the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS® ) Study Group has developed a main protocol comprising 24 evidence-based core items. While these core items unite similar preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative principles across surgical subspecialties, variations and modifications exist to these core items based on unique considerations for each surgical subspecialty...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Cristina Azevedo, Jyoti Singh, Nicole Steck, Alexandre Hofer, Felix A Ruiz, Tanya Singh, Henning J Jessen, Adolfo Saiardi
Phenotypes are established by thigh regulation on protein functions. This regulation can be mediated allosterically, through protein binding, and covalently, through post-translational modification (PTM). The integration of an ever-increasing number of PTMs into regulatory networks enable and define the proteome complexity. Protein PTMs can occur enzymatically and non-enzymatically. Polyphosphorylation, a recently discovered PTM that belongs to the latter category, is the covalent attachment of the linear ortho-phosphate polymer called inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) to lysine residues...
June 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Nicholas M Riley, Jacek W Sikora, Henrique S Seckler, Joseph B Greer, Ryan T Fellers, Richard D LeDuc, Michael S Westphall, Paul M Thomas, Neil L Kelleher, Joshua J Coon
High-throughput top-down proteomic experiments directly identify proteoforms in complex mixtures, making high quality tandem mass spectra necessary to deeply characterize proteins with many sources of variation. Collision-based dissociation methods offer expedient data acquisition, but often fail to extensively fragment proteoforms for thorough analysis. Electron-driven dissociation methods are a popular alternative approach, especially for precursor ions with high charge density. Combining infrared photo-activation concurrent with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions, i...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xin Li, Han Qi, Gou Qing, Ze Song, Lin Xie, Fei Cao, Xiaoming Chen, Weijun Fan
BACKGROUND: Although patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), outcomes are limited by the eventual development of acquired resistance. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of EGFR-TKI therapy beyond focal progression, associated with microwave ablation. METHODS: Patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs at our institutions from May 2012 to December 2017 were identified...
June 20, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Jinyoung Byun, Ann G Schwartz, Christine Lusk, Angela S Wenzlaff, Mariza de Andrade, Diptasri Mandal, Colette Gaba, Ping Yang, Ming You, Elena Y Kupert, Marshall W Anderson, Younghun Han, Yafang Li, David Qian, Adrienne Stilp, Cathy Laurie, Sarah Nelson, Wenying Zheng, Rayjean J Hung, Valerie Gaborieau, James Mckay, Paul Brennan, Neil E Caporaso, Maria Teresa Landi, Xifeng Wu, John R McLaughlin, Yonathan Brhane, Yohan Bossé, Susan M Pinney, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Christopher I Amos
To identify genetic variation associated with lung cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 685 lung cancer cases that had a family history of two or more first or second degree relatives compared with 744 controls without lung cancer that were genotyped on an Illumina Human OmniExpressExome-8v1 array. To ensure robust results, we further evaluated these findings using data from six additional studies that were assembled through the Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer of the Lung Consortium comprising 1,993 familial cases and 33,690 controls...
June 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Bianca Costa Soares de Sá, Luciana Facure Moredo, Elimar Elias Gomes, Erica Sara Souza de Araújo, João Pedreira Duprat
BACKGROUND: Approximately five to 10% of all melanomas occur in families with hereditary predisposition and the main high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene is the CDKN2A. OBJECTIVES: To describe, after a five-years study, the clinical data of patients (probands) from familial melanoma kindreds, and the pathological characteristics of their melanoma. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were melanoma patients with a family history of melanoma or pancreatic cancer (first- or second-degree relatives) or patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM)...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Tariane Friedrich Foiato, Bruno Rafael Kunz Bereza, Marcos Flávio Montenegro, Marina Riedi Guilherme, Larissa Beatriz Volski, Juliano Camargo Rebolho
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is one of the conditions with greater increase in incidence worldwide in recent decades. It is a skin cancer with potential high lethality and predominates in Caucasian adults. Treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma is essentially surgical and search for sentinel lymph node can modify the aggressiveness of the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma, histopathological features and compare with literature data...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Basant Chitara, Assaf Ya'akobovitz
Gallium sulphide (GaS), gallium selenide (GaSe), and gallium telluride (GaTe), belonging to the group-III monochalcogenide family, have shown promising optoelectronic performance over graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). However, to date, the mechanical properties of these materials have not been investigated, which hinders their utilisation in flexible electronics and optomechanics. Here, we characterize the elastic properties and breaking strengths of suspended two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets of GaS, GaSe, and GaTe, using atomic force microscopy...
June 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Liang Ma, Liwen Zhang, Yun Zhuang, Yanbo Ding, Jianping Chen
RATIONALE: Massive ascites as the first sign of ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) in an adolescent is an extremely rare, and its clinical features and treatment methods have not been well described. PATIENT CONCERNS: The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment methods in a 19-year-old girl who presented with massive abdominal distention and ascites was retrospectively reviewed. Abdominopelvic ultrasonography showed a large amount of ascites...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
David A Provenzano, Eric R Cosman, Jared T Wilsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emphasis has been placed on methods to enlarge monopolar radiofrequency (RF) lesion size for pain management. Ex vivo research has suggested that fluid modulation may be an effective method to enlarge lesion zone. To date, these findings have not been confirmed in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypertonic saline on in vivo lesion size through both histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. A secondary purpose was to validate in vivo characterization of RF lesions using contrast-enhanced MRI...
June 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Gen Li, Shiyu Yuan, Menglian He, Manda Zhao, Xiaojing Hao, Minxun Song, Lingjuan Zhang, Changming Qiao, Libo Huang, Li Zhang, Chengui Li, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Gyrovirus 3 (GyV3) has been identified in faeces from children with acute gastroenteritis. However, whether GyV3 is prevalent in poultry has not been determined to date. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to isolate GyV3 from commercial broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) in China. The complete genome of the virus shares 98.4% sequence identity with the FecGy strain that causes acute gastroenteritis in children. Epidemiological investigation from 2013 to 2017 revealed that the infection rate of GyV3 reached 12...
June 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Dongdong Zhu, Peng Hong, Shengbin Chen, Yu Fan, Zhongyuan Zhang, Xiaochun Zhang, Wei Yu, Cheng Shen, Jie Jin
Lower posterior mediastinal tumors are traditionally excised by conventional thoracotomy or thoracoscopic approaches; however, use of the transdiaphragmatic retroperitoneoscopic approach for these tumors has rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of a left lower posterior mediastinal paravertebral benign schwannoma in an adult male that was successfully treated with transdiaphragmatic retroperitoneoscopic surgery. The patient presented with no symptoms but had noticed a lesion in the left lower posterior mediastinum two months prior...
June 20, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
M Agar
The treatment of symptoms in people with palliative diagnoses begins with meticulous clinical assessment with treatment choice (s) selected based on an understanding of the symptom aetiology and the evidence which underpins its treatment. Increasingly the merits of palliative care have been established earlier in the disease trajectory where treatment outcomes may include increased survival and maintenance of function. There is strong public support for the availability of medicinal cannabis, particularly for people with palliative diagnoses...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M G Loutet, C Sinclair, N Whitehead, C Cosgrove, M K Lalor, H L Thomas
Improving access to tuberculosis (TB) care and ensuring early diagnosis are two major aims of the WHO End TB strategy and the Collaborative TB Strategy for England. This study describes risk factors associated with diagnostic delay among TB cases in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of TB cases notified to the Enhanced TB Surveillance System in England between 2012 and 2015. Diagnostic delay was defined as more than 4 months between symptom onset and treatment start date. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with diagnostic delay...
June 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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