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Pulmonary infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722570/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-close-childhood-contacts-of-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-increased-by-secondhand-exposure-to-tobacco
#1
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Lindsay Kendall, Simon Donkor, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman S Hammond, Patrick K Owiafe, Martin O C Ota, Roger H Brookes, Philip C Hill
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720727/impact-of-paracoccin-gene-silencing-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence
#2
Fabrício F Fernandes, Aline F Oliveira, Taise N Landgraf, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Patrícia E Vendruscolo, Relber A Gonçales, Fausto Almeida, Thiago A da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. brasiliensis using antisense RNA (AsRNA) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to identify proteins that influence fungus virulence...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720601/a-case-of-progressive-orthopnoea-and-shoulder-pain-secondary-to-bilateral-diaphragmatic-paralysis
#3
Anna Herbert, Waseem Asrar Khan, Salem Madi
A 45-year-old man with a raised body mass index presented with an acute history of right lower chest pain and increasing breathlessness. C reactive protein, D dimer and cardiac echocardiography were negative, with mild bibasal atelectasis the only positive reported finding from erect chest X-ray and CT pulmonary angiogram. He was discharged with antibiotics for a chest infection. He remained severely breathless and was referred to the sleep-related breathing disorders clinic. He described shoulder pain, daytime tiredness and sleeping upright due to a ââ'¬Ëœsuffocatingââ'¬â"¢ sensation...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720115/expression-pattern-of-cd11c-on-lung-immune-cells-after-disseminated-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#4
Yi Liao, Xinglou Liu, Yuan Huang, Heyu Huang, Yuanyuan Lu, Yanan Zhang, Sainan Shu, Feng Fang
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently and is widespread globally. Numerous studies have shown that various types of immune cells play roles in mediating the response to CMV infection. CD11c, a commonly used dendritic cell (DC) marker, is expressed by other immune cells as well, such as T cells. This study analyzed the immune cells that express CD11c and monitored the expression level of their specific cell surface markers in the lung following a disseminated murine (M)CMV infection...
July 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719321/association-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-polymorphism-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-infection-among-iranian-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#5
Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Shima Saif, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant pulmonary infections in humans. Researchers have reported an association between interferon-gamma receptor-1 (IFN-γR1 or IFNGR1) deficiency and susceptibility to NTM, but the relevance of polymorphism within these genes is not yet clear. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T to C, at position-56 in NTM patients with pulmonary disease was investigated. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium isolates was performed with hsp65 genes using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719302/a-fatal-hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome-misdiagnosed-as-dengue-an-investigation-into-the-first-reported-case-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#6
Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Jorlan Fernandes, João Marcos Penna Júnior, Reynaldo de Jesus Oliveira Júnior, Liana Strecht Pereira, João Bosco Júnior, Patrícia Soares Meneguete, Cristina Maria Giordano Dias, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
We report the results of an investigation into a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where the disease had not been reported previous to 2015. Following the notification of an HPS case, serum samples were collected from the household members and work contacts of the HPS patient and tested for antibody to hantaviruses. Seroprevalence of 22% (10/45) was indicated for hantavirus out of 45 human samples tested. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 72 rodents during fieldwork to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, and to characterize the rodent hantavirus reservoir(s), by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#7
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717040/flucloxacillin-results-in-suboptimal-voriconazole-plasma-concentrations
#8
Eline W Muilwijk, Bart G J Dekkers, Stefanie Henriet, Paul E Verweij, Bregje Witjes, Astrid M L Oude Lashof, Geert H Groeneveld, Johannes van der Hoeven, Jan Willem C Alffenaar, Frans G M Russel, Frank van de Veerdonk, Roger J M Brüggemann
Combining voriconazole and flucloxacillin is indicated in patient cohorts experiencing both invasive aspergillosis and gram-positive infections (e.g. patients with chronic granulomatous disease or post-influenza pulmonary aspergillosis). We report a highly relevant interaction between voriconazole and flucloxacillin resulting in subtherapeutic voriconazole plasma concentrations in more than 50% of patients, posing a severe threat if not managed properly.
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717029/the-metabolite-transporter-peg344-is-required-for-the-full-virulence-of-the-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-hvkp1-after-pulmonary-but-not-subcutaneous-challenge
#9
Jeffrey Bulger, Ulrike MacDonald, Ruth Olson, Janet Beanan, Thomas A Russo
Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is an emerging pathotype that is capable of causing tissue-invasive, organ and life threatening infections in healthy individuals from the community. Knowledge on the virulence factors specific to hvKP is limited. In this report we describe a new factor (PEG344) that increases the virulence of the hvKP strain hvKP1. peg344 is present on the hvKP1 virulence plasmid, is broadly prevalent among hvKP strains, and has increased RNA abundance when grown in human ascites...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717000/empathy-burnout-and-antibiotic-prescribing-for-acute-respiratory-infections-a-cross-sectional-primary-care-study-in-the-us
#10
Bob Z Sun, Alexander Chaitoff, Bo Hu, Kathleen Neuendorf, Mahesh Manne, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The impact of physician-patient relationship factors, such as physician empathy and burnout, on antibiotic prescribing has not been characterised. AIM: To assess associations between physician empathy and burnout and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of primary care practices in the Cleveland Clinic Health System in the US. METHOD: Patient and prescribing data were obtained from the medical record...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714745/long-term-use-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-and-risk-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-meta-analysis
#11
Mingjin Yang, Hong Chen, Yan Zhang, Yuejun Du, Ying Xu, Ping Jiang, Zhibo Xu
Recent studies have suggested that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may be associated with higher risks of tuberculosis and pneumonia in patients with COPD. However, it is not known whether ICS increases the risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ICS and URTI. Through a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from inception to March 2016, we identified randomized controlled trials of ICS therapy lasting at least 6 months...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714212/fragment-based-drug-discovery-in-the-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-domain-family
#12
REVIEW
Mostafa Radwan, Rabah Serya
Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibition has emerged recently as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of many human disorders such as atherosclerosis, inflammatory disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), some viral infections, and cancer. Since the discovery of the two potent inhibitors, I-BET762 and JQ1, different research groups have used different techniques to develop novel potent and selective inhibitors. In this review, we will be concerned with the trials that used fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) approaches to discover or optimize BET inhibitors, also showing fragments that can be further optimized in future projects to reach novel potent BET inhibitors...
July 17, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713523/cementless-one-stage-bilateral-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-osteoarthritis-patients-functional-outcomes-and-complications
#13
Afshin Taheriazam, Amin Saeidinia
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the successful and cost-benefit surgical treatments. One-stage bilateral THA (BTHA) has a large number of advantages, although there are concerns about the higher complications in this procedure. Aim of our study was to evaluate the complications and outcomes of cementless one-stage BTHA in osteoarthritis patients. A total of 147 patients from 2009 till 2012, underwent one-stage BTHA in Milad and Erfan hospitals, Tehran, Iran. A prospective analysis of the functional outcomes and complications of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in patients with osteoarthritis was performed...
June 23, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713390/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-an-infant-with-immunodeficiency-centromeric-instability-and-facial-anomaly-syndrome
#14
Katharina L Gössling, Cyrill Schipp, Ute Fischer, Florian Babor, Gerhard Koch, Friedhelm R Schuster, Jutta Dietzel-Dahmen, Dagmar Wieczorek, Arndt Borkhardt, Roland Meisel, Michaela Kuhlen
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomaly (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic condition with severe immunodeficiency, which leads to lethal infections if not recognized and treated in early childhood. Up-to-date treatment regimens consist of prophylactic and supportive treatment of the recurrent infections. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy of Moroccan consanguineous parents, who was diagnosed at 4 months of age with ICF syndrome with a homozygous missense mutation in the DNMT3B gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712930/disseminated-mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-with-cutaneous-lesions-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#15
Miaomiao Zhang, Mei Feng, Jian-Qing He
We reported a case of disseminated Mycobacterium Kansasii (M. kansasii) infections involving skin tissue in a 57-year-old male farmer for recurrent fever, respiratory syndromes and skin lesions. Positive findings of syndromes, laboratory examinations and M. kansasii identified in the puncture fluid indicated the diagnosis of disseminated M. kansasii infections involving skin/soft tissue, pulmonary and mediastinal lymph nodes. After applying the standard HRE regime (isoniazid (300mg/d), rifampicin (600mg/d), and ethambutol (750mg/d)), the patient's temperature normalized and symptoms relieved gradually...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712577/bacterial-adherence-to-graft-tissues-in-static-and-flow-conditions
#16
Tiago Rafael Veloso, Jorien Claes, Soetkin Van Kerckhoven, Bartosz Ditkowski, Luis G Hurtado-Aguilar, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Ramadan Jashari, Marc Gewillig, Marc F Hoylaerts, Bart Meyns, Ruth Heying
BACKGROUND: Various conduits and stent-mounted valves are used as pulmonary valve graft tissues for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with good hemodynamic results. Valve replacement carries an increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE). Recent observations have increased awareness of the risk of IE after transcatheter implantation of a stent-mounted bovine jugular vein valve. This study focused on the susceptibility of graft tissue surfaces to bacterial adherence as a potential risk factor for subsequent IE...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711461/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-evaluation-of-their-monitoring-in-clinical-practice-the-spanish-cohort-of-the-comora-study
#17
Alejandro Balsa, Leticia Lojo-Oliveira, Mercedes Alperi-López, María García-Manrique, Carmen Ordóñez-Cañizares, Lorena Pérez, Virginia Ruiz-Esquide, Alfonso Corrales, Javier Narváez, José Rey-Rey, Carlos Rodríguez-Lozano, Soledad Ojeda, Santiago Muñoz-Fernández, Joan M Nolla, José García-Torrón, Fernando Gamero, Rosario García-Vicuña, Blanca Hernández-Cruz, José Campos, José Rosas, José Francisco García-Llorente, Antonio Gómez-Centeno, Rafael Cáliz, Raimon Sanmartí, Alberto Bermúdez, Lydia Abasolo-Alcázar, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Marras, Miguel Ángel González-Gay, Ihsane Hmamouchi, Emilio Martín-Mola
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). METHODS: This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression...
July 12, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710848/breaking-transmission-with-vaccines-the-case-of-tuberculosis
#18
Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have evolved causing tuberculosis (TB) in different mammalian hosts. MTBC ecotypes have adapted to diverse animal species, with M. bovis being the most common cause of TB in livestock. Cattle-to-human transmission of M. bovis through ingestion of raw milk was common before introduction of the pasteurization process. TB in humans is mainly caused by M. tuberculosis. This bacterium is considered a genetically clonal pathogen that has coevolved with humans due to its ability to manipulate and subvert the immune response...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710351/combination-therapy-for-tuberculosis-treatment-pulmonary-administration-of-ethionamide-and-booster-co-loaded-nanoparticles
#19
Joana Costa-Gouveia, Elisabetta Pancani, Samuel Jouny, Arnaud Machelart, Vincent Delorme, Giuseppina Salzano, Raffaella Iantomasi, Catherine Piveteau, Christophe J Queval, Ok-Ryul Song, Marion Flipo, Benoit Deprez, Jean-Paul Saint-André, José Hureaux, Laleh Majlessi, Nicolas Willand, Alain Baulard, Priscille Brodin, Ruxandra Gref
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide. The use of ethionamide (ETH), a main second line anti-TB drug, is hampered by its severe side effects. Recently discovered "booster" molecules strongly increase the ETH efficacy, opening new perspectives to improve the current clinical outcome of drug-resistant TB. To investigate the simultaneous delivery of ETH and its booster BDM41906 in the lungs, we co-encapsulated these compounds in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), overcoming the bottlenecks inherent to the strong tendency of ETH to crystallize and the limited water solubility of this Booster...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709756/postoperative-outcomes-associated-with-neuraxial-vs-general-anesthesia-following-bilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty
#20
Jeffrey B Walker, Patrick L Nguyen, Ulrich H Schmidt, Rodney A Gabriel
BACKGROUND: There is sparse evidence on the benefit of neuraxial (NA) vs general anesthesia (GA) as the primary anesthetic in postoperative outcomes following bilateral total knee arthroplasty. We sought to elucidate differences in outcomes in this surgical population using a national database. METHODS: We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2007 to 2013 and compared rates of various postoperative outcomes in propensity-matched cohorts (NA vs GA)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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