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Pulmonary infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445159/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Zhiyao Bao, Hong Chen, Min Zhou, Guochao Shi, Qingyun Li, Huanying Wan
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection that often occurs in immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. In recent years, the reported incidence of IPA in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has seemingly increased. The combination of factors such as long-term corticosteroid use, increasing rate of bacterial exacerbations over time, lung immune imbalance, and malnutrition are responsible for the emergence of IPA in COPD patients. A diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is difficult to make, which explains the delay in antifungal therapy and the high mortality rate...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444395/effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-the-membrane-vesicle-release-and-growth-of-respiratory-pathogens
#2
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacterial infections contribute to the disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by stimulating mucus production in the airways. This increased mucus production and other symptoms are often alleviated when patients are treated with mucolytics such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Moreover, NAC has been suggested to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacteria can release membrane vesicles in response to stress and recent studies report a role for these pro-inflammatory membrane vesicles (MVs) in the pathogenesis of airways disease...
April 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443247/evaluation-of-a-new-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#3
Gen Li, Feng Li, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Hai-Cong Li, Chun-Ling Li, Ping Ji, Peng Xu, Kang Wu, Zhi-Dong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Jian-Xin Lv, Xiao-Yong Fan
Blood-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, IGRAs have not been recommended for clinical practice in most low-income settings due to cost-intensive limitations and shortage of clinical data available. The established T-SPOT. TB assay containing Mtb-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10 are widely used for immunodiagonsis of Mtb infection, but the high cost is one of the restricting factors against its clinical application in the developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443234/plastic-bronchitis-an-unusual-complication-of-acute-chest-syndrome-in-adult
#4
Sarah Feray, Pierre Mora, Maxens Decavele, Tài Pham, El Mahdi Hafiani, Muriel Fartoukh
Plastic bronchitis is used to designate endobronchial plugs of rubber-like consistency that form into bronchial trees. It has been described in several diseases like asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary infection, cyanotic congenital heart disease and in few young children with homozygous sickle cell disease. We report the first sickle cell adult case of plastic bronchitis during acute chest syndrome. He developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. This unusual presentation related to obstruction by voluminous casts may alert physicians to focus more on the bronchi in sickle cell patients...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442603/aspergillus-fumigatus-trehalose-regulatory-subunit-homolog-moonlights-to-mediate-cell-wall-homeostasis-through-modulation-of-chitin-synthase-activity
#5
Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J Obar, Robert A Cramer
Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslA and tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442185/modified-frailty-index-is-an-effective-risk-assessment-tool-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Robert P Runner, Jaime L Bellamy, CatPhuong Cathy L Vu, Greg A Erens, Mara L Schenker, George N Guild
BACKGROUND: "Frailty" is a marker of physiological decline of multiple organ systems, and the frailty index identifies patients who are more susceptible to postoperative complications. The purpose of this study is to validate the modified frailty index (MFI) as a predictor of postoperative complications, reoperations, and readmissions in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2005 to 2014 was queried by the Current Procedural Terminology code for primary TKA (27447)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#7
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442112/experimental-infection-with-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-european-brown-hare-lepus-europaeus-pallas
#8
Filippo Fratini, Ranieri Verin, Valentina V Ebani, Cecilia Ambrogi, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Barbara Turchi, Alessandro Poli, Domenico Cerri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinicopathological, bacteriological and pathological aspects of an experimental infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis) in hares to verify the efficacy of serology for the in vivo diagnosis. Moreover, the pathogenicity of two Y. pseudotuberculosis strains was investigated in order to detect potential differences. METHODS: Twelve European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas) were experimentally infected per os and via conjunctival mucosae with Y...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441828/-clinical-analysis-of-seven-cases-of-pulmonary-malignant-tumors-in-children
#9
D Xu, Z M Chen, W Z Gu, Y S Wang, M X Huang, L F Tang, Y Y Zhang, Y Jiang
Objective: To understand the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and outcomes of pulmonary malignant tumors in children. Method: We retrospectively collected information about seven cases of pulmonary malignant tumors in children in our hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2016. The information included clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, pathologic results, and treatment. Result: (1) All the seven patients firstly visited pediatric internal medicine departments. Symptoms included cough (n=6), dyspnea (n=4), fever (n=2), anorexia (n=2), chest tightness (n=1), chest pain (n=1), lameness (n=1), abdominal distension and constipation (n=1)...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441232/atriobronchial-fistula-complicated-by-septic-cerebral-air-emboli-after-pulmonary-vein-ablation
#10
David Velghe, Thomas Apers, Stefanie Devriendt, Ivo Deblier, Bart Hendriks, Rogier Nieuwendijk, Peter Rogiers
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of an infected atriobronchial fistula as a late complication after pulmonary vein ablation, leading to septic air emboli and requiring urgent cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES: Clinical observation. STUDY SELECTION: Case report. DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant clinical information. PubMed was searched for relevant literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Given its high success and low complication rate, pulmonary vein isolation is expected to be increasingly performed worldwide...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440998/-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-case-report
#11
Sergio Alberto Mendoza-Álvarez, Fátima Margarita Rodríguez-Dávila, Leslie Moranchel-García, Virginia Soto, Natalia Quisped
BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GP) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with multi-organ involvement that primarily affects the respiratory tract and the kidneys. Fever in these patients is an indicator of activity; however, if it arises in isolation, the physician should exclude other causes. CLINICAL CASE: Male patient admitted due to an unexplained fever and weight loss; it was diagnosed GP by a history of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, fixed pulmonary nodules and chronic sinusitis of four years of evolution; however, the fever persisted despite treatment and in the absence of infection...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440965/concurrent-pulmonary-sequestration-and-pulmonary-hydatid-cyst-in-a-child-a-case-report
#12
Dawood Yusef, Shadi Hamouri, Yousef Odeh
Pulmonary sequestration (PS) happens when an area of the lung receives its arterial blood supply from systemic circulation, resulting in a non-functional lesion (Intralobar or extralobar). Hydatid cyst results from infection of the tapeworm Echinococcus. We report a case of hydatid cyst existed concurrently with intralobar PS. A 12-year-old girl presented with recurrent hemoptysis of 2 years duration. Serology for Echinococcus granulosus was positive. CT chest suggested intralobar PS in the right middle lobe, which was surgically removed...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440853/antibiotic-strategies-for-eradicating-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006, 2009 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440108/microbiology-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#14
Lindsay Sobin, Kosuke Kawai, Alexandria L Irace, Ozgul Gergin, Michael Cunningham, Gregory S Sawicki, Eelam A Adil
Objective To evaluate the microbiology of the upper and lower airways in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who underwent sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A total of 201 paired sinus and pulmonary cultures from 105 CF patients were identified between 1996 and 2014. Demographics and culture results were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 ± 5.4 years (range, 1-27 years), and approximately one-half were female...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439630/myriocin-treatment-of-cf-lung-infection-and-inflammation-complex-analyses-for-enigmatic-lipids
#15
Anna Caretti, Michele Vasso, Fabiola Tecla Bonezzi, Andrea Gallina, Marco Trinchera, Alice Rossi, Raffaella Adami, Josefina Casas, Monica Falleni, Delfina Tosi, Alessandra Bragonzi, Riccardo Ghidoni, Cecilia Gelfi, Paola Signorelli
Our aim was to use quantitative and qualitative analyses to gain further insight into the role of ceramide in cystic fibrosis (CF). Sphingolipid ceramide is a known inflammatory mediator, and its accumulation in inflamed lung has been reported in different types of emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF. CF is caused by a mutation of the chloride channel and associated with hyperinflammation of the respiratory airways and high susceptibility to ongoing infections. We have previously demonstrated that de novo ceramide synthesis is enhanced in lung inflammation and sustains Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in a CF murine model...
April 24, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438973/pulmonary-il-17-lymphocytes-increase-during-pneumocystis-murina-infection-but-are-not-required-for-clearance-of-pneumocystis
#16
Chiara Ripamonti, Lisa R Bishop, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis remains an important pathogen of immunosuppressed patients, causing a potentially life-threatening pneumonia. Despite its medical importance, the immune responses required to control infection, including the role of IL-17, which is important in controlling other fungal infections, have not been clearly defined. Using flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining following stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, we examined interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 production by lung lymphocytes in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice over time following infection with P...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438677/a-prospective-comparative-study-of-severe-neurological-and-uncomplicated-hand-foot-and-mouth-forms-of-paediatric-enterovirus-71-infections
#17
Yoann Crabol, Polidy Pean, Channa Mey, Veasna Duong, Beat Richner, Denis Laurent, Ky Santy, Heng Sothy, Philippe Dussart, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy, Paul F Horwood
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we document the clinical characteristics and investigated risk factors for uncomplicated and severe forms of EV-A71 disease in Cambodian children. METHODS: From March to July 2014 inclusive, all patients with suspicion of EV-A71 infection presenting to Kantha Bopha Hospitals in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and confirmed by the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge were prospectively enrolled in this study. Throat swabs, rectal swabs and serum samples were collected from all consecutive patients with suspected EV-A71 infection...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438499/rationalizing-endpoints-for-prospective-studies-of-pulmonary-exacerbation-treatment-response-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
D R VanDevanter, S L Heltshe, J Spahr, V V Beckett, C L Daines, E C Dasenbrook, R L Gibson, R Jain, D B Sanders, C H Goss, P A Flume
BACKGROUND: Given the variability in pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) management within and between Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Care Centers, it is possible that some approaches may be superior to others. A challenge with comparing different PEx management approaches is lack of a community consensus with respect to treatment-response metrics. In this analysis, we assess the feasibility of using different response metrics in prospective randomized studies comparing PEx treatment protocols. METHODS: Response parameters were compiled from the recent STOP (Standardized Treatment of PEx) feasibility study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438451/common-medical-comorbidities-correlated-with-poor-outcomes-in-hip-periprosthetic-infection
#19
Daniel J Cunningham, Joseph J Kavolus, Michael P Bolognesi, Samuel S Wellman, Thorsten M Seyler
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic infection has been linked to risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, and smoking among others. This study examined the relationship between common patient comorbidities and hip periprosthetic infection outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 149 culture-positive periprosthetic hip infections at our tertiary care center that underwent treatment between 2005 and 2015. Baseline characteristics and common comorbidities were analyzed with relation to rates of successfully treated infection, total surgeries for infection, and cumulative length of hospitalization using multivariate analysis...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438112/h3n2-canine-influenza-virus-infection-in-a-dog
#20
C E Watson, C Bell, K Toohey-Kurth
In 2015, H3N2 canine influenza emerged in dogs in the greater Chicago area. During this time, a 10-year-old German Shepherd dog presented to the referring veterinarian with lethargy and coughing that quickly progressed to death. This report describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions and the molecular testing performed to identify the novel North American H3N2 strain of canine influenza. The larynx, pharynx, and trachea were covered by a fibrinonecrotic membrane. Bilaterally, the lungs had multifocal subpleural necrosis of the caudal lung lobes with hemorrhage, congestion, and pulmonary edema...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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