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Pulmonary infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647936/18f-fdg-pet-ct-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-patients-treated-with-combined-immunochemotherapy-incidence-and-clinical-characteristics
#1
Yael C Cohen, Tamar Berger, Lora Eshel, Dorit Stern, Osnat Bairey, Pia Raanani, Ofer Shpilberg
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infiltrates (PIs) detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may present a diagnostic challenge due to their wide differential diagnosis, including infection, pulmonary lymphoma and immunochemotherapy-associated pulmonary toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To characterize therapy-associated PIs by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. METHODS: We conducted a historical analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) PIs in NHL patients treated with combined immunochemotherapy including rituximab...
June 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647125/isogenic-mutations-in-the-moraxella-catarrhalis-cyddc-system-display-pleiotropic-phenotypes-and-reveal-the-role-of-a-palindrome-sequence-in-its-transcriptional-regulation
#2
Yosra I Nagy, Manal M M Hussein, Yasser M Ragab, Ahmed S Attia
Moraxella catarrhalis is becoming an important human respiratory tract pathogen affecting significant proportions from the population. However, still little is known about its physiology and molecular regulation. To this end, the CydDC, which is a heterodimeric ATP binding cassette transporter that has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of the redox homeostasis across the periplasm in other Gram-negative bacteria, is studied here. Amino acids multiple sequence alignments indicated that M. catarrhalis CydC is different from the CydC proteins of the bacterial species in which this system has been previously studied...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646962/the-long-shadow-of-lemierre-s-syndrome
#3
Joshua Osowicki, Sarah Kapur, Linny Kimly Phuong, Simon Dobson
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and feared complication of pharyngitis, occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. It is typically defined by the constellation of septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary and other septic emboli, and sterilesite infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum. The rarity and severity of Lemierre's syndrome has made it an attractive subject for case reports but there is a paucity of evidence to inform areas of persistent uncertainty. In recent years, heightened attention and controversy has focused upon speculation that a purported rise in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome is due to reduced antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections, that F...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646953/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-in-childhood-update-on-diagnostic-approaches-and-treatment
#4
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis, Marc Tebruegge
Recent studies suggest that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children may be increasing. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infection, and pulmonary disease each present unique challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment. In this update, we critically review the recent literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children. In addition, we outline key areas warranting further research...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646039/monocyte-adhesion-migration-and-extracellular-matrix-breakdown-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Sara Brilha, Riccardo Wysoczanski, Ashley M Whittington, Jon S Friedland, Joanna C Porter
In tuberculosis (TB), the innate inflammatory immune response drives tissue destruction, morbidity, and mortality. Monocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which have key roles in local tissue destruction and cavitation. We hypothesized that integrin signaling might regulate monocyte MMP secretion in pulmonary TB during cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adhesion to type I collagen and fibronectin by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated monocytes increased MMP-1 gene expression by 2...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644389/chronic-respiratory-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-what-is-the-role-of-antibiotics
#6
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643291/-more-than-expectorant-new-scientific-data-on-ambroxol-in-the-context-of-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-diseases
#7
Manuel Plomer, Justus de Zeeuw
BACKGROUND: Ambroxol has been established for decades in the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency reassessed the clinical benefit-risk ratio of the drug. OBJECTIVE: What new scientific data on ambroxol, which are relevant to the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases, are available? METHOD: The review is based on a systematic literature research in medline with the search term "ambroxol" during the publication period 2006-2015...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643178/economic-evaluation-of-tobramycin-inhalation-powder-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Srilekha Panguluri, Praveen Gunda, Laurie Debonnett, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in approximately 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection further compromises lung function, and significantly contributes to the increased healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: Inhaled tobramycin, used to manage P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients, is available as powder (tobramycin inhalation powder, TIP) and solution (tobramycin inhalation solution, TIS). Evidence suggests increased adherence with the use of TIP over TIS...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642013/identifying-mechanisms-driving-formation-of-granuloma-associated-fibrosis-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Hayley C Warsinske, Robert M DiFazio, Jennifer J Linderman, JoAnne L Flynn, Denise E Kirschner
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a pulmonary pathogen of major global concern. A key feature of Mtb infection in primates is the formation of granulomas, dense cellular structures surrounding infected lung tissue. These structures serve as the main site of host-pathogen interaction in TB, and thus to effectively treat TB we must clarify mechanisms of granuloma formation and their function in disease. Fibrotic granulomas are associated with both good and bad disease outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642012/evaluation-of-a-device-combining-an-inferior-vena-cava-filter-and-a-central-venous-catheter-for-preventing-pulmonary-embolism-among-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#10
Victor F Tapson, Joshua P Hazelton, John Myers, Claudia Robertson, Ramyar Gilani, Julie A Dunn, Marko Bukur, Martin A Croce, Ann Peick, Sonlee West, Lawrence Lottenberg, Jay Doucet, Preston R Miller, Bruce Crookes, Rajesh R Gandhi, Chasen A Croft, Anthony Manasia, Brian A Hoey, Howard Lieberman, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Victor Novack, Gregory Piazza, Samuel Z Goldhaber
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of a novel device that combines an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and central venous catheter (CVC) for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical trial, the device was inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopy and subsequently retrieved before transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from clinically significant PE or fatal PE 72 hours after device removal or discharge, whichever occurred first...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#11
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641331/-surgical-treatment-of-pseudotumours-of-the-lung
#12
Zsolt Sziklavari, Annete Droste, Reiner Neu, Hans-Stefan Hofmann, Michael Ried
Introduction Pseudotumour of the lung is a collective term for various subentities. Some subgroups are considered to be intermediary malignant tumours. A pseudotumour is a rare condition, which makes it difficult to estimate its incidence and prevalence. Methods Retrospective analysis of all surgically treated patients between 2008 and 2015 diagnosed with a pseudotumour of the lung. The primary endpoint of this study was to estimate the rates of local recurrence and metastasis. Secondary endpoints were to determine the nomenclature, medical history, treatment, and the perioperative course...
June 22, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640813/identification-of-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-susceptibility-locus-at-oas1-that-influences-isoform-switching-protein-expression-and-responsiveness-to-type-i-interferons
#13
He Li, Tove Ragna Reksten, John A Ice, Jennifer A Kelly, Indra Adrianto, Astrid Rasmussen, Shaofeng Wang, Bo He, Kiely M Grundahl, Stuart B Glenn, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Simon Bowman, Sue Lester, Per Eriksson, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Johan G Brun, Lasse G Gøransson, Erna Harboe, Joel M Guthridge, Kenneth M Kaufman, Marika Kvarnström, Deborah S Cunninghame Graham, Ketan Patel, Adam J Adler, A Darise Farris, Michael T Brennan, James Chodosh, Rajaram Gopalakrishnan, Michael H Weisman, Swamy Venuturupalli, Daniel J Wallace, Kimberly S Hefner, Glen D Houston, Andrew J W Huang, Pamela J Hughes, David M Lewis, Lida Radfar, Evan S Vista, Contessa E Edgar, Michael D Rohrer, Donald U Stone, Timothy J Vyse, John B Harley, Patrick M Gaffney, Judith A James, Sean Turner, Ilias Alevizos, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Nelson L Rhodus, Barbara M Segal, Courtney G Montgomery, R Hal Scofield, Susan Kovats, Xavier Mariette, Lars Rönnblom, Torsten Witte, Maureen Rischmueller, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Roald Omdal, Roland Jonsson, Wan-Fai Ng, Gunnel Nordmark, Christopher J Lessard, Kathy L Sivils
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640131/paragonimiasis-in-children-in-southwest-china-a-retrospective-case-reports-review-from-2005-to-2016
#14
Zongrong Gong, Ruixue Miao, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis infection has no specific symptoms or typical radiologic findings, leading to the possibility of misdiagnosis. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze clinical and radiological features, and treatment outcome of paragonimiasis in children in Southwest China to improve the awareness of this disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children diagnosed with paragonimiasis in West China Second University Hospital between 2005 and 2016...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639138/veterinary-vaccine-nanotechnology-pulmonary-and-nasal-delivery-in-livestock-animals
#15
REVIEW
Daniella Calderon-Nieva, Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Susantha Gomis, Marianna Foldvari
Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases...
June 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638618/swyer-james-macleod-syndrome-a-rare-diagnosis-presented-through-two-adult-patients
#16
Sumit Mehra, Thilini Basnayake, Henrik Falhammar, Subash Heraganahally, Suryakant Tripathi
Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome (SJMS) is a rare syndrome of acute obliterative bronchiolitis following an early childhood infective insult to the lungs. This causes arrest of alveolarization, affecting lung development with hypoplasia of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery and results in a characteristic radiological pattern, such as a unilateral hyperlucent lung with expiratory air-trapping and pruned-tree appearance on pulmonary angiogram. The clinical presentation is either recurrent chest infections, exertional dyspnoea or it may be an incidental finding...
September 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637925/flipping-the-kill-switch
#17
Stephanie A Christenson
Alveolar macrophages display an impairment in delayed bacterial killing in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection.
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637179/is-delayed-surgical-revascularization-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-useful-or-dangerous-new-insights-into-an-old-problem
#18
Philippe Grieshaber, Peter Roth, Lukas Oster, Tobias M Schneider, Gerold Görlach, Bernd Nieman, Andreas Böning
OBJECTIVES: Haemodynamically stable patients admitted for coronary artery bypass grafting in acute myocardial infarction often undergo delayed surgery in order to avoid the risks of emergency surgery. However, initially stable patients undergoing delayed surgery may develop low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) during the waiting period, which might be a major drawback of this strategy. We aim to define risk factors and clinical consequences of LCOS during the waiting period. METHODS: A total of 530 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (33% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 67% ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2008 and 2013...
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634241/psl-produced-by-mucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-biofilms-and-immune-evasion
#19
Christopher J Jones, Daniel J Wozniak
Despite years of research and clinical advances, chronic pulmonary infections with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain the primary concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Much of the research on these strains has focused on the contributions of the polysaccharide alginate; however, it is becoming evident that the neutral polysaccharide Psl also contributes to biofilm formation and the maintenance of chronic infections. Here, we demonstrate that Psl produced by mucoid strains has significant roles in biofilm structure and evasion of immune effectors...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634177/pneumococcal-pulmonary-valve-endocarditis
#20
Apostolos Vrettos, Paula Mota, James Nash, Iain Thorp, Max Baghai, Max Baghai
Pulmonary valve endocarditis is an rare type of infective endocarditis (IE). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that is uncommonly associated with IE. A 50 year-old man was referred to us to an incidental echocardiographic finding of a pulmonary valve vegetation. He had a recent admission for drainage of a scrotal abscess from which streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated, complicated by hospital acquired pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction of the surgically resected mass revealed signs of 16S rDNA consistent with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection...
June 20, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
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