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Pulmonary infection

Dimitrios Anyfantakis, Angeliki Damianaki, Vasiliki Krietsepi, Evdokia Panou, Serafim Kastanakis
Cytomegalovirus can cause severe disease with adverse outcome in immunocompromised patients. Severe cytomegalovirus infection in previously healthy individuals is rare. Here we present an unusual case of cytomegalovirus infection with neurological and pulmonary involvement in a previously healthy young woman with no history of immuno-suppression. Unfortunately, the disease followed a malignant course and despite the efforts of the medical staff the patient died. CMV infection should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of immunocompetent patients with fever and unexplained neurological or pulmonary manifestations...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Alicia M Soucy, Gregory J Hurteau, Dennis W Metzger
Disease tolerance can preserve host homeostasis and limit the negative impact of infections. We report that vaccinated mice survived pulmonary challenge with the extremely virulent SchuS4 strain of F. tularensis, despite the persistence of large numbers (~104) of organisms. Transfer of 100 of these resident bacteria to naïve animals caused 100% lethality, demonstrating that virulence was maintained. Tissue damage in the lung was limited over the course of infection, and was associated with increased levels of amphiregulin...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Virginie Bondu, Casey Bitting, Valerie L Poland, Joshua A Hanson, Michelle S Harkins, Sarah Lathrop, Kurt B Nolte, Daniel A Lawrence, Tione Buranda
Sin Nombre virus (SNV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary pulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with the loss of pulmonary vascular endothelial integrity, and pulmonary edema without causing cytopathic effects on the vascular endothelium. HCPS is associated primarily with a dysregulated immune response. We previously found occult signs of hemostatic imbalance in the form of a sharp >30-100 fold increase in the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), in serial blood plasma draws of terminal stage-patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Basavaraj Biradar, Arun Sharma, Amarinder Singh Malhi, Sanjeev Kumar
Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare entity, usually congenital in origin. It is thought to result from failure of incorporation of common pulmonary vein to left atrium. Patients often present with recurrent chest infections and haemoptysis during infancy or early childhood. Associated anomalies are commonly present in these cases. Pulmonary angiography is generally used for definitive diagnosis; however, characteristic imaging findings on latest multislice CT can be virtually diagnostic.
June 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jon Cooper Wall, Hillary Powers Wall, Bradley O Osemwengie, Brendan J MacKay
Obese patients have increased rates of upper extremity injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, and upper extremity osteoarthritis. Preoperative considerations include cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Intraoperative and anesthetic considerations include specialized equipment, patient positioning, and the physiology of obese patients. Postoperative considerations should include increased risk of cardiovascular complications as well as surgical site infections and malunion. Surgery of the hand and upper extremity may be less prone to the postoperative complications seen in other regions of the body...
July 2018: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Francisca Astorga, Luis E Escobar, Daniela Poo-Muñoz, Joaquin Escobar-Dodero, Sylvia Rojas-Hucks, Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Melanie Duclos, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Blanca E Molina-Burgos, Alexandra Peñafiel-Ricaurte, Frederick Toro, Francisco T Peña-Gómez, A Townsend Peterson
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an infection endemic in Chile and Argentina, caused by Andes hantavirus (ANDV). The rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus is suggested as the main reservoir, although several other species of Sigmodontinae are known hosts of ANDV. Here, we explore potential ANDV transmission risk to humans in southern South America, based on eco-epidemiological associations among: six rodent host species, seropositive rodents, and human HPS cases. METHODS: We used ecological niche modeling and macroecological approaches to determine potential geographic distributions and assess environmental similarity among rodents and human HPS cases...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Chi Young Jung, Yeoung Hun Choe, Sang Yeub Lee, Woo Jin Kim, Jong Deog Lee, Seung Won Ra, Eu Gene Choi, Jae Seung Lee, Myung Jae Park, Ju Ock Na
Background/Aims: To use serological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to examine sputum samples from patients experiencing acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) for the presence of atypical pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. Methods: From September 2012 to February 2014, 341 patients with AECOPD attending outpatient clinics were enrolled as part of a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study...
June 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Huan Zhang, Liurong Fang, Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Protein lysine ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays key roles in modulating different cellular processes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a notorious pathogen, causing tremendous economic losses for the global swine industry. The possible involvement of ubiquitination in PRRSV infection is unclear. So anti-ubiquitination-based enrichment and LC-MS were performed to investigate the global ubiquitination events triggered by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Rebecca Scherzer, Mitchell H Grayson
OBJECTIVE: It is a well-known fact that there is significant heterogeneity in the origins of asthma in adults and children. This article examines the roots of asthma across the ages including atopy, the role of the microbiome and viral infections, along with comorbidities/confounders such as obesity, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), neutrophilic asthma, cigarette smoking and the possibility of an asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Data was taken from various scientific search engines including PubMed and Science Direct databases...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Alice C-H Chen, Lucy Burr, Michael A McGuckin
Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related states that can occur in cells as part of normal physiology but occur frequently in diseases involving inflammation. In this article, we review recent findings relating to the role of oxidative and ER stress in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic nonmalignant diseases of the lung, including infections, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. We also explore the potential of drugs targeting oxidative and ER stress pathways to alleviate disease...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Saulius Diktanas, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Katazyna Polubenko, Edvardas Danila, Indre Celedinaite, Evelina Boreikaite, Kipras Misiunas
BACKGROUND: Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Shuki Oya, Tsuyoshi Muta
We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had received umbilical cord blood transplantation after two courses of induction therapy. Empirical therapy with caspofungin was initiated 5 days before transplantation. Tacrolimus was continuously infused to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A minidose of methotrexate was intravenously administered on days 1 and 3 post-transplantation, which was changed to prednisolone from day 7 due to severe mucositis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Dana Westmeier, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Cecilia Vallet, Svenja Siemer, Dominic Docter, Hermann Götz, Linda Männ, Anja Hasenberg, Angelina Hahlbrock, Kathrin Erler, Christoph Reinhardt, Oliver Schilling, Sven Becker, Matthias Gunzer, Mike Hasenberg, Shirley K Knauer, Roland H Stauber
Airborne fungal pathogens, predominantly Aspergillus fumigatus , can cause severe respiratory tract diseases. Here we show that in environments, fungal spores can already be decorated with nanoparticles. Using representative controlled nanoparticle models, we demonstrate that various nanoparticles, but not microparticles, rapidly and stably associate with spores, without specific functionalization. Nanoparticle-spore complex formation was enhanced by small nanoparticle size rather than by material, charge, or "stealth" modifications and was concentration-dependently reduced by the formation of environmental or physiological biomolecule coronas...
June 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C Maertens de Noordhout, H Van Oyen, N Speybroeck, B Devleesschauwer
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing of the Belgian health expenditures, several indicators related to population health showed poor results. The objectives of this study were to perform an in-depth analysis of the secular trend of Belgian health status using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study results for Belgium, and to compare these results with other European countries. METHODS: We collected results of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study through the GBD results and visualization tools...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Gisela Hovold, Victoria Palmcrantz, Fredrik Kahn, Arne Egesten, Lisa I Påhlman
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a potential sputum marker of airway inflammation and bacterial load. METHODS: Nineteen CF patients, aged 6-18 years, were prospectively followed for 6 months with sputum sampling at every visit to the CF clinic. A total of 41 sputum samples were collected...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Shouquan Wu, Weiwei Huang, Dan Wang, Yu Wang, Minggui Wang, Miaomiao Zhang, Jian-Qing He
Previous studies indicated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes coding for toll-like receptors (TLRs) and toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study was designed to investigate potential associations between the polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4, and TOLLIP and susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or subsequent PTB in a Chinese Han population. A total of 209 PTB and 201 LTBI patients and 204 healthy control subjects (HCS) were enrolled in our study...
June 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Jie Sun, Zeheng Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results respectively obtained from the utilization of 60% barium sulfate suspension and Iohexol as contrast agents for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and the relationship between the clinical application of the two kinds of contrast agents and the incidence of pneumonia. METHODS: Sixty cases of stroke patients with dysphagia were selected in rehabilitation department of our hospital, and the gender, age, position of the disease, and stroke nature between groups had no significant difference...
2018: Clinics
Jianbing Ma, Weiqiang Zhang, Yijuan Huang, Lizhang Wang, Jia Wang, Linna Yuan, Jingfeng Zhang
RATIONALE: Primary pulmonary angiosarcoma is a rare disease. Here, we report the case of primary pulmonary angiosarcoma diagnosed computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and discuss its specific imaging characteristics. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old man was admitted for cough and shortness of breath. Thoracic CTPA images demonstrated a high-attenuation lesion surrounding by a halo sign in upper lobe of right lung, and the dilated vessel was also seen in lower lobe of right lung...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michiel J E G W Vanfleteren, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Veerle F Surmont, Karim Y Vermaelen, Alida A Postma, Astrid M L Oude Lashof, Cordula C M Pitz, Lizza E L Hendriks
In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18 FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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