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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319472/infective-endocarditis-in-children-an-update
#1
Garth Dixon, Georgi Christov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infective endocarditis in children remains a clinical challenge. Here, we review the impact of the updated 2015 American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines on management as well as the significance of the new predisposing factors, diagnostic and treatment options, and the impact of the 2007-2008 change in prophylaxis recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: The new 2015 infective endocarditis guidelines introduced the endocarditis team, added the new imaging modalities of computer tomography and PET-computer tomography into the diagnostic criteria and endorsed the concept of safety of relatively early surgical treatment...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#2
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318770/expression-of-cathepsin-s-in-bcg-converts-it-into-a-pro-apoptotic-and-highly-immunogenic-strain
#3
Alice Lau, Vijender Singh, Hafid Soualhine, Zakaria Hmama
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine, introduced almost 100years ago, is the only option to prevent TB disease. It effectively protects newborns from meningeal TB but fails to prevent adult pulmonary TB. TB kills 1.3million people annually in areas where BCG vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, more effective TB vaccines are urgently needed. Others and we have shown that BCG mimics features of virulent M. tuberculosis, in particular attenuation of essential macrophage functions such as phagosome maturation and antigen presentation...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318659/cardiovascular-and-general-health-status-of-adults-with-trisomy-21
#4
Samuel A Hayes, Shelby Kutty, Joshua Thomas, Joyce T Johnson, Anji T Yetman
BACKGROUND: Patients with Trisomy 21 are now living well into adulthood. Little data exists to assist the cardiologist in the care of these patients. We sought to examine the cardiac and general health status of adults with Trisomy 21 undergoing cardiac evaluation. METHODS & RESULTS: A retrospective review of all affected adults >21years followed at 2 tertiary care institutions was performed. Of 193 patients identified, median age was 31 (range 21.1-60.5) years...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318613/latent-tuberculosis-infection-screening-prior-to-biological-treatment-in-tunisian-patients
#5
Marwa Slouma, Ines Mahmoud, Olfa Saidane, Selma Bouden, Leila Abdelmoula
OBJECTIVES: The screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is necessary to prevent infection in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) undergoing biological treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy of LTBI screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisia, considered as a high-incidence area of active TB disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 8 years [2007-2014] including patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatism receiving biologic agents since at least 6 months...
February 24, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317808/isolation-and-characterization-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-ghana
#6
Isaac Darko Otchere, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species are assuming public health importance in pulmonary diseases; they are increasingly being isolated, and importantly, most NTMs do not respond to routine tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTMs isolated from pulmonary TB cases and also determine their susceptibility to streptomycin (STR), isoniazid (INH), and rifampicin (RIF). METHODS: A total of 1755 mycobacterial isolates, obtained between August 2012 and July 2014, from 2036 smear-positive pulmonary cases were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification of IS6110, and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317804/a-survey-on-undiagnosed-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-pregnant-mothers-in-mekelle-and-surrounding-districts-in-tigray-ethiopia
#7
Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Kelemework Adane, Markos Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of symptom combinations for undiagnosed TB infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics. Mycobacterium TB and HIV are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age worldwide. Symptom screening is the first step in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended TB intensified case finding algorithm for people living with HIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317798/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-species-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-coinfection-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-dr-soetomo-hospital-surabaya-indonesia
#8
Ni Made Mertaniasih, Deby Kusumaningrum, Eko Budi Koendhori, Tutik Kusmiati, Desak Nyoman Surya Suameitria Dewi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species derived from sputum specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) suspects. Increasing prevalence and incidence of pulmonary infection by NTM species have widely been reported in several countries with geographical variation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2014 and September 2015, sputum specimens from chronic pulmonary TB suspect patients were analyzed...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317629/mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-in-a-patient-receiving-biologic-therapy-not-all-reactive-interferon-gamma-release-assays-are-tuberculosis
#9
Nasir Saleem, Raya Saba, Srikanth Maddika, Mitchell Weinstein
Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, can lead to lung disease similar to tuberculosis. Immunotherapeutic biologic agents predispose to infections with mycobacteria, including M kansasii. T-cell-mediated interferon gamma release assays like QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test (QFT) are widely used by clinicians for the diagnosis of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, QFT may also show positive result with certain nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of M kansasii pulmonary infection, with a positive QFT, in an immunocompromised patient receiving prednisone, leflunomide and tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317400/nanodiagnostics-for-tuberculosis-detection
#10
Hesham El-Samadony, Asma Althani, Mohamed Awad Tageldin, Hassan M E Azzazy
Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer worldwide. End TB strategy aims at ending the TB epidemic by 2030. Early, accurate, and affordable diagnosis represents a cornerstone to achieve this goal. Innovative strategies for TB diagnostics have been introduced, however the ideal assay is yet unavailable and conventional methods remain necessary for diagnosis. Unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs) have allowed their utilization in TB detection via targeting disease biomarkers. Area Covered Until now, around thirty-five TB NP-based assays have been partially or fully characterized...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317153/pharmacokinetics-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-gamithromycin-after-intravenous-administration-in-foals
#11
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316225/-the-clinical-impact-of-artery-first-approach-combined-with-vascular-resection-and-reconstruction-in-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-head-carcinoma
#12
J L Huang, W G Li, F Z Chen, Z J Su, F M Li, B Liu
Objective: To evaluate the application of artery first, combined vascular resection and reconstruction in the treatment of pancreatic head carcinoma. Methods: The clinical data of 13 patients with pancreatic head cancer were retrospectively analyzed from February 2014 to March 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University. Preoperative computed tomography of high resolution layer or magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated pancreatic head carcinoma, as well as close adhesion, stenosis, compression or displacement of superior mesenteric vein or portal vein wall...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316217/-comparison-of-the-effect-of-lymph-node-dissection-performed-by-ivor-lewis-or-left-sided-thoracic-esophagogastrectomy-for-siewert-type-%C3%A2-adenocarcinoma-of-the-esophagogastric-junction
#13
X F Duan, L Gong, M Q Ma, J Yue, P Tang, X B Shang, H J Jiang, Z T Yu
Objective: To compare the extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative complications between Ivor-Lewis procedure and left sided thoracotomy in patients with Siewert type Ⅱ adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Methods: The clinical data of 101 patients with Siewert type Ⅱ EG who received surgical treatment between January 2014 and September 2015 in the Department of Esophageal Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. These patients were divided into Ivor-Lewis group (IL, n=38) and left- sided thoracotomy group (LT, n=63) according to the operation mode...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315490/neutralization-of-both-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-plays-a-major-role-in-suppressing-combined-cigarette-smoke-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb, Daniel Peter
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute to disease pathology. We investigated whether individual or combined inhibition of these cytokines reduced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed and H1N1-infected BALB/c mice...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#15
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314957/lipoteichoic-acids-from-staphylococcus-aureus-stimulate-proliferation-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#16
Katja Hattar, Christian P Reinert, Ulf Sibelius, Mira Y Gökyildirim, Florentine S B Subtil, Jochen Wilhelm, Bastian Eul, Gabriele Dahlem, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Ulrich Grandel
Pulmonary infections are frequent complications in lung cancer and may worsen its outcome and survival. Inflammatory mediators are suspected to promote tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hence, bacterial pathogens may affect lung cancer growth by activation of inflammatory signalling. Against this background, we investigated the effect of purified lipoteichoic acids (LTA) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on cellular proliferation and liberation of interleukin (IL)-8 in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H226...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314768/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-liberates-transmissible-cytotoxic-prion-amyloids
#17
Ron Balczon, K Adam Morrow, Chun Zhou, Bradley Edmonds, Mikhail Alexeyev, Jean-Francois Pittet, Brant M Wagener, Stephen A Moser, Silas Leavesley, Xiangming Zha, Dara W Frank, Troy Stevens
Patients who recover from pneumonia subsequently have elevated rates of death after hospital discharge as a result of secondary organ damage, the causes of which are unknown. We used the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia, as a model for investigating this phenomenon. We show that infection of pulmonary endothelial cells by P. aeruginosa induces production and release of a cytotoxic amyloid molecule with prion characteristics, including resistance to various nucleases and proteases...
March 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314699/safety-and-tolerability-of-idelalisib-lenalidomide-and-rituximab-in-relapsed-and-refractory-lymphoma-the-alliance-for-clinical-trials-in-oncology-a051201-and-a051202-phase-1-trials
#18
Sonali M Smith, Brandelyn N Pitcher, Sin-Ho Jung, Nancy L Bartlett, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Steven I Park, Kristy L Richards, Amanda F Cashen, Anthony Jaslowski, Scott E Smith, Bruce D Cheson, Eric Hsi, John P Leonard
BACKGROUND: A new generation of biological and targeted agents might potentially replace traditional cytotoxic agents in lymphoma. Lenalidomide plus rituximab was felt to be a safe and promising backbone based on available data. Idelalisib is an oral phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor that has promising activity as a monotherapy in refractory indolent lymphomas. The primary objective of these two trials was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide in combination with rituximab and idelalisib in relapsed follicular and mantle cell lymphoma...
March 14, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314668/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-increased-the-therapeutic-potential-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-radiation-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
Li Wei, Jing Zhang, Zai-Liang Yang, Hua You
BACKGROUND AIMS: Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development...
March 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314653/assessment-of-risk-factors-for-candidemia-in-non-neutropenic-patients-hospitalized-in-internal-medicine-wards-a-multicenter-study
#20
M Falcone, G Tiseo, C Tascini, A Russo, E Sozio, G Raponi, C Rosin, P Pignatelli, P Carfagna, A Farcomeni, R Luzzati, F Violi, F Menichetti, M Venditti
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of candidemia has been reported in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for candidemia among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in IMWs. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Italy. Patients developing candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls) matched by age, time of admission and duration of hospitalization...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
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