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Eli Kisilevsky, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Michael H Brent, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with central vision loss develop preferred retinal loci (PRLs) in the eccentric retina. The characteristics of the PRLs for the better eye (BE) are well studied, but not those of the worse eye (WE). We examined the distribution of monocular PRLs in the visual field (VF), as well as visual acuity, fixation stability, and PRL eccentricity for the BE and WE of patients with central vision loss. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 87 BE and 50 WE of patients with central vision loss...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Laurie Isacco, Ophélie Ritter, Nicolas Tordi, Davy Laroche, Bruno Degano, Malika Bouhaddi, Mark Rakobowchuk, Laurent Mourot
This study investigated substrate oxidation in concentric and eccentric cycling matched for aerobic power output in the postprandial state. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were measured at rest and after 15, 30, and 45 min of eccentric and concentric cycling in 12 men. Absolute and relative aerobic power output and energy expenditure were similar during concentric and eccentric exercise. No effect of exercise modality was observed for substrate metabolism...
August 11, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jennifer Kurowicki, Enesi Momoh, Jonathan C Levy
Periprosthetic humerus fractures are relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to manage nonoperatively. Locking plate technology has enhanced the surgical management of these fractures. However, adequate fixation around the stem remains of some concern. We describe an osteosynthesis technique using a locking plate utilizing eccentrically placed screw holes to place "skive screws" in the proximal end of the plate to achieve fixation around the stem of the implant. A clinical series of 5 consecutive patients treated with this technique is presented with an average follow-up of 29 months (range, 12-48)...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately post-exercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg pre-damage, 36h-post, and 60h-post damage...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
S J Lang, D Böhringer, G Geerling, T Reinhard
AimThe objective of the study was to evaluate the long-term results of allogenic penetrating limbo-keratoplasy. This method allows simultaneous transplantation of a corneal graft and limbal stem cells of the donor by means of eccentric trephination of the donor button.MethodThe data of 192 consecutive cases of allogenic penetrating limbo-keratoplasty from 1995 to 2015 were reviewed. These had been performed exclusively in eyes with complete failure of the limbal stem cells, in combination with deep corneal scarring...
October 21, 2016: Eye
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, Ines O Goncalves, Jose Magalhaes, Antonio A Ascensao, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle morphological and functional alterations, including microvasculature damage, the repair of which is modulated by hypoxia. Here we present the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and exercise on recovery from eccentric-induced muscle damage (EEIMD). Soleus muscles from trained rats were excised pre- (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after a double session of EEIMD protocol. A recovery treatment consisting of one of the following protocols was applied one day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), a 4-hour daily exposure to passive hypobaric hypoxia at 4000m (PHR) or hypobaric hypoxia exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jeffrey J Widrick, Matthew Alexander, Benjamin Sanchez, Devin Gibbs, Genri Kawahara, Alan Beggs, Louis Kunkel
Sapje zebrafish lack the protein dystrophin and are the smallest vertebrate model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their small size makes them ideal for large-scale drug discovery screens. However, the extent that sapje mimic the muscle dysfunction of higher vertebrate models of DMD is unclear. We used an optical birefringence assay to differentiate affected dystrophic sapje larvae from their unaffected siblings and then studied trunk muscle contractility at 4-7 days post fertilization. Preparation cross-sectional area (CSA) was similar for affected and unaffected larvae, yet tetanic forces of affected preparations were only 30-60% of normal...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Takao Sato, John Jose, Mohamed El-Mawardy, Dmitriy S Sulimov, Ralph Tölg, Gert Richardt, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab
This study investigated the predictors of acute recoil after implantation of everolimus-eluting BRS based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty-nine patients (56 scaffolds) were enrolled. Acute absolute recoil by quantitative coronary angiography was defined as the difference between the mean diameter of the last inflated balloon (X) and the mean lumen diameter of BRS immediately after balloon deflation (Y). Acute percent recoil was defined as (X - Y) × 100/X. Plaque eccentricity (PE) and plaque composition (PC) were assessed by OCT...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Jin Sil Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Seong Ho Park, Jong Seok Lee, Ah Young Kim, Hyun Kwon Ha
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the CT features of ruptured GISTs and factors that might be predictive of rupture through comparison with CTs taken prior to rupture and CTs of non-ruptured GIST. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with ruptured GIST and forty-nine patients with non-ruptured GIST matched by age, gender and location were included. Clinical data including pharmacotherapy were reviewed. The imaging features were analyzed. Prior CT obtained before rupture were evaluated...
October 19, 2016: European Radiology
Chien-Cheng Chen, Christopher J Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jonathan Denniss, Andrew T Astle
Purpose: To demonstrate methods that enable visual field sensitivities to be compared with normative data without restriction to a fixed test pattern. Methods: Healthy participants (n = 60, age 19-50) undertook microperimetry (MAIA-2) using 237 spatially dense locations up to 13° eccentricity. Surfaces were fit to the mean, variance, and 5th percentile sensitivities. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by refitting the surfaces 1000 times to the dataset and comparing estimated and measured sensitivities at 50 randomly excluded locations...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
L J P Xavier, D R da Costa, A Chaves, J M Pereira, G A Farias
We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Florian Blachutzik, Niklas Boeder, Jens Wiebe, Alessio Mattesini, Oliver Dörr, Astrid Most, Timm Bauer, Jens Röther, Monique Tröbs, Christian Schlundt, Stephan Achenbach, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the acute mechanical effects of post-dilatation on bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). BACKGROUND: Post-dilatation with high-pressure balloons is regarded as a key component of BRS implantation for treatment of coronary artery stenoses. However, the impact of post-dilatation on BRS in vivo has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: OCT was performed after the implantation procedure of 51 everolimus-eluting or novolimus-eluting polylactic acid-based BRS with (n = 27) or without non-compliant balloon post-dilatation (n = 24)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Stephen P Bird, William J Markwick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Tosoni Annalisa, Guidotti Roberto, Del Gratta Cosimo, Committeri Giorgia, Sestieri Carlo
The human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) contains areas specialized for particular perceptual/semantic categories, such as faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and places (parahippocampal place area, PPA). This organization has been interpreted as reflecting the visual structure of the world, i.e. perceptual similarity and/or eccentricity biases. However, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown not only that regions of the OTC are modulated by non-visual, action-related object properties but also by motor planning and execution, although the functional role and specificity of this motor-related activity are still unclear...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jae-Kwan Song
The successful clinical introduction of various non-invasive imaging modalities has contributed to the establishment of 'acute aortic syndrome', a relatively new clinical syndrome incorporating several disease entities with similar clinical features (at the time of clinical presentation). Aortic dissection (AD) with intimal flap and two aortic channels (true and false lumens) is the most important disease entity in acute aortic syndrome. Clinical characteristics of AD have been established, with standardized treatment strategies depending on the affected site of the aorta...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
E De Vlieghere, G Wagemans, S De Backer, Z Drebert, J Tommelein, Q Rousseau, B Weyn, M Van Troys, M Bracke, O De Wever
Cells change their morphology as a response to environmental cues. The quantitative evaluation of single cell spread on extracellular matrices, such as type I collagen, is a key tool in cancer research. Inherent to the manual scoring of cellular spread is inter-observer but also intra-observer variation. To overcome these problems, we have developed the Morphology Analysis Software (MAS). MAS scores phase-contrast images of cells on native type I collagen gels and identifies whether a cell has a spread or round morphology using a combination of four unique parameters such as the presence of a cellular extension, the cell area, the cell eccentricity and cell circularity...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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