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George M Carter, Aryan Esmaeili, Hardikkumar Shah, Debbie Indyk, Matthew Johnson, Michael Andreae, Henry S Sacks
People living with human immunodeficiency virus frequently use dietary supplements, including probiotics, but concern exists about ingesting live organisms. We performed a systematic review of the benefits of probiotics and a meta-analysis of sepsis risk. We undertook a protocol-driven, comprehensive review to identify all relevant studies, assess their quality, and summarize the evidence. Of 2068 references, 27 were analyzed. The data suggest possible benefits for CD4 count, recurrence or management of bacterial vaginosis, and diarrhea management...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Shuwei Zheng, Tong Yong Ng, Huihua Li, Ai Ling Tan, Thuan Tong Tan, Ban Hock Tan
BACKGROUND: Mortality for candidemia ranges from 15% to 35%. Current guidelines recommend inoculating blood into three aerobic and three anaerobic blood culture bottles when candidemia is suspected, without mention of a fungal blood culture bottle. OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the BACTEC Myco/F Lytic blood culture media in the diagnosis of fungemia. METHODS: A two-year retrospective cross-sectional study was performed for patients who had fungemia with submitted BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F (Aer), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (Anaer) or Myco/F Lytic (Myco) blood culture bottles...
2016: PloS One
Tahereh Malakoutian, Maliheh Yarmohamadi, Ronak Mohammadi, Mojgan Asgari, Reyhaneh Mahmoodian
Splenic abscess is one of the rare and potentially life-threatening complications after kidney transplantation. Splenic abscess generally occurs in patients who have immunodeficiency state. It becomes more important with the increased use of immunosuppressed drugs and organ transplantation. The clinical presentation of splenic abscess is insidious, often with constitutional symptoms. Left upper quadrant tenderness is an uncommon sign. Therefore, its diagnosis is difficult and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
R Datcu, J Boel, I M Jensen, M Arpi
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether addition of the BACTEC™ Mycosis bottle to the standard BACTEC™ aerobic and anaerobic bottles contributed to a higher detection rate and a faster time to detection (TTD) of fungi. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients with a positive blood culture with Candida species delivered to the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Denmark in the 8-year period 2006 through 2014. The patients had at least one BACTEC™ aerobic and one Mycosis bottle sampled at the same time and at least one of the bottles yielded growth of fungi...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Alexandra Mpakosi, Maria Siopi, Vasiliki Falaina, Nikolaos Siafakas, Emmanuel Roilides, Maria Kimouli, Martha Theodoraki, Paraskevi Karle, Joseph Meletiadis
New Candida species may cause bloodstream infections challenging current therapeutic approaches because of unpredictable susceptibility and virulence. In the present report, we describe a fungemia case due to Candida pulcherrima in a premature neonate. After full in vitro diagnostic workup, the neonate was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and micafungin achieving rapid fungal eradication from blood.
June 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Rosalba Vivas, Claudia Beltran, Maria Isabel Munera, Monica Trujillo, Andrea Restrepo, Carlos Garcés
Fungal infections have become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children due to many complicating and underlying conditions. We present the case of a newborn infant with fungemia due to Kodamaea ohmeri who had a good outcome of the infection after using the combination of antifungal treatment and central venous catheter removal.
September 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Nina Singh, Costi D Sifri, Fernanda P Silveira, Rachel Miller, Kevin S Gregg, Shirish Huprikar, Erika D Lease, Andrea Zimmer, J Stephen Dummer, Cedric W Spak, Christine Koval, David B Banach, Miloni Shroff, Jade Le, Darin Ostrander, Robin Avery, Albert Eid, Raymund R Razonable, Jose Montero, Emily Blumberg, Ahlaam Alynbiawi, Michele I Morris, Henry B Randall, George Alangaden, Jeffrey Tessier, Thomas V Cacciarelli, Marilyn M Wagener, Hsin Yun Sun
Characteristics of cirrhosis-associated cryptococcosis first diagnosed after death are not fully known. In a multicenter study, data generated as standard of care was systematically collected in 113 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and cryptococcosis followed for 80 patient-years. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis was first established after death in 15.9% (18/113) of the patients. Compared to cases diagnosed while alive, these patients had higher MELD score (33 vs. 22, P = .029) and higher rate of cryptococcemia (75...
September 6, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Paul F Cotter, Murray R Bakst
Mott cells are atypical plasmacytes recognized microscopically by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distensions (Russell bodies) a result of retained secretory product (antibody). Originally associated with parasitism, they are observed in a broad spectrum of immunopathology, sometimes involving hypergammaglobulinemia. Few descriptions of Mott cells appear in avian literature. The purpose of the manuscript is to provide examples identified by light microscopy in three poultry species. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of plasmacytes from the turkey oviduct mucosa are included for comparison with Mott cell light microscopic images...
September 2, 2016: Poultry Science
J-K Baek, J S Lee, T H Kim, Y H Kim, D J Han, S K Hong
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant (KT) recipients are vulnerable to infections because of their immunosuppressive treatments, and they occasionally exhibit serious acute cardiopulmonary dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical outcomes of using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in KT recipients and to identify risk factors for ECMO weaning failure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of KT patients who experienced severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction refractory to conventional therapy and received ECMO at the Asan Medical Center Surgical Intensive Care Unit between December 2010 and December 2014...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Pooja Khandelwal, Jacob J Bleesing, Stella M Davies, Rebecca A Marsh
Myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens are commonly used in transplantation for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) but are associated with toxicity. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have lower toxicity but may fail to achieve stable donor chimerism. We report a comparison between 4 patients who received a RIC regimen consisting of alemtuzumab (1 mg/kg), fludarabine (150 mg/m(2)), and melphalan (140 mg/m(2)) and 14 patients who received a MAC regimen consisting of busulfan (area under the curve, 1800 to 2000 µMol/min twice daily × 4 days), cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg/day × 4), and antithymocyte globulin (15 mg/kg twice daily on days -2 and -1, then daily on days +1 and +2)...
November 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Shuanbao Yu, Wenge Li, Xiaoshu Liu, Jie Che, Yuan Wu, Jinxing Lu
Candia tropicalis is an increasingly important human pathogen, causing nosocomial fungemia among patients with neutropenia or malignancy. However, limited research has been published concerning its pathogenicity. Based on the phenotypes of C. tropicalis in our previous study, we selected nine representative strains with different activities of virulence factors (adhesion, biofilm formation, secreted aspartic proteinases, and hemolysins), and one reference strain, ATCC750. The present study aimed to investigate the filamentation ability, the expression of virulence genes (ALST1-3, LIP1, LIP4, and SAPT1-4) and the cell damage of C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mikkel Werge, Stine Roug, Srdan Novovic, Palle Nordblad Schmidt, Erik Feldager Hansen, Jenny Dahl Knudsen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of fungal infection and antifungal treatment on outcome in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). METHODS: A retrospective description of fungal infections in a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic, transmural drainage and necrosectomy for WON, treated in a tertiary referral center was reviewed. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, fungal infection in WON was documented in 57 (46%) of 123 patients...
November 2016: Pancreas
Francesco Barchiesi, Elena Orsetti, Patrizia Osimani, Carlo Catassi, Fabio Santelli, Esther Manso
BACKGROUND: Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of fungal blood stream infections (BSIs), infections due to Candida species other than C. albicans are rising. Candida parapsilosis complex has emerged as an important fungal pathogen and became one of the main causes of fungemia in specific geographical areas. We analyzed the factors related to outcome of candidemia due to C. parapsilosis in a single tertiary referral hospital over a five-year period. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of all cases of candidemia was carried out at a 980-bedded University Hospital in Italy...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jesús Guinea, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Óscar Zaragoza, Benito Almirante, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, José María Aguado
Fungemia due to rare yeasts constitutes an emerging but poorly investigated condition. Data on risk factors, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of episodes of fungemia due to rare (non-Candida, non-Cryptococcus) yeasts were analyzed in a population-based surveillance program conducted in 29 Spanish hospitals between May 2010 and April 2011. Species identification (DNA sequencing) and antifungal susceptibility testing (EUCAST and CLSI methods) were centrally performed. Fourteen out of 767 episodes of fungemia (1...
August 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Kelly Regina Alves Pereira Pillon, Patrícia Lira Bizerra, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Mycopathologia
Heeyoon Cho, Yong Un Shin, Nicole H Siegel, Hyeong Gon Yu, Lucia Sobrin, Achal Patel, Marlene L Durand, Joan W Miller, Deeba Husain
PURPOSE: To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. METHODS: We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively...
July 26, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
S Abbes, I Amouri, H Trabelsi, S Neji, H Sellami, F Rahmouni, F Makni, T Rebai, A Ayadi
Yarrowia lipolytica is ubiquitous in the environment, opportunistic, and might be considered as one of the causative agents of catheter-related candidemia. Our work aimed to study some virulence factors of Y. lipolytica such as hydrolases production and biofilm formation with comparison to the most frequent Candida specie in human disease. In sum, 58 clinical isolates of Y. lipolytica, 16 C. glabrata, and 12 C. albicans were collected from Intensive care unit (ICU). All were tested for enzymatic production and biofilm formation...
July 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
S Desmet, J Maertens, K Bueselinck, K Lagrou
Infection is an important complication in patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors undergoing intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In only 20 to 30% of the febrile neutropenic episodes, an infectious agent is detected by conventional cultures. In this prospective study, the performance of broad-range PCR coupled with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technology was compared to conventional blood cultures (BC) in a consecutive series of samples from high-risk hematology patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Luísa Lima Castro, Manuel Schütze, Daniel Henrique Bücker, Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of nosocomial fungemia has increased worldwide, and mortality caused by this disease is high. OBJECTIVE: To assess progress in the last decade, and the prevalence and profile of fungal agents isolated in blood cultures performed in a tertiary university hospital. METHOD: All the results of blood cultures processed at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), in the time intervals 2001-2003 and 2011-2013 were analyzed retrospectively...
July 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
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