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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667575/a-cluster-of-two-human-cases-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-tbe-transmitted-by-unpasteurised-goat-milk-and-cheese-in-germany-may-2016
#1
S O Brockmann, R Oehme, T Buckenmaier, M Beer, A Jeffery-Smith, M Spannenkrebs, S Haag-Milz, C Wagner-Wiening, C Schlegel, J Fritz, S Zange, M Bestehorn, A Lindau, D Hoffmann, S Tiberi, U Mackenstedt, G Dobler
In May 2016, two cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were confirmed by serology (positive IgM and IgG antibodies against TBE virus (TBEV) in serum), with a possible link to raw milk and cheese from a goat farm in a region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany not previously known as TBE-endemic. The outbreak investigation identified 32 consumers of goat dairy products (29 consumers, one farm employee, two owners) of whom none had IgM antibodies against TBEV 3-8 weeks after consumption. Of the 27 notified TBE cases in the State, none reported consumption of raw goat milk or cheese from the suspected farm...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667271/syndrome-and-outcome-of-antibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis
#2
Francesc Graus, Domingo Escudero, Laura Oleaga, Jordi Bruna, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Jordi Ballabriga, María Inés Barceló, Francisco Gilo, Stoyan Popkirov, Pavel Stourac, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical characteristics of 12 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) who were antibody-negative after a comprehensive immunological study. METHODS: Review of clinical records of 163 patients with LE. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons, and cell-based assays were used to identify neuronal autoantibodies. Patients were included if 1) there was adequate clinical, CSF, and MRI information to classify the syndrome as LE, 2) MRI images were accesible for central review, and 3) serum and CSF were available and confirmed negative for neuronal antibodies...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665373/human-monoclonal-antibodies-against-west-nile-virus-from-japanese-encephalitis-vaccinated-volunteers
#3
Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hideyuki Masaki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ikuko Aoyama, Takahiro Yumisashi, Atsushi Yamanaka, Eiji Konishi, Yoh Ohnuki, Atsushi Muraguchi, Hiroyuki Kishi
West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional laboratories due to its high safety level requirement...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664458/brainstem-encephalitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#4
Sarah A Bin Abdulqader, Hisham M Alkhalidi, Abdulrazag M Ajlan
Brainstem encephalitis (BE) is a rare, severe, and potentially life-threatening inflammation of the central nervous system. Brainstem encephalitis has multiple etiologies, which vary in treatment and outcomes. The current literature is generally focused on the infectious causes of BE, while little is known about the other entities, including cases with inconclusive diagnoses. Additionally, the outcomes of BE are not well documented. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with progressive symptoms of brainstem involvement...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664395/fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infections-caused-by-siberian-and-european-subtypes-finland-2015
#5
Suvi Kuivanen, Teemu Smura, Kirsi Rantanen, Leena Kämppi, Jonas Kantonen, Mia Kero, Anu Jääskeläinen, Anne J Jääskeläinen, Jussi Sane, Liisa Myllykangas, Anders Paetau, Olli Vapalahti
In most locations except for Russia, tick-borne encephalitis is mainly caused by the European virus subtype. In 2015, fatal infections caused by European and Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes in the same Ixodes ricinus tick focus in Finland raised concern over further spread of the Siberian subtype among widespread tick species.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664389/cerebrospinal-fluid-immunoglobulins-as-potential-biomarkers-of-chikungunya-encephalitis
#6
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Luiz Claudio Farias, Mauro Jorge Cabral-Castro, Mariano G Zalis, Rosangela S Kalil, Maria Cecília F Salgado
Chikungunya virus causes fever and severe polyarthritis or arthralgia and is associated with neurologic manifestations that are sometimes challenging to diagnose. We demonstrate intrathecal synthesis of chikungunya antibodies in a patient with a history of acute infection complicated by encephalitis. The specificity of the intracerebral immune response supports early chikungunya-associated encephalitis diagnosis.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664379/history-of-mosquitoborne-diseases-in-the-united-states-and-implications-for-new-pathogens
#7
Max J Moreno-Madriñán, Michael Turell
The introduction and spread of West Nile virus and the recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas have raised concern about the potential for various tropical pathogens to become established in North America. A historical analysis of yellow fever and malaria incidences in the United States suggests that it is not merely a temperate climate that keeps these pathogens from becoming established. Instead, socioeconomic changes are the most likely explanation for why these pathogens essentially disappeared from the United States yet remain a problem in tropical areas...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664365/human-usutu-virus-infection-with-atypical-neurologic-presentation-montpellier-france-2016
#8
Yannick Simonin, Olivier Sillam, Marie J Carles, Serafin Gutierrez, Patricia Gil, Orianne Constant, Marie F Martin, Gilda Girard, Philippe Van de Perre, Sara Salinas, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Vincent Foulongne
Infection with Usutu virus (USUV) has been recently associated with neurologic disorders, such as encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, in humans. These findings indicate that USUV is a potential health threat. We report an acute human infection with USUV in France putatively associated with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#9
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661124/newcastle-disease-virus-infection-in-quail
#10
Leonardo Susta, Diego Segovia, Timothy L Olivier, Kiril M Dimitrov, Ismaila Shittu, Valerie Marcano, Patti J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide. The pathogenesis of ND in quail is poorly documented. To characterize the ability of virulent NDV strains to replicate and cause disease in quail, groups of 14 two-week-old Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica) were experimentally inoculated with 108 EID50 (embryo infectious dose 50%) units of 1 of 4 virulent NDV strains: 2 isolated from quail ( N2, N23) and 2 from chickens ( Israel, Pakistan)...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657399/seroprevalence-of-small-ruminant-caprine-arthritis-encephalitis-lentivirus-among-goats-from-selected-small-ruminant-farms-in-selangor-malaysia
#11
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Yusuf Abba, Veenosha Nehru Raju, Idris Umar Hambali, Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Jefri Mohd Norsidin
Background and Aim: Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655579/hungarian-tick-borne-encephalitis-viruses-isolated-from-a-0-5-ha-focus-are-closely-related-to-finnish-strains
#12
László Egyed, Zsuzsanna Rónai, Ádám Dán
Four tick-borne encephalitis virus strains were isolated from a small 0.5-ha focus over a six-year-long period (2011-2016) in Hungary. Two strains with identical genomes were isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna two months apart, which shows that the virus had not evolved separately in these tick species. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus revealed that the isolates differed from each other in 4 amino acids and 9 nucleotides. The calculated substitution rates indicated that the speed of genome evolution differs from habitat to habitat, and continuously changes even within the same focus...
April 7, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652824/full-genome-characterization-and-genetic-evolution-of-west-african-isolates-of-bagaza-virus
#13
Martin Faye, Oumar Faye, Moussa Moise Diagne, Gamou Fall, Manfred Weidmann, Mbacke Sembene, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West African isolates, sampled from 1988 to 2014...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652644/alphaviruses-serological-evidence-of-human-infection-in-paraguay-2012-2013
#14
Fátima Cardozo, Brenda Konigheim, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, María Elisa Rivarola, Javier Aguilar, Alejandra Rojas, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Malvina Paez, Yvalena Guillén, Adrian Diaz, María Asunción Vallejos, Lilian Herebia, María Lidia Recalde, Marta Silvia Contigiani, Laura Mendoza
INTRODUCTION: Alphaviruses can produce febrile illness and encephalitis in dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Within this genus, the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex includes pathogenic epizootic subtypes and enzootic subtypes that are not pathogenic in horses (except subtype IE, Mexican strains), although they can cause febrile symptoms in humans. The Rio Negro virus (RNV-VEEV subtype VI) circulates in Argentina, where it was associated with undifferentiated febrile illness...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652642/powassan-virus-disease-in-the-united-states-2006-2016
#15
Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Marc Fischer, Susan L Hills
BACKGROUND: Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus that causes rare, but often severe, disease in humans. POWV neuroinvasive disease was added to the U.S. nationally notifiable disease list in 2001 and nonneuroinvasive disease was added in 2004. The only previous review of the epidemiology of POWV disease in the United States based on cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) covered the period from 1999 through 2005. METHODS: We describe the epidemiology and clinical features of laboratory-confirmed POWV disease cases reported to CDC from 2006 through 2016...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652486/biochemistry-and-molecular-biology-of-flaviviruses
#16
Nicholas J Barrows, Rafael K Campos, Kuo-Chieh Liao, K Reddisiva Prasanth, Ruben Soto-Acosta, Shih-Chia Yeh, Geraldine Schott-Lerner, Julien Pompon, October M Sessions, Shelton S Bradrick, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are critically important human pathogens that sicken a staggeringly high number of humans every year. Most of these pathogens are transmitted by mosquitos, and not surprisingly, as the earth warms and human populations grow and move, their geographic reach is increasing. Flaviviruses are simple RNA-protein machines that carry out protein synthesis, genome replication, and virion packaging in close association with cellular lipid membranes...
April 13, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651625/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-severe-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-patients
#17
Yan Zhang, Gang Liu, Mengdi Jiang, Weibi Chen, Yanbo He, Yingying Su
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data concerning the characteristics and duration of the critical manifestations, treatment response, and long-term outcomes of severe anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis patients compared to those of non-severe patients are limited. This observational study was performed to explore the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. METHODS: According to their characteristics on admission to the neurology intensive care unit, patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were divided into a severe group and a non-severe group...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650033/enterovirus-serotypes-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-infections-in-viet-nam-1997-2010
#18
Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh B'Krong, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Phan Tu Qui, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Lien Anh Ha Do, Nguyen Ngoc Nhung, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, Le Van Tan, H Rogier van Doorn, Tran Tan Thanh
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. METHODS: Data and specimens from prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used...
April 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649437/turning-up-your-nose-for-a-flaviviral-encephalitis-cure
#19
Rina Barouch-Bentov, Shirit Einav
siRNA approaches have demonstrated promise in treating viral infections in animal models, but poor delivery limits clinical application. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Beloor et al. (2018) report that nose-to-brain delivery of viral-targeted siRNA cures mice from West Nile virus encephalitis, with potential implications for human infection.
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645071/daclizumab-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
F C Perez-Miralles
INTRODUCTION: Daclizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD25 subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor, investigated as a disease-modifying therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The present review addresses how the drug was developed, the known mechanism of action of the drug and the up-to-date data of efficacy and safety. DEVELOPMENT: Daclizumab has shown superiority in prevention of relapses against placebo and low-dose interferon beta-1a at a level that puts it on par with the rest of current first-line drugs...
April 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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