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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219091/potential-impact-of-climate-change-on-emerging-vector-borne-and-other-infections-in-the-uk
#1
Matthew Baylis
Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most important routes of transmission of climate sensitive diseases are by arthropod (insect and tick) vectors, in water and in food. Given the sensitivity of many diseases to climate, it is very likely that at least some will respond to future climate change...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217828/frequently-used-bioinformatics-tools-overestimate-the-damaging-effect-of-allelic-variants
#2
Line Lykke Andersen, Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla, Nanna Mørk, Carsten Scavenius, Jan J Enghild, Klara Höning, Veit Hornung, Mette Christiansen, Trine H Mogensen, Rune Hartmann
We selected two sets of naturally occurring human missense allelic variants within innate immune genes. The first set represented eleven non-synonymous variants in six different genes involved in interferon (IFN) induction, present in a cohort of patients suffering from herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the second set represented sixteen allelic variants of the IFNLR1 gene. We recreated the variants in vitro and tested their effect on protein function in a HEK293T cell based assay. We then used an array of 14 available bioinformatics tools to predict the effect of these variants upon protein function...
December 4, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217376/safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-two-zika-virus-dna-vaccine-candidates-in-healthy-adults-randomised-open-label-phase-1-clinical-trials
#3
Martin R Gaudinski, Katherine V Houser, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Zonghui Hu, Galina Yamshchikov, Ro Shauna Rothwell, Nina Berkowitz, Floreliz Mendoza, Jamie G Saunders, Laura Novik, Cynthia S Hendel, LaSonji A Holman, Ingelise J Gordon, Josephine H Cox, Srilatha Edupuganti, Monica A McArthur, Nadine G Rouphael, Kirsten E Lyke, Ginny E Cummings, Sandra Sitar, Robert T Bailer, Bryant M Foreman, Katherine Burgomaster, Rebecca S Pelc, David N Gordon, Christina R DeMaso, Kimberly A Dowd, Carolyn Laurencot, Richard M Schwartz, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Theodore C Pierson, Julie E Ledgerwood, Grace L Chen
BACKGROUND: The Zika virus epidemic and associated congenital infections have prompted rapid vaccine development. We assessed two new DNA vaccines expressing premembrane and envelope Zika virus structural proteins. METHODS: We did two phase 1, randomised, open-label trials involving healthy adult volunteers. The VRC 319 trial, done in three centres, assessed plasmid VRC5288 (Zika virus and Japanese encephalitis virus chimera), and the VRC 320, done in one centre, assessed plasmid VRC5283 (wild-type Zika virus)...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216299/recombinant-vaccinia-virus-coded-interferon-inhibitor-b18r-expression-refolding-and-a-use-in-a-mammalian-expression-system-with-a-rna-vector
#4
Yuriy G Kim, Aliya Zh Baltabekova, Erzhan E Zhiyenbay, Altynai S Aksambayeva, Zhadyra S Shagyrova, Rinat Khannanov, Erlan M Ramanculov, Alexandr V Shustov
B18R protein of Vaccinia virus binds to type I interferons and inhibits activation of interferon-mediated signal transduction. Cells which have unimpaired interferon signaling such as primary cell cultures or some industrially important cell lines are capable of development of an antiviral state. An establishment of the antiviral state limits replication of RNA-viruses and can suppress replication of RNA vectors. The interferon inhibitor B18R effectively prevents the establishment of the antiviral state. For this reason, B18R has become a ubiquitous component of protocols for epigenetic reprogramming which use transfections of RNA replicons or mRNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215577/acute-encephalitis-in-an-adult-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-secondary-involvement-of-the-central-nervous-system-infectious-or-non-infectious-etiology
#5
Surinder S Moonga, Kenneth Liang, Burke A Cunha
Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214905/the-jungle-book-of-neuropsychology-disentangling-the-influence-of-feral-childhood-from-adult-brain-injury-in-order-to-provide-effective-rehabilitation
#6
C J McIntosh, A I W James
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury. METHOD: MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse...
December 7, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#7
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211242/potentially-pathogenic-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-isolated-from-dental-units-and-emergency-combination-showers
#8
Esteban Castro-Artavia, Lissette Retana-Moreira, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Elizabeth Abrahams-Sandí
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210929/optic-disc-edema-in-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-autoantibody-positive-meningoencephalitis
#9
John J Chen, Allen J Aksamit, Andrew McKeon, Sean J Pittock, Brian G Weinshenker, Jacqueline A Leavitt, Padraig P Morris, Eoin P Flanagan
BACKGROUND: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis is a newly described entity characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive meningoencephalomyelitis. Some patients with GFAP autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis have been found to have optic disc edema, which has previously not been well characterized. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational case series of Mayo Clinic patients found to have GFAP-IgG and optic disc edema from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210534/antiepileptic-drugs-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-seizures-in-viral-encephalitis
#10
Kate Rowan-Robinson
The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf...
December 6, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210509/arboviruses-and-their-related-infections-in-china-a-comprehensive-field-and-laboratory-investigation-over-the-last-3-decades
#11
REVIEW
Guodong Liang, Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Shihong Fu, Huanyu Wang, Minghua Li, Zhi Lu, Wuyang Zhu, Xinjun Lu, Lihua Wang, Yuxi Cao, Ying He, Wenwen Lei
Since the 1980s, a comprehensive field and laboratory investigation has been conducted throughout China, and a total of 29 virus species belonging to 7 families and 13 genera were identified through virological, morphological, and immunological methods, as well as whole-genome sequencing and molecular genetic analyses. Most of the virus isolates belong to 9 genera in the families Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Among them, 4 genera (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus) belong to the family Bunyaviridae and 3 genera (Seadonavirus, Orbivirus, and Cypovirus) belong to the family Reoviridae...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208406/macrophage-depletion-by-liposome-encapsulated-clodronate-suppresses-seizures-but-not-hippocampal-damage-after-acute-viral-encephalitis
#12
Inken Waltl, Christopher Käufer, Sonja Bröer, Chintan Chhatbar, Luca Ghita, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Ulrich Kalinke, Wolfgang Löscher
Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures and epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. Mouse models such as viral encephalitis induced by intracerebral infection with Theiler's virus in C57BL/6 (B6) mice allow advancing our understanding of the immunological and virological aspects of infection-induced seizures and their treatment. Previous studies using the Theiler's virus model in B6 mice have indicated that brain-infiltrating inflammatory macrophages and the cytokines released by these cells are key to the development of acute seizures and hippocampal damage in this model...
December 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207707/diagnostic-approach-to-viral-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-aes-in-paediatric-age-group-a-study-from-new-delhi
#13
Shipra Goel, Anita Chakravarti, Mukta Mantan, Surinder Kumar, Md Anzar Ashraf
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207584/mir-301a-mediated-immune-evasion-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#14
EDITORIAL
Bibhabasu Hazra, Surajit Chakraborty, Anirban Basu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206879/climate-change-influences-on-the-potential-geographic-distribution-of-the-disease-vector-tick-ixodes-ricinus
#15
Abdelghafar A Alkishe, A Townsend Peterson, Abdallah M Samy
BACKGROUND: Ixodes ricinus is a species of hard tick that transmits several important diseases in Europe and North Africa, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is affecting the geographic distributions and abundances of arthropod vectors, which in turn influence the geographic distribution and epidemiology of associated vector-borne diseases. To date, few studies have investigated effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of I. ricinus at continental extents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205199/seroprevalence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-west-nile-virus-in-alappuzha-district-kerala
#16
Anukumar Balakrishnan, Romy Jose Thekkekare, Gajanan Sapkal, Babasaheb V Tandale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Several outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala State, India, in the past. The aetiology of these outbreaks was either inconclusive or concluded as probable Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection based on clinical presentation. The role of West Nile virus (WNV) in AES outbreaks was also determined. However, the extent of WNV infection has not been studied in this region previously. A population-based cross-sectional serosurvey study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of JEV and WNV in Alappuzha district...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203399/anti-thyroid-antibodies-and-thyroid-function-in-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#17
Yinyao Lin, Sha Tan, Yuge Wang, Xianru Shen, Yaqin Shu, Yilong Shan, Yanqiang Wang, Haiyan Li, Lei Zhang, Wei Cai, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203378/occurrence-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-central-west-malaysian-environments
#18
Mohamad Hafiz Abdul Basher, Init Ithoi, Rohela Mahmud, Awatif Mohamed Abdulsalam, Agus Iwan Foead, Salwa Dawaki, Wahib Mohammed Mohsen Atroosh, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Wan Omar Abdullah
Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa that can be found worldwide. Occasionally, it can become parasitic and the causative agent of acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) in man. A total of 160 environmental samples and 225 naturally-infected animal corneal swabs were collected for Acanthamoeba cultivation. Acanthamoeba was found to be high in samples collected from environments (85%, 136/160) compared to infected animal corneas (24.89%, 56/225) by microscopic examination...
December 1, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#19
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202854/neuronal-ccl2-expression-drives-inflammatory-monocyte-infiltration-into-the-brain-during-acute-virus-infection
#20
Charles L Howe, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Emma N Goddery, Renee K Johnson, Kanish Mirchia
BACKGROUND: Viral encephalitis is a dangerous compromise between the need to robustly clear pathogen from the brain and the need to protect neurons from bystander injury. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. We previously identified brain-infiltrating inflammatory monocytes as the primary driver of this hippocampal pathology, but the mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to the brain were unclear...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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