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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924806/learning-to-live-with-ticks-the-role-of-exposure-and-risk-perceptions-in-protective-behaviour-against-tick-borne-diseases
#1
Daniel Slunge, Anders Boman
The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of risk perceptions and exposure for protective behaviour against tick bites and the related diseases Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), both of which are growing health concerns. We use data from a national survey in Sweden with respondents in geographical areas with substantial differences in both abundance of ticks and incidence of LB and TBE. We find that the share of respondents who frequently use protective clothing (64%), perform tick checks (63%) or avoid tall grass while in areas with ticks (48%) is relatively high...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924480/apnea-and-delirious-behavior-caused-by-mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-reversible-splenial-lesion-complicated-with-rotavirus-infection
#2
Takuma Ohnishi, Yoshinori Mishima, Shunsuke Shinozuka, Nobuaki Shikoro, Isamu Kamimaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923617/cd93-regulates-cns-inflammation-in-two-mouse-models-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Mark R Griffiths, Marina Botto, B Paul Morgan, J W Neal, P Gasque
Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice...
June 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921683/validation-of-discharge-diagnosis-codes-to-identify-serious-infections-among-middle-age-and-older-adults
#4
Andrew D Wiese, Marie R Griffin, C Michael Stein, William Schaffner, Robert A Greevy, Edward F Mitchel, Carlos G Grijalva
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalisations for serious infections are common among middle age and older adults and frequently used as study outcomes. Yet, few studies have evaluated the performance of diagnosis codes to identify serious infections in this population. We sought to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of diagnosis codes for identifying hospitalisations due to serious infections among middle age and older adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified hospitalisations for possible infection among adults >=50 years enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid healthcare programme (2008-2012) using International Classifications of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes for pneumonia, meningitis/encephalitis, bacteraemia/sepsis, cellulitis/soft-tissue infections, endocarditis, pyelonephritis and septic arthritis/osteomyelitis...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921616/study-of-complications-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-hospitalized-children-at-a-reference-hospital-for-infectious-disease-treatment
#5
Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Marcelle Marie Martins Maia, Yara Vieira de Oliveira, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, Amanda Vieira Couto, Vânia Carneiro Mota, Carolina Mazieiro Versiani, Priscila Olívia da Costa Silveira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVES: Varicella is a disease with potentially severe complications. We aimed to investigate characteristics of hospitalized children with varicella in Brazil in the prevaccine period and to identify predictors for requiring intensive care treatment. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from May 2011 to April 2014. Patients up to 13 years of age with varicella diagnosis were included. Information was collected through interview and review of medical records...
June 19, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921334/leishmania-microbiota-and-sand-fly-immunity
#6
Erich Loza Telleria, Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Antonio Jorge Tempone, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö
In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art of sand fly relationships with microbiota, viruses and Leishmania, with particular emphasis on the vector immune responses. Insect-borne diseases are a major public health problem in the world. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors of several aetiological agents including viruses, bacteria and the trypanosomatid Leishmania, which are responsible for diseases such as viral encephalitis, bartonellosis and leishmaniasis, respectively. All metazoans in nature coexist intimately with a community of commensal microorganisms known as microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920552/development-of-a-novel-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-quantitative-detection-of-nipah-virus-replicative-viral-rna
#7
Kenneth S Jensen, Ricky Adams, Richard S Bennett, John Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that can result in severe pulmonary disease and fatal encephalitis in humans and is responsible for outbreaks in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and possibly the Philippines. NiV has a negative-sense RNA genome that contains six genes and serves as a template for production of viral mRNA transcripts. NiV mRNA transcripts are subsequently translated into viral proteins. Traditionally, NiV quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays have relied on using primer sets that amplify a target (N that encodes the nucleocapsid) within the coding region of the viral gene that also amplifies viral mRNA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915799/a-case-of-severe-encephalitis-while-on-pd-1-immunotherapy-for-recurrent-clear-cell-ovarian-cancer
#8
Morgan Burke, Melissa Hardesty, Wayne Downs
Recurrent clear cell ovarian carcinoma is a difficult to treat condition and early trial data has suggested a possible role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 immunotherapy that has been used in this setting. While immune related toxicity of these agents has been well described, the occurrence of immune specific neurotoxicity is thought to be rare. We present a case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for a recurrent ovarian clear cell cancer and we believe this to be the first such reported case associated with the use of PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915659/a-case-report-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#9
Pavan Bhat, Ameer Ahmed, Preetam Jolepalem, Charmian Sittambalam
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis is a potentially fatal autoimmune syndrome in which there is antibody production against the NMDAR causing profound dysregulation of neurotransmission. The syndrome is frequently associated with ovarian teratomas and women are disproportionately affected. Patients most often present with a constellation of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, including memory loss, hallucinations, and decreased level of consciousness. This condition is lethal if left untreated...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915593/detection-of-glycan-shedding-in-the-blood-new-class-of-multiple-sclerosis-biomarkers
#10
Brian DellaValle, Alba Manresa-Arraut, Henrik Hasseldam, Allan Stensballe, Jørgen Rungby, Agnete Larsen, Casper Hempel
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disease, afflicting people in the prime of their lives. Presently, after initial clinical presentation, there are no reliable markers for whether a patient will develop MS, or whether their prognosis will be aggressive or relapsing-remitting. Furthermore, many MS patients do not respond to treatment. Thus, markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment-responsiveness are lacking for a disease, where a precision medicine approach would be valuable...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915260/differential-antiviral-immunity-to-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-developing-cortical-organoids
#11
Boya Zhang, Yangzhige He, Yanpeng Xu, Fan Mo, Tingwei Mi, Qing Sunny Shen, Chunfeng Li, Yali Li, Jing Liu, Yihui Wu, Guilai Chen, Wenliang Zhu, Chengfeng Qin, Baoyang Hu, Guomin Zhou
Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to the world's public health yet without a cure. Certain JEV-infected neural cells express a subset of previously identified intrinsic antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), indicating brain cells retain autonomous antiviral immunity. However, whether this happens in composited brain remains unclear. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived organoids can model disorders caused by human endemic pathogens such as Zika virus, which may potentially address this question and facilitate the discovery of a cure for JE...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915078/species-specific-disruption-of-sting-dependent-antiviral-cellular-defenses-by-the-zika-virus-ns2b3-protease
#12
Qiang Ding, Jenna M Gaska, Florian Douam, Lei Wei, David Kim, Metodi Balev, Brigitte Heller, Alexander Ploss
The limited host tropism of numerous viruses causing disease in humans remains incompletely understood. One example is Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus that has reemerged in recent years. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV efficiently infects fibroblasts from humans, great apes, New and Old World monkeys, but not rodents. ZIKV infection in human-but not murine-cells impairs responses to agonists of the cGMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) signaling pathway, suggesting that viral mechanisms to evade antiviral defenses are less effective in rodent cells...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914776/cerebrospinal-fluid-lactate-concentration-and-bacterial-encephalitis-diagnosis
#13
M Maillet, T De Broucker, A Mailles, P Bouzat, J P Stahl
OBJECTIVES: A French national study on infectious encephalitis enrolled 253 patients in 2007. Fifty-two per cent of patients had a proven etiological diagnosis; 16% had bacterial encephalitis. We aimed to assess the predictive value of CSF lactate concentration to diagnose bacterial encephalitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from the 2007 cohort whose CSF lactate concentration was available were included. Clinical and biological features associated with a bacterial etiology were assessed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...
June 15, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914165/viral-determinants-of-virulence-in-tick-borne-flaviviruses
#14
REVIEW
Eliza M Kellman, Danielle K Offerdahl, Wessam Melik, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913285/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#15
Fatma Ben Abid, Mohammed Abukhattab, Hafedh Ghazouani, Obada Khalil, Ahmed Gohar, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Eman Al Masalamani, Said Al Dhahry, Samar Hashim, Faraj Howadi, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar. DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Those with abnormal CSF finding were included in our study. We excluded those with missing medical records, no clinical evidence of viral CNS infection or proven bacterial, fungal or tuberculosis CNS infection...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912844/antibody-persistence-up-to-3-years-after-primary-immunization-with-inactivated-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-ixiaro%C3%A2-in-philippine-children-and-effect-of-a-booster-dose
#16
Vera Kadlecek, Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Salvacion Gatchalian, Sigrid Kiermayr, Benjamin Sablan, Michael Kundi, Christian Taucher, Katrin L Dubischar
BACKGROUND: An inactivated Vero cell culture derived Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (IXIARO) requires a booster dose 1 year after primary schedule for long-term antibody persistence in adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose in children aged 2 months to <18 years. METHODS: A randomized, controlled open-label study in the Philippines. Three hundred children vaccinated with IXIARO in a previous trial were randomized 1:1 to receive either no booster or a booster 12 months after initiation of the primary series...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912706/virus-rna-load-in-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-slovenia
#17
Ana Saksida, Nina Jakopin, Mateja Jelovšek, Nataša Knap, Luka Fajs, Lara Lusa, Stanka Lotrič-Furlan, Petra Bogovič, Maja Arnež, Franc Strle, Tatjana Avšič-Županc
We determined levels of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (TBEV) RNA in serum samples obtained from 80 patients during the initial phase of TBE in Slovenia. For most samples, levels were within the range of 3-6 log10 copies RNA/mL. Levels were higher in female patients than in male patients, but we found no association between virus load and several laboratory and clinical parameters, including severity of TBE. However, a weak humoral immune response was associated with a more severe disease course, suggesting that inefficient clearance of virus results in a more serious illness...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912701/enterovirus-a71-infection-thailand-2017
#18
Jiratchaya Puenpa, Chompoonut Auphimai, Sumeth Korkong, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
An outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease among children in Thailand peaked in August 2017. Enterovirus A71 subgenogroup B5 caused most (33.8%, 163/482) cases. Severe disease (myocarditis and encephalitis) was observed in 1 patient. Coxsackievirus A6 was detected in 6.0% (29/482) of patients, and coxsackievirus A16 was detected in 2.7% (13/482) of patients.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912426/experimental-infection-of-syrian-hamsters-with-aerosolized-nipah-virus
#19
Olivier Escaffre, Terence Hill, Tetsuro Ikegami, Terry L Juelich, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, David E Perez, Colm Atkins, Arnold Park, William S Lawrence, Satheesh K Sivasubramani, Jennifer E Peel, Johnny W Peterson, Benhur Lee, Alexander N Freiberg
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Methods: infectivity, pathogenicity and real-time dissemination of aerosolized NiV in Syrian hamsters was evaluated using NiV-Malaysia (NiV-M) and/or its recombinant expressing firefly luciferase (rNiV-Fluc NP)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911344/powassan-virus-a-scoping-review-of-the-global-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Tricia Corrin, Judy Greig, Shannon Harding, Ian Young, Mariola Mascarenhas, Lisa A Waddell
BACKGROUND: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus discovered in 1958, causes sporadic but severe cases of encephalitis in humans. Since 2007, the number of human Powassan cases diagnosed each year in the USA has steadily increased. This is in agreement with predictions that Powassan cases may increase in North America as a result of increased exposure to infected ticks. However, the increase may also reflect improved diagnostics and reporting among other factors. METHODS: A scoping review was prioritized to identify and characterize the global literature on POWV...
June 17, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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