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Fungal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430017/two-nramp6-isoforms-function-as-iron-and-manganese-transporters-and-contribute-to-disease-resistance-in-rice
#1
Cristina Peris-Peris, Albert Serra-Cardona, Ferrán Sánchez-Sanuy, Sonia Campo, Joaquin Ariño, Blanca San Segundo
Metal ions are essential elements for all living organisms. However, metals can be toxic when present in excess. In plants, metal homeostasis is partly achieved through the function of metal transporters, including the diverse natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP). Among them, the OsNramp6 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized member of the rice NRAMP family that undergoes alternative splicing to produce different NRAMP6 proteins. In this work, we determined the metal transport activity and biological role of the full-length and the shortest NRAMP6 proteins (l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6, respectively)...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429626/promising-immunotherapy-against-fungal-diseases
#2
Wilfried Posch, Marion Steger, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Despite the relatively high efficacy of antifungal drugs, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are still associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality, since late diagnosis makes an antifungal drug therapy inefficient. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapies to specifically strengthen the host´s own immune mechanisms constitute an additional promising strategy in taking action against fungal pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarize efforts in research and clinical trials to provide safe and efficient immunotherapeutic options against invasive fungal diseases...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#3
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422828/gastrointestinal-mucormycosis-of-the-jejunum-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#4
Mengqing Sun, Xianming Hou, Xiaoting Wang, Ge Chen, Yupei Zhao
RATIONALE: Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis (GIM) is a kind of opportunistic fungal infection with poor prognosis. It usually occurs in patients with immune deficiency. We reported a case of immunocompetent male patient. PATIENT CONCERNS: This patient was presented as abdominal distension and gastrointestinal bleeding. DIAGNOSES: A variety of hemostatic methods was ineffective to stop the bleeding. The patient finally received laparotomy, and the jejunum lesions were found...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#5
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#6
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414956/geosmin-as-a-source-of-the-earthy-musty-smell-in-fruits-vegetables-and-water-origins-impact-on-foods-and-water-and-review-of-the-removing-techniques
#7
REVIEW
Viacheslav Liato, Mohammed Aïder
The earthy-musty smell produced by Streptomyces sp. is assigned to geosmin and is responsible for the major organoleptic defects found in drinking water, fruits and vegetables such as grapes, mushrooms, carrots, and beet. Geosmin is also found in juices and musts before fermentation and its presence has been associated with partial presence of Botrytis cinerea. It has a variable detection threshold depending on the matrix and the detection level ranges from 5 to 50 ng/L. On the sensory level, very few individuals are immune to geosmin and although the intensity of the defect caused by this molecule decreases rapidly in the nose, a bad taste is very persistent in the mouth...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412805/-the-observation-of-tacrolimus-eye-drops-preventing-the-early-immunological-rejection-after-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-fungal-keratitis
#8
D M Xiang, Y X Wang, Y N Jia, S X Li, H L Zhai, W Y Shi, H Gao
Objective: To observe the early immunological rejection prevention effect of tacrolimus eye drops combined with glucocorticoids on fungal keratitis patients who received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Methods: In a retrospective case series study, medical records of fungal keratitis patients who received PKP in Shandong Eye Institute from March 2013 to December 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-six patients (26 eyes) were given tacrolimus eye drops, and 24 patients (24 eyes) were given 1% cyclosporine A eye drops immediately after PKP...
April 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412634/chitosan-induced-immunity-in-camellia-sinensis-l-o-kuntze-against-blister-blight-disease-is-mediated-by-nitric-oxide
#9
Swarnendu Chandra, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Koustubh Panda, Krishnendu Acharya
Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L...
April 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407259/the-verticillium-specific-protein-vdscp7-localizes-to-the-plant-nucleus-and-modulates-immunity-to-fungal-infections
#10
Lisha Zhang, Hao Ni, Xuan Du, Sheng Wang, Xiao-Wei Ma, Thorsten Nürnberger, Hui-Shan Guo, Chenlei Hua
Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399190/expression-of-the-insect-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-impi-in-the-fat-body-of-galleria-mellonella-exposed-to-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana
#11
Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) discovered in Galleria mellonella is currently the only specific inhibitor of metalloproteinases found in animals. Its role is to inhibit the activity of metalloproteinases secreted by pathogenic organisms as virulence factors to degrade immune-relevant polypeptides of the infected host. This is a good example of an evolutionary arms race between the insect hosts and their natural pathogens. In this report, we analyze the expression of a gene encoding an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) in fat bodies of the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella infected with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...
April 11, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394331/dectin-1-activation-on-macrophages-by-galectin-9-promotes-pancreatic-carcinoma-and-peritumoral-immune-tolerance
#12
Donnele Daley, Vishnu R Mani, Navyatha Mohan, Neha Akkad, Atsuo Ochi, Daniel W Heindel, Ki Buom Lee, Constantinos P Zambirinis, Gautam Sd Balasubramania Pandian, Shivraj Savadkar, Alejandro Torres-Hernandez, Shruti Nayak, Ding Wang, Mautin Hundeyin, Brian Diskin, Berk Aykut, Gregor Werba, Rocky M Barilla, Robert Rodriguez, Steven Chang, Lawrence Gardner, Lara K Mahal, Beatrix Ueberheide, George Miller
The progression of pancreatic oncogenesis requires immune-suppressive inflammation in cooperation with oncogenic mutations. However, the drivers of intratumoral immune tolerance are uncertain. Dectin 1 is an innate immune receptor crucial for anti-fungal immunity, but its role in sterile inflammation and oncogenesis has not been well defined. Furthermore, non-pathogen-derived ligands for dectin 1 have not been characterized. We found that dectin 1 is highly expressed on macrophages in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391495/boric-acid-inhibition-of-trichophyton-rubrum-growth-and-conidia-formation
#13
Martin Schmidt
Trichophyton rubrum is a common human dermatophyte that is the causative agent of 80-93% of fungal infections of the skin and nails. While dermatophyte infections in healthy people are easily treatable with over-the-counter medications, such infections pose a higher risk for patients with compromised immune function and impaired regenerative potential. The efficacy of boric acid (BA) for the treatment of vaginal yeast infections prompted an investigation of the effect of BA on growth and morphology of T. rubrum...
April 8, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387602/nucleoporin-nup88-mos7-is-required-for-manifestation-of-phenotypes-associated-with-the-arabidopsis-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-mutant-cerk1-4
#14
Bianca Genenncher, Volker Lipka, Elena K Petutschnig, Marcel Wiermer
Arabidopsis nucleoporin MOS7/NUP88 was identified in a forward-genetic screen for components that contribute to auto-immunity of the deregulated Resistance (R) gene mutant snc1, and is required for immunity to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. In a recent study, we showed that MOS7 is also essential to mount a full defense response against the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that MOS7 modulates plant defense responses to different types of pathogenic microbes. Here, we extend our analyses of MOS7-dependent plant immune responses and report the genetic requirement of MOS7 for manifestation of phenotypes associated with the CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) mutant cerk1-4...
April 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386988/a-new-proteinaceous-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-identified-in-ascomycete-fungi-induces-cell-death-in-solanaceae
#15
Barbara Franco-Orozco, Adokiye Berepiki, Olaya Ruiz, Louise Gamble, Lucie L Griffe, Shumei Wang, Paul R J Birch, Kostya Kanyuka, Anna Avrova
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris...
April 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375091/regulatory-effect-of-caspase-11-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-the-fungal-keratitis
#16
Keke Zhu, Hongmei Mu, Baimu Pi
Caused by fungus, fungal keratitis is a kind of infections corneal disease with high rate of blindness, which patients are mainly farmers in developing countries. Interleukin, as important proinflammatory cytokines, involve in immune defense process against fungal infection of cornea. The expression of interleukin in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis, especially the main source of its cells, is not clear and the cell signaling pathways which regulate the synthesis and modification of interleukin is still unknown...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370833/infectious-complications-in-indigenous-renal-transplant-recipients-in-western-australia
#17
Peter Boan, Ramyasuda Swaminathan, Ashley Irish
BACKGROUND: Infectious complications remain a significant risk following renal transplantation. AIMS: To examine the burden and pattern of infection following renal transplantation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI) compared to non-ATSI. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 141 consecutive adult renal transplant recipients in Western Australia between 2005 and 2011. We determined baseline serological status for relevant organisms, the number of patients with specific infections and infectious admission in the first year post transplantation and the rate of infectious death during follow up...
April 3, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369864/the-rice-lysm-receptor-like-kinase-oscerk1-is-required-for-the-perception-of-short-chain-chitin-oligomers-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-signaling
#18
Gennaro Carotenuto, Mireille Chabaud, Kana Miyata, Martina Capozzi, Naoya Takeda, Hanae Kaku, Naoto Shibuya, Tomomi Nakagawa, David G Barker, Andrea Genre
The rice lysin-motif (LysM) receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is now known to have a dual role in both pathogenic and symbiotic interactions. Following the recent discovery that the Oscerk1 mutant is unable to host arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we have examined whether OsCERK1 is directly involved in the perception of the short-chain chitin oligomers (Myc-COs) identified in AM fungal exudates and shown to activate nuclear calcium (Ca(2+) ) spiking in the rice root epidermis. An Oscerk1 knockout mutant expressing the cameleon NLS-YC2...
March 29, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368492/dermal-fibroblasts-play-a-central-role-in-skin-model-protection-against-c-albicans-invasion
#19
Andreas Kühbacher, Helena Henkel, Philip Stevens, Christian Grumaz, Doris Finkelmeier, Anke Burger-Kentischer, Kai Sohn, Steffen Rupp
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes basically all human epithelial surfaces including the skin. Under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression, invasion of the epithelia occurs. Not much is known about defense mechanisms against C. albicans in subepithelial layers such as the dermis. Using immune cell-supplemented 3D skin models we could define a new role for fibroblasts in the dermis and identify a minimal set of cell types for skin protection against C. albicans invasion. Dual RNA-Seq of individual host cell populations and C...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361440/acid-suppressive-therapy-and-risk-of-infections-pros-and-cons
#20
REVIEW
Leon Fisher, Alexander Fisher
This narrative review summarises the benefits, risks and appropriate use of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, advocating a rationale balanced and individualised approach aimed to minimise any serious adverse consequences. It focuses on current controversies on the potential of ASDs to contribute to infections-bacterial, parasitic, fungal, protozoan and viral, particularly in the elderly, comprehensively and critically discusses the growing body of observational literature linking ASD use to a variety of enteric, respiratory, skin and systemic infectious diseases and complications (Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septicaemia and other)...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
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