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Fungal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929495/the-influence-of-immune-status-age-and-sex-on-majocchi-granuloma-a-review-of-52-cases-from-a-tertiary-level-hospital-and-published-korean-cases-in-literature
#1
Jungyoon Ohn, Gwanghyun Jo, Je-Ho Mun
BACKGROUND: Majocchi granuloma (MG) is a rare dermal and subcutaneous granulomatous inflammation caused by dermatophytes. The detailed characteristics of MG are not fully elucidated. This study investigated the influence of systemic immune status, age, and sex on the clinical, demographic, mycological, and therapeutic characteristics of MG in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed cases of histopathologically diagnosed MG at our tertiary referral center from January 2001 to December 2016...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928736/selective-igm-deficiency-an-underestimated-primary-immunodeficiency
#2
REVIEW
Sudhir Gupta, Ankmalika Gupta
Although selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD) was described almost five decades ago, it was largely ignored as a primary immunodeficiency. SIGMD is defined as serum IgM levels below two SD of mean with normal serum IgG and IgA. It appears to be more common than originally realized. SIGMD is observed in both children and adults. Patients with SIGMD may be asymptomatic; however, approximately 80% of patients with SIGMD present with infections with bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. There is an increased frequency of allergic and autoimmune diseases in SIGMD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927201/recognition-and-clinical-presentation-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-neonates-and-children
#3
Jill King, Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Adilia Warris
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are devastating opportunistic infections that result in significant morbidity and death in a broad range of pediatric patients, particularly those with a compromised immune system. Recognizing them can be difficult, because nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms or isolated fever are frequently the only presenting features. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in patients at increased risk of IFD, which requires knowledge of the pediatric patient population at risk, additional predisposing factors within this population, and the clinical signs and symptoms of IFD...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924158/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-powdery-mildew-resistance-in-u-s-winter-wheat
#4
Na Liu, Guihua Bai, Meng Lin, Xiangyang Xu, Wenming Zheng
Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsible for PM resistance in a set of U.S. winter wheat and identify DNA markers in these regions, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a set of 185 U.S. winter wheat accessions using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 90 K wheat SNP arrays...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923242/epichlo%C3%A3-fungal-endophytes-and-plant-defenses-not-just-alkaloids
#5
REVIEW
Daniel A Bastias, M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Carlos L Ballaré, Pedro E Gundel
Although the role of fungal alkaloids in protecting grasses associated with Epichloë fungal endophytes has been extensively documented, the effects of the symbiont on the host plant's immune responses have received little attention. We propose that, in addition to producing protective alkaloids, endophytes enhance plant immunity against chewing insects by promoting endogenous defense responses mediated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We advance a model that integrates this dual effect of endophytes on plant defenses and test its predictions by means of a standard meta-analysis...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#6
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca(2+) , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has therefore been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922415/rewiring-monocyte-glucose-metabolism-via-c-type-lectin-signaling-protects-against-disseminated-candidiasis
#7
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Rob J W Arts, Rob Ter Horst, Mark S Gresnigt, Sanne P Smeekens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Leo A B Joosten, Richard A Notebaart, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea
Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919897/altered-immune-activation-and-il-23-signaling-in-response-to-candida-albicans-in-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#8
Øyvind Bruserud, Eirik Bratland, Alexander Hellesen, Nicolas Delaleu, Håkon Reikvam, Bergithe E Oftedal, Anette S B Wolff
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is one of the three major disease components and is, to date, mainly explained by the presence of neutralizing auto-antibodies against cytokines [interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22] from T helper 17 cells, which are critical for the protection against fungal infections. However, patients without current auto-antibodies also present CMC and we, therefore, hypothesized that other immune mechanisms contribute to CMC in APS-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919893/ripk3-fas-associated-death-domain-axis-regulates-pulmonary-immunopathology-to-cryptococcal-infection-independent-of-necroptosis
#9
Zhenzong Fa, Qun Xie, Wei Fang, Haibing Zhang, Haiwei Zhang, Jintao Xu, Weihua Pan, Jinhua Xu, Michal A Olszewski, Xiaoming Deng, Wanqing Liao
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) are multifunctional regulators of cell death and immune response. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, the roles of FADD and RIPK3 in anti-cryptococcal defense were investigated. Deletion of RIPK3 alone led to increased inflammatory cytokine production in the Cryptococcus neoformans-infected lungs, but in combination with FADD deletion, it led to a robust Th1-biased response with M1-biased macrophage activation. Rather than being protective, these responses led to paradoxical C...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919888/the-sporothrix-schenckii-gene-encoding-for-the-ribosomal-protein-l6-has-constitutive-and-stable-expression-and-works-as-an-endogenous-control-in-gene-expression-analysis
#10
Elías Trujillo-Esquivel, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Patricia Ponce-Noyola, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919635/aspergillus-fumigatus-morphology-and-dynamic-host-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919347/invasive-mold-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-hematologic-cancer-or-stem-cell-transplantation-2000-2016-uncommon-with-improved-survival-but-still-deadly-often
#12
Minas P Economides, Leomar Y Ballester, Vinodh A Kumar, Ying Jiang, Jeffrey Tarrand, Victor Prieto, Harrys A Torres, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Historically considered to have very poor outcome, there is paucity of recent data regarding invasive mold infections (IMIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with hematologic cancer (HC) or stem cell transplantation (SCT). METHODS: We reviewed the records of HC patients and/or SCT recipients who were diagnosed with CNS IMIs (EORTC/MSG criteria) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (1/1/2000-6/31/2016). Risk factors for survival at day (d) 42 post diagnosis were assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916147/microbial-associates-of-the-southern-mole-cricket-scapteriscus-borellii-are-highly-pathogenic
#13
Sudarshan K Aryal, Derreck Carter-House, Jason E Stajich, Adler R Dillman
We report the isolation and identification of seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from dead and diseased Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets collected from a golf course in southern California. Using 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis we identified the microbes as Serratia marcescens (red), S. marcescens (white), S. marcescens (purple), Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Chryseobacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Tsukamurella tryosinosolvens, and Beauveria bassiana. We performed a dose response curve for each of these cricket-associated microbial strains (except T...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912507/fast-track-development-of-an-in-vitro-3d-lung-immune-cell-model-to-study-aspergillus-infections
#14
P Chandorkar, W Posch, V Zaderer, M Blatzer, M Steger, C G Ammann, U Binder, M Hermann, P Hörtnagl, C Lass-Flörl, D Wilflingseder
To study interactions of airborne pathogens, e.g. Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus with upper and lower respiratory tract epithelial and immune cells, we set up a perfused 3D human bronchial and small airway epithelial cell system. Culturing of normal human bronchial or small airway epithelial (NHBE, SAE) cells under air liquid interphase (ALI) and perfusion resulted in a significantly accelerated development of the lung epithelia associated with higher ciliogenesis, cilia movement, mucus-production and improved barrier function compared to growth under static conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911903/the-vaccines-and-antibodies-associated-with-als3p-for-treatment-of-candida-albicans-infections
#15
REVIEW
Xue Sui, Lan Yan, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Candida albicans is the most common fungal microorganism in healthy individuals, as well as the cause of high mortality infections in high-risk hosts such as immunocompromised patients. Antifungal vaccines and monoclonal antibodies useful for active or passive immunizations have recently generated considerable excitement for the treatment of fungal infections. The cell wall proteins of C. albicans, which are crucial for virulence and pathogenicity, are attractive target antigens. Als3p, a member of the C. albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family, is a hyphal-specific glycophosphatidylinositol cell wall protein that plays a key role in the interaction with host cells...
September 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911256/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-patients-with-aids-and-disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Anandit Mu, Thwe Thwe Shein, Priya Jayachandran, Simon Paul
Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, and dissemination is frequent in patients with impaired cellular immunity such as AIDS. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is paradoxical clinical worsening after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a patient with HIV and a simultaneous opportunistic infection (OI). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been well described for a host of mycobacterial, viral, and fungal OIs and malignancies such as Kaposi sarcoma...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911197/contribution-of-tlr2-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#17
María Soledad Miró, Emilse Rodríguez, Cecilia Vigezzi, Paula Alejandra Icely, Luciana N García, Nahuel Painetti, Cristina A Maldonado, Fernando Oscar Riera, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
Candida albicans is the prevalent etiological agent in acute vulvovaginal infection and the most severe chronic condition known as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). A critical role of local innate immunity in defense and pathogenesis of vaginal infection by Candida is proposed. The fungal recognition by the innate immune receptor is an essential step for the induction of local responses including cytokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) production for host protection. Using TLR2-deficient mice, we characterized the early innate immune response during VVC...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911042/novel-agents-and-drug-targets-to-meet-the-challenges-of-resistant-fungi
#18
Matthew W McCarthy, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Oliver A Cornely, John R Perfect, Thomas J Walsh
The emergence of drug-resistant fungi poses a major threat to human health. Despite advances in preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions, resistant fungal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with compromised immunity, underscoring the urgent need for new antifungal agents. In this article, we review the challenges associated with identifying broad-spectrum antifungal drugs and highlight novel targets that could enhance the armamentarium of agents available to treat drug-resistant invasive fungal infections...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905991/target-of-rapamycin-signaling-orchestrates-growth-defense-trade-offs-in-plants
#19
David De Vleesschauwer, Osvaldo Filipe, Gena Hoffman, Hamed Soren Seifi, Ashley Haeck, Patrick Canlas, Jonas Van Bockhaven, Evelien De Waele, Kristof Demeestere, Pamela Ronald, Monica Hofte
Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#20
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
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