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Fungal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149328/mir858-mediated-regulation-of-flavonoid-specific-myb-transcription-factor-genes-controls-resistance-to-pathogen-infection-in-arabidopsis
#2
Rosany Camargo-Ramírez, Beatriz Val-Torregrosa, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-coding small RNAs that direct post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, the expression of a large number of miRNAs has been shown to be regulated during pathogen infection. However, the functional role of the majority of these pathogen-regulated miRNAs has not been elucidated. In this work, we investigated the role of Arabidopsis miR858 in the defense response of Arabidopsis plants to infection by fungal pathogens with necrotrophic (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) or hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum) lifestyles...
November 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144021/quantitative-extracellular-matrix-proteomics-suggests-cell-wall-reprogramming-in-host-specific-immunity-during-vascular-wilt-caused-by-fusarium-oxysporum-in-chickpea
#3
Eman Elagamey, Kanika Narula, Arunima Sinha, Sudip Ghosh, Magdi A E Abdellatef, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the unique organelle that perceives stress signals and reprograms molecular events of host cell during patho-stress. However, our understanding of how ECM dictates plant immunity is largely unknown. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a major impediment for global crop productivity. To elucidate the role of ECM proteins and molecular mechanism associated with cell wall mediated immunity, the temporal changes of ECM proteome was studied in vascular wilt resistant chickpea cultivar upon F...
November 16, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#4
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142411/the-effect-of-polyherbal-medicines-used-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-on-other-opportunistic-organisms-of-humans-infected-with-tuberculosis
#5
Elizabeth Bosede Famewo, Anna Maria Clarke, Anthony Jide Afolayan
Background: In many immunocompromised patients, opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections are common. Polyherbal medicines examined in this study are used by the indigenous people of South Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other opportunistic infections associated with TB. Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of nine polyherbal remedies against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria respectively and three fungi...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137202/differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-macrophages-after-exposure-to-the-penicillium-mycotoxins-citrinin-and-or-ochratoxin-a
#6
Kristen M Brennan, Se-Young Oh, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Daniel E Graugnard, Niel A Karrow
Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25)) to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome...
November 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136537/new-advances-in-understanding-the-host-immune-response-to-pneumocystis
#7
REVIEW
J Claire Hoving, Jay K Kolls
Pneumocystis jirovecii causes clinical pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Despite this, the inability to cultivate this organism in vitro has likely hindered the field in ascertaining the true impact of Pneumocystis in human infection. However the recent release of the genome as well as in advances in understanding host genetics, and other risk factors for infection and robust experimental models of disease have shed new light on the impact of this fungal pathogen as to better define populations at risk...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134436/common-cutaneous-bacteria-isolated-from-snakes-inhibit-growth-of-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola
#8
Aubree J Hill, Jacob E Leys, Danny Bryan, Fantasia M Erdman, Katherine S Malone, Gabrielle N Russell, Roger D Applegate, Heather Fenton, Kevin Niedringhaus, Andrew N Miller, Matthew C Allender, Donald M Walker
There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133871/exploration-of-antifungal-and-immunomodulatory-potentials-of-a-furanone-derivative-to-rescue-disseminated-cryptococosis-in-mice
#9
Sudarshan Singh Rathore, Muthukrishnan Isravel, Sridharan Vellaisamy, David Raj Chellappan, Lalitha Cheepurupalli, Thiagarajan Raman, Jayapradha Ramakrishnan
Cryptococcus neoformans infection is quite complex with both host-pathogen interaction and host immune profile determining disease progress and therapeutic outcome. Hence in the present study, the potential utility of (E)-5-benzylidenedihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (compound-6) was explored as an effective anticryptococcal compound with immunomodulatory potential. The efficacy of compound-6 in pulmonary cryptococosis model using H99 strain was investigated. The effective dose was found to provide 100% survival, with a significant reduction of yeast burden in lungs and brain...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133349/the-role-of-calprotectin-in-withholding-zinc-and-copper-from-candida-albicans
#10
Angelique N Besold, Benjamin A Gilston, Jana N Radin, Christian Ramsoomair, Edward M Culbertson, Cissy X Li, Brendan P Cormack, Walter J Chazin, Thomas E Kehl-Fie, Valeria C Culotta
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans acquires essential metals from the host, yet the host can sequester these micronutrients through a process known as nutritional immunity. How the host withholds metals from C. albicans was poorly understood and here we examine the role of calprotectin (CP), a transition metal binding protein. When CP depletes bioavailable Zn from the extracellular environment, C. albicans strongly upregulates ZRT1 and PRA1 for Zn import and maintains constant intracellular Zn through numerous cell divisions...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132795/-interdigital-tinea-pedis-resulting-from-fusarium-spp-in-dakar-senegal
#11
K Diongue, M A Diallo, M Ndiaye, M C Seck, A S Badiane, D Ndiaye
INTRODUCTION: Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp...
November 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131851/gdsl-lipases-modulate-immunity-through-lipid-homeostasis-in-rice
#12
Mingjun Gao, Xin Yin, Weibing Yang, Sin Man Lam, Xiaohong Tong, Jiyun Liu, Xin Wang, Qun Li, Guanghou Shui, Zuhua He
Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130376/the-cuticle-mutant-eca2-modifies-the-plant-defense-responses-to-biotrophic-and-necrotrophic-pathogens-and-herbivory-insects
#13
Catherine Blanc, Fania Coluccia, Floriane L'Haridon, Martha Torres, Marlene Ortiz-Berrocal, Elia Stahl, Philippe Reymond, Lukas Schreiber, Christiane Nawrath, Jean-Pierre Metraux, Mario Serrano
We isolated previously several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of the early MAMP-induced gene ATL2, named eca (expresión constitutiva de ATL2). Here we further explored the interaction of eca mutants with pest and pathogens. Of all eca mutants, eca2 was more resistant to a fungal (Botrytis cinerea) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae) pathogen, as well as to a generalist herbivorous insect (Spodoptera littoralis). Permeability of the cuticle is increased in eca2; chemical characterization shows that eca2 has a significant reduction of both cuticular wax and cutin...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#14
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129697/dual-mechanisms-for-balancing-th17-and-treg-cell-fate-by-creb
#15
Antony Symons, Wenjun Ouyang
Th17 cells, which express the cytokine IL-17A, and master regulator RORγt, are important in the inflammatory response to fungal and bacterial pathogens, but also have a pathogenic role in many inflammatory disorders. In contrast, regulatory T cells (Treg), expressing the Foxp3 transcription factor, have a suppressive function and can dampen an immune response. The appropriate balance of these distinct effector functions is critical for an effective immune response and autoimmunity can arise if this process goes awry...
November 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128761/inborn-errors-of-immunity-underlying-fungal-diseases-in-otherwise-healthy-individuals
#16
REVIEW
Juan Li, Donald C Vinh, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
It has been estimated that there are at least 1.5 million fungal species, mostly present in the environment, but only a few of these fungi cause human disease. Most fungal diseases are self-healing and benign, but some are chronic or life-threatening. Acquired and inherited defects of immunity, including breaches of mucocutaneous barriers and circulating leukocyte deficiencies, account for most severe modern-day mycoses. Other types of infection typically accompany these fungal infections. More rarely, severe fungal diseases can strike otherwise healthy individuals...
November 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127393/large-scale-identification-of-lysine-acetylated-proteins-in-vegetative-hyphae-of-the-rice-blast-fungus
#17
Xiaomei Sun, Zhigang Li, Hang Liu, Jun Yang, Wenxing Liang, You-Liang Peng, Jinguang Huang
Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays important regulatory roles in diverse biological processes to perform various cellular functions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, roles of lysine acetylation in plant fungal pathogens were less studied. Here, we provided the first lysine acetylome of vegetative hyphae of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. This lysine acetylome had 2,720 acetylation sites in 1,269 proteins...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122987/glutathione-transferase-u13-functions-in-pathogen-triggered-glucosinolate-metabolism
#18
Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Kei Hiruma, Marta Pastorczyk, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Danuta Ciesiołka, Yoshitaka Takano, Antonio Molina, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Paweł Bednarek
Glutathione (GSH) and indole glucosinolates (IGs) exert key functions in the immune system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Appropriate GSH levels are important for execution of both pre- and post-invasive disease resistance mechanisms to invasive pathogens, while an intact PENETRATION2 (PEN2)-pathway for IG-metabolism is essential for pre-invasive resistance in this species. Earlier indirect evidence suggested that the latter pathway involves conjugation of GSH with unstable products of IG metabolism and further processing of the resulting adducts to biologically active molecules...
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122853/genome-wide-screen-for-saccharomyces-cerevisiae%C3%A2-genes-contributing-to-opportunistic-pathogenicity-in-an-invertebrate-model-host
#19
Sujal S Phadke, Calum J Maclean, Serena Y Zhao, Emmi A Mueller, Lucas A Michelotti, Kaitlyn L Norman, Anuj Kumar, Timothy Y James
Environmental opportunistic pathogens can exploit vulnerable hosts through expression of traits selected for in their natural environments. Pathogenicity is a complicated trait underpinned by multiple complex traits, such as thermotolerance, morphology, and stress response. The baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a species with broad environmental tolerance which has been increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we leveraged the genetic resources available in yeast and a model insect species, the greater waxmoth Galleria mellonella, to provide a genome-wide analysis of pathogenicity factors...
November 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119316/accessing-the-hidden-microbial-diversity-of-aphids-an-illustration-of-how-culture-dependent-methods-can-be-used-to-decipher-the-insect-microbiota
#20
Alina S Grigorescu, François Renoz, Ahmed Sabri, Vincent Foray, Thierry Hance, Philippe Thonart
Microorganism communities that live inside insects can play critical roles in host development, nutrition, immunity, physiology, and behavior. Over the past decade, high-throughput sequencing reveals the extraordinary microbial diversity associated with various insect species and provides information independent of our ability to culture these microbes. However, their cultivation in the laboratory remains crucial for a deep understanding of their physiology and the roles they play in host insects. Aphids are insects that received specific attention because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with a wide range of endosymbionts that are considered as the core microbiome of these sap-feeding insects...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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