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Fungal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074867/the-role-of-macrophages-in-the-susceptibility-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice-to-cryptococcus-neoformans
#2
Saowapha Surawut, Thunnicha Ondee, Sujittra Taratummarat, Tanapat Palaga, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Ariya Chindamporn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Dysfunctional polymorphisms of FcγRIIb, an inhibitory receptor, are associated with Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus (SLE). Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in SLE, perhaps due to the de novo immune defect. We investigated cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mouse-lupus-model. Mortality, after intravenous C. neoformans-induced cryptococcosis, in young (8-week-old) and older (24-week-old) FcγRIIb-/- mice, was higher than in age-matched wild-types. Severe cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mice was demonstrated by high fungal burdens in the internal organs with histological cryptococcoma-like lesions and high levels of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IL-10...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074414/spontaneous-remission-of-subcutaneous-scedosporiosis-caused-by-scedosporium-dehoogii-in-a-psoriatic-patient
#3
Fang-Gu Li, Yan-Ping Yang, Wei Li, Ping Sheng, Wen Li, Wen-Ming Huang, Yi-Ming Fan
To date, only one case of post-traumatic endophthalmitis caused by Scedosporium dehoogii has been reported, but its contamination or colonization might not be precluded due to the absence of pathogenic isolation and/or pathological examination. We report the first case to our knowledge of S. dehoogii-induced subcutaneous scedosporiosis in a psoriatic patient. A 58-year-old man with 5-year history of psoriasis vulgaris and immunosuppressant therapy developed pyrexia and multiple subcutaneous abscesses on both knees...
January 10, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069805/different-lymphocyte-populations-direct-dichotomous-eosinophil-or-neutrophil-responses-to-pulmonary-cryptococcus-infection
#4
Darin L Wiesner, Kyle D Smith, Sakeen W Kashem, Paul R Bohjanen, Kirsten Nielsen
Many pulmonary infections elicit lymphocyte responses that lead to an accumulation of granulocytes in the lungs. A variety of lymphocytes are capable of directing eosinophils or neutrophils to the lungs, but the contribution of each subset remains enigmatic. In this study, we used a murine model to examine lymphocyte subsets that ultimately drive the eosinophil or neutrophil response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We show that granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow, released into the blood stream, and accumulate in the lungs under the instruction of lung parenchymal lymphocytes...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068891/immunological-variation-due-to-genetics-of-inflammatory-snps-and-age-and-impact-on-disease-manifestation
#5
Gary R Burleson
The immune system is a critical component in defense against viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. Immunological mechanisms, including immunological mediators, innate immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral-mediated immunity, serve to maintain homeostasis and protect the host from disease. Immunological variation can impact defense mechanisms, however. Two factors in particular that can influence immune function are the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and aging. SNPs affecting inflammatory cytokines are an important modifier involved in a number of diseases such as asthma, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis, and osteoporosis...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#6
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060571/m-ficolin-is-present-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-lung-and-modulates-epithelial-cell-immune-responses-elicited-by-fungal-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#7
Kasper Jensen, Kit P Lund, Kimmie B Christensen, Anne T Holm, Lalit Kumar Dubey, Jesper B Moeller, Christine S Jepsen, Anders Schlosser, László Galgóczy, Steffen Thiel, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically infects the lungs of immunocompromised patients. Ficolins are secreted pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the unknown role of human M-ficolin in the recognition of, and response to fungal cell wall polysaccharides. M-ficolin was localized to infiltrating granulocytes and monocytes found in the A. fumigatus infected lung. Recombinant M-ficolin (rM-ficolin) bound specifically to A...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058138/dying-with-or-because-of-invasive-fungal-infection-the-role-of-immunity-exhaustion-on-patient-outcome
#8
Andrea Cortegiani, Vincenzo Russotto, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Antonino Giarratano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056742/fungal-biofilm-a-real-obstacle-against-an-efficient-therapy-lessons-from-candida
#9
Thaís Pereira de Mello, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Lys Adriana Braga-Silva, Marta Helena Branquinha, André Luis Souza Dos Santos
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in invasive fungal infections, especially caused by different species belonging to the Candida genus. Nowadays, even after many improvements in several medical procedures, Candida infections (candidiasis) still account for an unacceptable high rate of morbimortality in hospital settings. Corroborating this statement, fungal biofilms formed on both abiotic and living surfaces are responsible for an important medical and economic burden, since biofilm lifestyle confers numerous advantages to the pathogens, including high tolerance to environmental stresses such as antimicrobials and host immune responses...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053593/evaluation-of-aerial-microbial-pollutants-in-al-haram-al-nabawi-during-pilgrimage-of-2013
#10
Kholoud M Alananbeh, Nahla Boquellah, Nadia Al Kaff, Majid Al Ahmadi
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038935/defense-peptide-repertoire-of-stellaria-media-predicted-by-high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing
#11
Anna A Slavokhotova, Andrey A Shelenkov, Tatyana V Korostyleva, Eugene A Rogozhin, Nataliya V Melnikova, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Tatyana I Odintsova
Being perfectly adapted to diverse environments, chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill), a ubiquitous garden weed, grows widely in Europe and North America. As opposed to the model plants, many weeds, and S. media in particular, have been poorly studied, although they are likely to contain promising components of immunity and novel resistance genes. In this study, for the first time RNA-seq analysis of healthy and infected with Fusarium oxysporum chickweed seedlings, as well as de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, are presented...
December 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034834/tissue-localization-of-piscidin-host-defense-peptides-during-striped-bass-morone-saxatilis-development
#12
Scott A Salger, Benjamin J Reading, Edward J Noga
Infectious diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in finfish aquaculture. Understanding ontogeny of the fish immune system and thus developmental timing of protective immune tissues and cells, may help to decrease serious losses of larval fishes when they are particularly vulnerable to infection. One component of the innate immune system of fishes is the host-defense peptides, which include the piscidins. Piscidins are small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens...
December 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031265/the-carbohydrate-lectin-receptor-dectin-1-mediates-immune-response-to-exserohilum-rostratum
#13
Jennifer L Reedy, Paige E Negoro, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Nida S Khan, Dan P Lukason, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jenny M Tam, Michael K Mansour, Thomas F Patterson, Jatin M Vyas
Dematiaceous molds are found ubiquitously in the environment and cause a wide spectrum of human disease including infections associated with high rates of mortality. Despite this, the mechanism of innate immune response has been less well studied, although it is key in the clearance of fungal pathogens. Here, we focus on Exserohilum rostratum, a dematiaceous mold that caused 751 infections during a multistate outbreak due to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. We show that macrophages are incapable of phagocytosing Exserohilum Despite lack of phagocytosis, macrophage production of TNFα is triggered by hyphae, but not spores, and depends upon Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031206/physiological-differences-in-c-neoformans-in-vitro-versus-in-vivo-and-their-effects-on-antifungal-susceptibility
#14
Nina T Grossman, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmentally ubiquitous fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in people with compromised immune systems, particularly those with advanced AIDS. There are estimated to be almost one million cases per year of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, leading to over 600,000 annual deaths, with a particular burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) are key components of cryptococcal meningitis treatment: AMB is used for induction, FLC for consolidation, maintenance, and in occasional individuals, prophylaxis...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026958/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-self-assembly-prevents-adhesion-and-suppresses-virulence-traits-of-candida-albicans
#15
Phoom Chairatana, I-Ling Chiang, Elizabeth M Nolan
HD6 is a host-defense peptide that contributes to intestinal innate immunity and mediates homeostasis at mucosal surfaces by forming non-covalent oligomers that capture bacteria and prevent bacterial invasion into the epithelium. Our present work illustrates a new role of HD6 in defending the host epithelium against pathogenic microorganisms. We report that HD6 blocks Candida albicans adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses two C. albicans virulence traits, namely invasion into human epithelial cells and biofilm formation...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018323/genetic-drivers-of-multidrug-resistance-in-candida-glabrata
#16
Kelley R Healey, Cristina Jimenez Ortigosa, Erika Shor, David S Perlin
Both the incidence of invasive fungal infections and rates of multidrug resistance associated with fungal pathogen Candida glabrata have increased in recent years. In this perspective, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the capacity of C. glabrata to rapidly develop resistance to multiple drug classes, including triazoles and echinocandins. We will focus on the extensive genetic diversity among clinical isolates of C. glabrata, which likely enables this yeast to survive multiple stressors, such as immune pressure and antifungal exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008808/antitumor-activity-of-extracts-from-medicinal-basidiomycetes-mushrooms
#17
Elena Vetchinkina, Alexandr Shirokov, Alla Bucharskaya, Nikita Navolokin, Artur Prilepskii, Andrey Burov, Galina Maslyakova, Valentina E Nikitina
Aqueous extracts from the vegetative submerged mycelia of cultivated Basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, and Grifola frondosa, as well as from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, were found to have antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of the mycelial extracts from all 3 fungal species was ascertained in vivo in rats with implanted kidney cancer. Dystrophic changes in tumor cells and tumor necrosis (up to 90%) were noted. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and HEp-2 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells showed that the extracts from the G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008133/scolopendin-an-antimicrobial-peptide-from-centipede-attenuates-mitochondrial-functions-and-triggers-apoptosis-in-candida-albicans
#18
Heejeong Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
Centipedes, a type of arthropod, reportedly produce antimicrobial peptides as part of an innate immune response. Scolopendin (SPSEKAGLQPVGRIGRMLKK) is a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Many antifungal agents have more than one type of cell death mechanism. Although scolopendin is involved in membrane perturbation, the corresponding intracellular changes require further investigation. Therefore, we assessed the cell morphology and calcium ion concentration of the cytosol and mitochondria of scolopendin-treated cells...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002842/efficacy-of-antibody-to-pnag-against-keratitis-caused-by-fungal-pathogens
#19
Ge Zhao, Tanweer S Zaidi, Cagla Bozkurt-Guzel, Tauqeer H Zaidi, James A Lederer, Gregory P Priebe, Gerald B Pier
Purpose: Developing immunotherapies for fungal eye infections is a high priority. We analyzed fungal pathogens for expression of the surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), and used a mouse model of ocular keratitis caused by Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, or Fusarium solani to determine if PNAG was an immunotherapy target and requirements for ancillary cellular and molecular immune effectors. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence was used to detect PNAG on fungal cells...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995211/fungal-endocarditis-presenting-with-right-lumbar-pain-and-femoral-artery-ischemia-an-unusual-case-report
#20
Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Akbar Baig, Muhammad Waqas Khan, Fareed Ahmed Sheikh, Nadeem Ullah Khan
Fungal endocarditis is a rare entity which has a poor outcome. Our case reports an atypical presentation of similar pathology now presenting with femoral artery ischemia in an immune competent individual. A 62-year Asian male presented with sudden onset of right sided lumbar pain. Initial clinical exam was consistent with right sided renal colic. Intravenous analgesia did not relieve the pain. Repeat clinical examination revealed absent right femoral artery pulsation. The patient underwent a Computerized tomography angiography of right lower extremity...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
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