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Fungal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#1
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329391/oxidative-burst-and-dectin-1-triggered-phagocytosis-affected-by-norepinephrine-and-endocannabinoids-implications-for-fungal-clearance-under-stress
#2
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Spencer Hoskyns, Dominique Moser, Bing Han, Elisabeth Deindl, Marion Hörl, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Alexander Chouker
A prolonged stress burden is known to hamper the efficiency of both the innate and adaptive immune systems and to attenuate the stress responses by the catecholaminergic and endocannabinoid (EC) systems. Key mechanisms of innate immunity are the eradication of pathogens through phagocytosis and the respiratory burst. We tested the concentration-dependent, spontaneous and stimulated (via TNFα and fMLP) release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human PMNs in vitro in response to norepinephrine (NE) and AM1241, a pharmacological ligand for the endocannabinoid receptor CB2...
January 10, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329339/accessibility-and-contribution-to-glucan-masking-of-natural-and-genetically-tagged-versions-of-yeast-wall-protein-1-of-candida-albicans
#3
Bruce L Granger
Yeast wall protein 1 (Ywp1) is an abundant glycoprotein of the cell wall of the yeast form of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little binding to intact yeast cells, presumably because the Ywp1 epitopes are masked by the polysaccharides of the mannoproteins that form the outer layer of the cell wall. Rare cells do exhibit much greater anti-Ywp1 binding, however, and one of these was isolated and characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328024/endometrial-polyps-in-women-of-reproductive-age-clinical-and-pathogene-tic-variations
#4
N Kosei, N Zakharenko, D Herman
The aim of the study was to study the relationship between the morphofunctional characteristics of the endometrium, hormonal homeostasis and microbiocenosis of the reproductive system in patients with endometrial polyps. The study involved 130 patients aged 18-35 years: 34 patients with endometrial polyps, 30 patients with micropolyps, 36 patients with endometrial polyps and micropolyps, 30 healthy women of the control group. Hysteroscopy was performed for women who had been suspected for endometrial polyps and who had infertility or repeated recurrent miscarriages...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327081/neutrophils-in-viral-infection
#5
REVIEW
Victor Naumenko, Madison Turk, Craig N Jenne, Seok-Joo Kim
Neutrophils are the first wave of recruited immune cells to sites of injury or infection and are crucial players in controlling bacterial and fungal infections. Although the role of neutrophils during bacterial or fungal infections is well understood, their impact on antiviral immunity is much less studied. Furthermore, neutrophil function in tumor pathogenesis and cancer treatment has recently received much attention, particularly within the context of oncolytic virus infection where neutrophils produce antitumor cytokines and enhance oncolysis...
January 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326852/unusual-course-of-crystalline-keratopathy-in-a-patient-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#6
Başak Bostancı, Yonca Aydın Akova
We present a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy in a patient with Graft-versus-Host disease (GVHD) who developed satellite fungal keratitis. A 51-year-old man was referred for bilateral total persistent corneal epithelial defects with severe dry eye. Although persistent epithelial defect healed with medical therapy, he developed stromal keratitis with satellite lesions confirmed to be secondary to Candida albicans. After three months of antifungal treatment and debridement, improvement of the infiltrates was obtained...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326275/cx3cr1-mononuclear-phagocytes-control-immunity-to-intestinal-fungi
#7
Irina Leonardi, Xin Li, Alexa Semon, Dalin Li, Itai Doron, Gregory Putzel, Agnieszka Bar, Daniel Prieto, Maria Rescigno, Dermot P B McGovern, Jesus Pla, Iliyan D Iliev
Intestinal fungi are an important component of the microbiota, and recent studies have unveiled their potential in modulating host immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease. Nonetheless, the mechanisms governing immunity to gut fungal communities (mycobiota) remain unknown. We identified CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) as being essential for the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal fungi. CX3CR1+ MNPs express antifungal receptors and activate antifungal responses in a Syk-dependent manner...
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#8
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317510/the-f-box-protein-fbp1-shapes-the-immunogenic-potential-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Jorge Masso-Silva, Vanessa Espinosa, Tong-Bao Liu, Yina Wang, Chaoyang Xue, Amariliz Rivera
Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiologic agent of cryptococcal meningitis and causes a significant number of deadly infections per year. Although it is well appreciated that host immune responses are crucial for defense against cryptococcosis, our understanding of factors that control the development of effective immunity to this fungus remains incomplete. In previous studies, we identified the F-box protein Fbp1 as a novel determinant of C. neoformans virulence. In this study, we found that the hypovirulence of the fbp1Δ mutant is linked to the development of a robust host immune response...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310753/destructive-disinfection-of-infected-brood-prevents-systemic-disease-spread-in-ant-colonies
#10
Christopher D Pull, Line V Ugelvig, Florian Wiesenhofer, Anna V Grasse, Simon Tragust, Thomas Schmitt, Mark Jf Brown, Sylvia Cremer
In social groups, infections have the potential to spread rapidly and cause disease outbreaks. Here, we show that in a social insect, the ant Lasius neglectus, the negative consequences of fungal infections (Metarhizium brunneum) can be mitigated by employing an efficient multicomponent behaviour, termed destructive disinfection, which prevents further spread of the disease through the colony. Ants specifically target infected pupae during the pathogen's non-contagious incubation period, utilising chemical 'sickness cues' emitted by pupae...
January 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306444/probing-multivalent-protein-carbohydrate-interactions-by-quantum-dot-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer
#11
Yuan Guo, W Bruce Turnbull, Dejian Zhou
Cell surface carbohydrate-binding proteins (also known as lectins) recognize surface carbohydrates of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens to regulate host immune responses; however, such interactions are also often exploited by pathogens to enhance infection. Multivalent binding is typically involved to compensate for the intrinsically weak nature of protein-carbohydrate interactions. The spatial orientation of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in multimeric lectins plays a central role in governing their binding affinity and specificity...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301098/an-antimicrobial-peptide-and-its-neuronal-receptor-regulate-dendrite-degeneration-in-aging-and-infection
#12
Lezi E, Ting Zhou, Sehwon Koh, Marian Chuang, Ruchira Sharma, Nathalie Pujol, Andrew D Chisholm, Cagla Eroglu, Hiroaki Matsunami, Dong Yan
Infections have been identified as possible risk factors for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, but it remains unclear whether infection-related immune molecules have a causative role in neurodegeneration during aging. Here, we reveal an unexpected role of an epidermally expressed antimicrobial peptide, NLP-29 (neuropeptide-like protein 29), in triggering aging-associated dendrite degeneration in C. elegans. The age-dependent increase of nlp-29 expression is regulated by the epidermal tir-1/SARM-pmk-1/p38 MAPK innate immunity pathway...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299844/vacuolar-zinc-transporter-zrc1-is-required-for-detoxification-of-excess-intracellular-zinc-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#13
Minsu Cho, Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Linda C Horianopoulos, James W Kronstad, Won Hee Jung
Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299535/differential-ability-of-pandemic-and-seasonal-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-to-alter-the-function-of-human-neutrophils
#14
Natalia Malachowa, Brett Freedman, Daniel E Sturdevant, Scott D Kobayashi, Vinod Nair, Friederike Feldmann, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer, John C Kash, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Heinz Feldmann, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are essential cells of host innate immunity. Although the role of neutrophils in defense against bacterial and fungal infections is well characterized, there is a relative paucity of information about their role against viral infections. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection can be associated with secondary bacterial coinfection, and it has long been posited that the ability of IAV to alter normal neutrophil function predisposes individuals to secondary bacterial infections. To better understand this phenomenon, we evaluated the interaction of pandemic or seasonal H1N1 IAV with human neutrophils isolated from healthy persons...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298668/functional-characterization-of-chitin-binding-lectin-from-solanum-integrifolium-containing-anti-fungal-and-insecticidal-activities
#15
Chang-Shan Chen, Chun-Yi Chen, Divya Malathy Ravinath, Agustina Bungahot, Chi-Ping Cheng, Ren-In You
BACKGROUND: Along with the rapid development of glycomic tools, the study of lectin-carbohydrate interactions has expanded, opening the way for applications in the fields of analytic, diagnostic, and drug delivery. Chitin-binding lectins (CBLs) play roles in immune defense against chitin-containing pathogens. CBLs from species of the Solanaceae family, such as tomato, potato and jimsonweed, display different binding specificities to sugar chains containing poly-N-acetyllactosamine. RESULTS: In this report, CBLs from Solanum integrifolium were isolated by ion exchange chromatography...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295913/o-mannosylation-of-proteins-enables-histoplasma-yeast-survival-at-mammalian-body-temperatures
#16
Andrew L Garfoot, Kristie D Goughenour, Marcel Wüthrich, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger, Bruce S Klein, Chad A Rappleye
The ability to grow at mammalian body temperatures is critical for pathogen infection of humans. For the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, elevated temperature is required for differentiation of mycelia or conidia into yeast cells, a step critical for invasion and replication within phagocytic immune cells. Posttranslational glycosylation of extracellular proteins characterizes factors produced by the pathogenic yeast cells but not those of avirulent mycelia, correlating glycosylation with infection...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289612/immune-responses-to-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285049/innate-immune-evasion-strategies-against-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#18
Cheng-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, Li-Li Zou
As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain instead of the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the early phase of infection; however, this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes a number of strategies to overcome the anti-fungal mechanisms of the host innate immune system and cross the BBB...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282317/distinctive-roles-of-age-sex-and-genetics-in-shaping-transcriptional-variation-of-human-immune-responses-to-microbial-challenges
#19
Barbara Piasecka, Darragh Duffy, Alejandra Urrutia, Hélène Quach, Etienne Patin, Céline Posseme, Jacob Bergstedt, Bruno Charbit, Vincent Rouilly, Cameron R MacPherson, Milena Hasan, Benoit Albaud, David Gentien, Jacques Fellay, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
The contribution of host genetic and nongenetic factors to immunological differences in humans remains largely undefined. Here, we generated bacterial-, fungal-, and viral-induced immune transcriptional profiles in an age- and sex-balanced cohort of 1,000 healthy individuals and searched for the determinants of immune response variation. We found that age and sex affected the transcriptional response of most immune-related genes, with age effects being more stimulus-specific relative to sex effects, which were largely shared across conditions...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281994/successful-treatment-of-cerebral-aspergillosis-case-report-of-a-patient-with-t-cell-large-granular-lymphocytic-leukemia-t-lgl
#20
Amin T Turki, Jassin Rashidi-Alavijeh, Jan Dürig, Guido Gerken, Peter-Michael Rath, Oliver Witzke
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis involving patients with neutropenia or severe immunosuppression, such as patients with hematologic malignancies is associated with high mortality. Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL) on the other hand are considered to be less vulnerable for severe opportunistic fungal infection as their course of disease is chronic and marked by less violent cytopenia then in e.g. Aplastic Anemia. Only neutropenia is regarded as independent risk factor for severe opportunistic infection in T-LGL patients...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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