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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417524/biofilms-of-candida-spp-from-the-ocular-conjunctiva-of-horses-with-reduced-azole-susceptibility-a-complicating-factor-for-the-treatment-of-keratomycosis
#1
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Paula Vago Bittencourt, Débora de Souza Collares Castelo-Branco, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira Alencar, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Mariana Pinheiro, Evilázio Fernandes Nogueira-Filho, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the biofilm-forming ability of Candida spp. from the ocular conjunctiva of horses and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of these biofilms. PROCEDURES: Initially, the biofilm-forming ability of 15 strains was assessed by crystal violet staining, which reveals the fungal biomass adhered to the polystyrene plates, and scanning electron microscopy. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin were initially determined against strains in planktonic form...
April 18, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411060/in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-candida-activity-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-and-their-activity-against-biofilm-forming-isolates
#2
Rose Anny Costa Silva, Cecília Rocha da Silva, João Batista de Andrade Neto, Anderson Ramos da Silva, Rosana Sousa Campos, Letícia Serpa Sampaio, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires do Nascimento, Brenda da Silva Gaspar, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Alexandre Josino, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro, Danielle Macedo Gaspar, David Freitas de Lucena, Manoel Odorico de Moraes, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior
Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407275/agriculturally-important-microbial-biofilms-present-status-and-future-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400768/the-anti-helminthic-compound-mebendazole-has-multiple-antifungal-effects-against-cryptococcus-neoformans
#4
Luna S Joffe, Rafael Schneider, William Lopes, Renata Azevedo, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch, Augusto Schrank, Maurizio Del Poeta, Marilene H Vainstein, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most lethal pathogen of the central nervous system. The gold standard treatment of cryptococcosis, a combination of amphotericin B with 5-fluorocytosine, involves broad toxicity, high costs, low efficacy, and limited worldwide availability. Although the need for new antifungals is clear, drug research and development (R&D) is costly and time-consuming. Thus, drug repurposing is an alternative to R&D and to the currently available tools for treating fungal diseases. Here we screened a collection of compounds approved for use in humans seeking for those with anti-cryptococcal activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400170/enhanced-simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-of-pretreated-beech-wood-by-in-situ-treatment-with-the-white-rot-fungus-irpex-lacteus-in-a-membrane-aerated-biofilm-reactor
#5
Simone Brethauer, Shahab Robert Lawrence, Studer Michael Hans-Peter
The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of steam pretreatment and biological treatment with lignin degrading fungal strains in order to enable efficient bioprocessing of beech wood to ethanol. In a sequential process of steam and fungal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, Irpex lacteus almost doubled the glucose yield for mildly pretreated beech wood, but could not improve yields for more severely pretreated substrates. However, when simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is combined with in situ I...
March 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396417/enterococcus-faecalis-bacteriocin-entv-inhibits-hyphal-morphogenesis-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-of-candida-albicans
#6
Carrie E Graham, Melissa R Cruz, Danielle A Garsin, Michael C Lorenz
Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome. Both species also are among the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other's virulence in both nematode infection and in vitro biofilm models. We report here the identification of the E. faecalis bacteriocin, EntV, produced from the entV (ef1097) locus, as both necessary and sufficient for the reduction of C...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387883/evaluation-of-the-antifungal-effect-of-edta-a-metal-chelator-agent-on-candida-albicans-biofilm
#7
I A Casalinuovo, R Sorge, G Bonelli, P Di Francesco
OBJECTIVE: Candida albicans biofilm is frequently found on artificial surfaces and the infections related to biofilm are difficult to eliminate, as they require the removal of artificial devices and treatment with antifungal drugs. Nowadays, fungal growth in biofilms is difficult to eradicate with conventional antifungal drugs such as fluconazole. Among chelating agents, disodium salt-Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) is known to have antifungal activity. In this study, we examined the in vitro activity of the EDTA and the antifungal drug fluconazole against C...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387175/fungal-biofilms-inside-out
#8
Katherine Lagree, Aaron P Mitchell
We focus this article on turning a biofilm inside out. The "inside" of the biofilm comprises the individual biofilm-related phenotypes, their environmental drivers and genetic determinants, and the coordination of gene functions through transcriptional regulators. Investigators have viewed the inside of the biofilm through diverse approaches, and this article will attempt to capture the essence of many. The ultimate goal is to connect the inside to the "outside," which we view as biofilm structure, development, pharmacological attributes, and medical impact...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379244/biofilm-composition-in-the-olt-river-romania-reservoirs-impacted-by-a-chlor-alkali-production-plant
#9
P Dranguet, C Cosio, S Le Faucheur, D Hug Peter, J-L Loizeau, V-Gh Ungureanu, V I Slaveykova
Freshwater biofilms can be useful indicators of water quality and offer the possibility to assess contaminant effects at the community level. The present field study examines the effects of chlor-alkali plant effluents on the community composition of biofilms grown in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs. The relationship between ambient water quality variables and community composition alterations was explored. Amplicon sequencing revealed a significant modification of the composition of microalgal, bacterial and fungal communities in the biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs in comparison with those living in the uncontaminated control reservoir...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370251/metabolomics-analysis-of-fungal-biofilm-development-and-of-arachidonic-acid-based-quorum-sensing-mechanism
#10
Adam Ząbek, Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab, Piotr Młynarz
The infections caused by filamentous fungi are becoming worldwide problem of healthcare systems due to increasing drug-resistance of this microorganism and increasing number of immunocompromised nosocomial patients. These infections are related with Aspergillus ability to form sessile communities referred to as the biofilms. The small compounds known as quorum sensing (QS) molecules allow this microorganism to coordinate all processes taking place during biofilm formation and maturation. In the study presented, the HRMAS (1) H NMR metabolomic approach was applied to define composition of extra and intracellular metabolites produced by biofilmic and planktonic (aka free-swimming) cultures of this microorganism and to evaluate impact of quorum sensing molecule, arachidonic acid (AA) on biofilm formation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362312/fungal-biodiversity-and-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-cooling-tower-water-systems-in-istanbul-turkey
#11
Duygu Göksay Kadaifciler, Rasime Demirel
This is the first study to assess fungal diversity and mycotoxigenic fungi in open recirculating cooling-tower (CT) water systems (biofilm and water phase). The production capability of mycotoxin from fungal isolates was also examined. The mean fungal count in 21 different water and biofilm samples was determined as 234 CFU/100 mL and 4 CFU/cm(2). A total of 32 species were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. The most common isolated fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, of which the most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium dipodomyicola...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357473/effect-of-anaerobiasis-or-hypoxia-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-inhibition-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm
#12
Rajesh Anand, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) are the major bacterial and fungal pathogens in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is likely related to their ability to form biofilms. Both microbes have been associated with CF disease progression. The interplay between these two pathogens has been studied under aerobic conditions, though accumulating data indicates that much of the CF airway is hypoxic or anaerobic. We studied the microbial interaction in these latter environments...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352177/lipase-degradation-of-plasticized-polyvinyl-chloride-endotracheal-tube-surfaces-to-create-nanoscale-features
#13
Mary C Machado, Thomas J Webster
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340187/biofilm-adherence-and-hydrophobicity-as-virulence-factors-in-malassezia-furfur
#14
Letizia Angiolella, Claudia Leone, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia species are natural inhabitants of the healthy skin. However, under certain conditions, they may cause or exacerbate several skin diseases. The ability of this fungus to colonize or infect is determined by complex interactions between the fungal cell and its virulence factors. This study aims to evaluate "in vitro" the hydrophobicity levels, the adherence on a plastic surface and the biofilm formation of 16 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) levels were determined by two-phase system...
March 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327289/gene-regulatory-network-plasticity-predates-a-switch-in-function-of-a-conserved-transcription-regulator
#15
Isabel Nocedal, Eugenio Mancera, Alexander D Johnson
The rewiring of gene regulatory networks can generate phenotypic novelty. It remains an open question, however, how the large number of connections needed to form a novel network arise over evolutionary time. Here, we address this question using the network controlled by the fungal transcription regulator Ndt80. This conserved protein has undergone a dramatic switch in function-from an ancestral role regulating sporulation to a derived role regulating biofilm formation. This switch in function corresponded to a large-scale rewiring of the genes regulated by Ndt80...
March 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321957/activity-of-exogenous-tyrosol-in-combination-with-caspofungin-and-micafungin-against-candida-parapsilosis-sessile-cells
#16
Renátó Kovács, Zoltán Tóth, Fruzsina Nagy, Lajos Daróczi, Aliz Bozó, László Majoros
AIMS: Fungal quorum sensing molecules may have an inhibitory effect as adjuvant against Candida biofilms. Therefore, in vitro activity of caspofungin and micafungin was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis biofilms in the presence of tyrosol. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interactions were assessed using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, metabolic activity-based time-kill experiments, and scanning electron microscopy. Tyrosol caused 1- to 16-fold and 2- to 32-fold decrease in median caspofungin and micafungin MICs, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320713/antimicrobial-percutaneous-nephrostomy-catheters-for-the-prevention-of-renal-infections-in-vitro-studies
#17
Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Ruth A Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Mohamed Jamal, Ariel D Szvalb, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
Purpose - Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters are the primary method for draining ureters obstructed by malignancy and preventing a decline of the renal function. However, PCN-related infections such as pyelonephritis and urosepsis remain a significant concern. Currently no antimicrobial PCNs are available for preventing infectious complications. Vascular catheters impregnated with Minocycline/Rifampin (M/R) and M/R with Chlorhexidine coating (M/R+CHD) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319414/preparation-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-coated-by-chitosan-linoleic-acid-fungal-growth-and-biofilm-assay
#18
S Barad, M Roudbary, A Nasrollahi Omran, M Porgham Daryasari
INTRODUCTION: This study has been carried out on reviewing the use of new synthetic component of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) coated by Chitosan-linoleic acid (CS-LA) and to assess Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles on clinical samples and biofilm formation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first the synthesized ZnO NPs coated by CS-LA were identified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314049/biological-evaluation-of-3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-an-extrolite-produced-by-aspergillus-nidulans-strain-kzr-132
#19
C Ganesh Kumar, Poornima Mongolla, Sujitha Pombala, Shiva Bandi, K Suresh Babu, Kallaganti Venkata Siva Ramakrishna
AIMS: The aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132 and its biological evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioactive extolite was purified from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132, and its chemical structure was elucidated as 3-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol (3-HBA) based on (1) H and (13) C NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of 3-HBA was established against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and different Candida strains...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303823/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-contact-lenses-and-their-susceptibility-to-lens-care-solutions
#20
Siddharth Kackar, Ethel Suman, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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