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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805294/microplastics-alter-composition-of-fungal-communities-in-aquatic-ecosystems
#1
Marie Therese Kettner, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Matthias Labrenz, Hans-Peter Grossart
Despite increasing concerns about microplastic (MP) pollution in aquatic ecosystems, there is insufficient knowledge on how MP affect fungal communities. In this study, we explored the diversity and community composition of fungi attached to polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) particles incubated in different aquatic systems in north-east Germany: the Baltic Sea, the River Warnow and a wastewater treatment plant. Based on next generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing, 347 different operational taxonomic units assigned to 81 fungal taxa were identified on PE and PS...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797882/repurposing-antipsychotic-drugs-into-antifungal-agents-synergistic-combinations-of-azoles-and-bromperidol-derivatives-in-the-treatment-of-various-fungal-infections
#2
Selina Y L Holbrook, Atefeh Garzan, Emily K Dennis, Sanjib K Shrestha, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
As the number of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients continues to rise, invasive fungal infections, such as invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, threaten the life of millions of patients every year. The azole antifungals are currently the most prescribed drugs clinically that display broad-spectrum antifungal activity and excellent oral bioavailability. Yet, the azole antifungals have their own limitations and are unable to meet the challenges associated with increasing fungal infections and the accompanied development of resistance against azoles...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792381/effects-of-tea-extracts-on-the-colonization-behaviour-of-candida-species-attachment-inhibition-and-biofilm-enhancement
#3
Yi Wang, H M H N Bandara, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Lakshman P Samaranayake
PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of four different types of tea extracts (green, oolong, black and pu-erh tea) on cellular surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation) and the colonization attributes (attachment and biofilm formation) of four strains of Candida albicans and three strains of Candida krusei. METHODOLOGY: The cellular surface properties were determined using spectrophotometry. The colonization activities were quantified using colorimetric viability assays and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779891/silver-nanoparticles-in-dentistry
#4
REVIEW
Victor T Noronha, Amauri J Paula, Gabriela Durán, Andre Galembeck, Karina Cogo-Müller, Michelle Franz-Montan, Nelson Durán
OBJECTIVE: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively studied for their antimicrobial properties, which provide an extensive applicability in dentistry. Because of this increasing interest in AgNPs, the objective of this paper was to review their use in nanocomposites; implant coatings; pre-formulation with antimicrobial activity against cariogenic pathogens, periodontal biofilm, fungal pathogens and endodontic bacteria; and other applications such as treatment of oral cancer and local anesthesia...
August 2, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774698/the-global-problem-of-antifungal-resistance-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management
#5
REVIEW
David S Perlin, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
All serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance greatly hampers patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. The spread of agriculturally derived azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and emerging threats such as multidrug resistant Candida auris are also alarming...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745020/distinct-roles-of-the-7-transmembrane-receptor-protein-rta3-in-regulating-the-asymmetric-distribution-of-phosphatidylcholine-across-the-plasma-membrane-and-biofilm-formation-in-candida-albicans
#6
Archita Srivastava, Shabnam Sircaik, Farha Husain, Edwina Thomas, Shivani Ror, Sumit Rastogi, Darakshan Alim, Priyanka Bapat, David R Andes, Clarissa J Nobile, Sneh L Panwar
Fungal pathogens like Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonize host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain (7TMD) topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localized Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analog of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744261/antifungal-potential-of-copper-ii-manganese-ii-and-silver-i-1-10-phenanthroline-chelates-against-multidrug-resistant-fungal-species-forming-the-candida-haemulonii-complex-impact-on-the-planktonic-and-biofilm-lifestyles
#7
Rafael M Gandra, Pauraic Mc Carron, Mariana F Fernandes, Lívia S Ramos, Thaís P Mello, Ana Carolina Aor, Marta H Branquinha, Malachy McCann, Michael Devereux, André L S Santos
Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera and Candida duobushaemulonii, which form the C. haemulonii complex, are emerging etiologic agents of fungal infections known to be resistant to the most commonly used antifungals. The well-established anti-Candida potential of metal complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands encouraged us to evaluate different copper(II), manganese(II), and silver(I) phen chelates for their ability to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm of C. haemulonii species complex...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743811/structural-and-in-vivo-studies-on-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-from-pathogenic-fungi-provide-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism-biological-necessity-and-potential-for-novel-antifungal-drug-design
#8
Yi Miao, Jennifer L Tenor, Dena L Toffaletti, Stacey A Maskarinec, Jiuyu Liu, Richard E Lee, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan
The disaccharide trehalose is critical to the survival of pathogenic fungi in their human host. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) catalyzes the first step of trehalose biosynthesis in fungi. Here, we report the first structures of eukaryotic Tps1s in complex with substrates or substrate analogues. The overall structures of Tps1 from Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus are essentially identical and reveal N- and C-terminal Rossmann fold domains that form the glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose substrate binding sites, respectively...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736865/bioprotection-of-the-built-environment-and-cultural-heritage
#9
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Thomas D Dyer
The growth of microbial biofilms and various biomineralization phenomena can lead to the formation of stable layers and veneers on rocks known as 'rock varnishes' that can stabilize surfaces and protect from further weathering. This article describes the potential application of fungal systems for bioprotection of rock and mineral-based substrates and the evidence to support this concept of utilizing natural or engineered colonization and metabolic properties of fungi, including lichens.
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725336/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-biofilm-forming-lignocellulolytic-aspergillus-niger-strain-atcc-10864
#10
Sujay Paul, Yvette Ludeña, Gretty K Villena, Fengan Yu, David H Sherman, Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa
Filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has high industrial value due to their lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and ATCC 10864 is one of the few type strains of A. niger which has a unique biofilm forming capability. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of A. niger ATCC 10864 strain. The genome of A. niger ATCC 10864 is 36,172,237 bp long and comprise of 310 scaffolds with 49.5% average GC content. A total of 10,804 protein-coding genes were predicted among which 10,761 genes were with putative functions...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696230/implications-of-antimicrobial-combinations-in-complex-wound-biofilms-containing-fungi
#11
Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Ryan Kean, Donald Hansom, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, John Butcher, Gordon Ramage
Diabetic foot ulcer treatment currently focuses on targeting bacterial biofilms, while dismissing fungi. To investigate this we used an in vitro biofilm model containing bacteria and fungi, reflective of the wound environment, to test the impact of antimicrobials. Here we showed that while mono-treatment approaches influenced biofilm composition it had no discernible effect on overall quantity. Only by combining bacterial and fungal specific antibiotics were we able to decrease the biofilm bioburden, irrespective of composition...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695189/risk-of-fungal-infection-to-dental-patients
#12
Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Rafael Aparecido Dos Santos, Amir Horiquini Barbosa, Luciana Assirati Casemiro, Regina Helena Pires, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686622/succession-of-biofilm-communities-responsible-for-biofouling-of-membrane-bio-reactors-mbrs
#13
Jinxue Luo, Pengyi Lv, Jinsong Zhang, Anthony G Fane, Diane McDougald, Scott A Rice
Biofilm formation is one of the main factors associated with membrane biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). As such, it is important to identify the responsible organisms to develop targeted strategies to control biofouling. This study investigated the composition and changes in the microbial communities fouling MBR membranes over time and correlated those changes with an increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP). Based on qPCR data, bacteria were the dominant taxa of the biofilm (92.9-98.4%) relative to fungi (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686037/hydrophobin-coating-prevents-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilm-formation-on-different-surfaces
#14
Marco Artini, Paola Cicatiello, Annarita Ricciardelli, Rosanna Papa, Laura Selan, Principia Dardano, Marco Tilotta, Gianluca Vrenna, Maria Luisa Tutino, Paola Giardina, Ermenegilda Parrilli
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant nosocomial pathogen in predisposed hosts because of its capability of forming a biofilm on indwelling medical devices. The initial stage of biofilm formation has a key role in S. epidermidis abiotic surface colonization. Recently, many strategies have been developed to create new anti-biofilm surfaces able to control bacterial adhesion mechanisms. In this work, the self-assembled amphiphilic layers formed by two fungal hydrophobins (Vmh2 and Pac3) have proven to be able to reduce the biofilm formed by different strains of S...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685194/biological-activity-of-lipopeptides-from-bacillus
#15
REVIEW
Haobin Zhao, Dongyan Shao, Chunmei Jiang, Junling Shi, Qi Li, Qingsheng Huang, Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Hui Yang, Mingliang Jin
The lipopeptides of Bacillus are small metabolites that contain a cyclic structure formed by 7-10 amino acids (including 2-4 D-amino acids) and a beta-hydroxy fatty acid with 13-19 C atoms. These lipopeptides exhibit a variety of biological activities, including interactions with biofilms, and anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-virus, and anti-platelet properties. The multiple activities of lipopeptides have stimulated significant interest in the exploitation of these lipopeptides for use as antibiotics, feed additives, anti-tumor agents, urgent thrombolytic therapeutic agents, and drug delivery systems...
July 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681317/restraining-pathogenicity-in-candida-albicans-by-taxifolin-as-an-inhibitor-of-ras1-pka-pathway
#16
Sonali Mishra, Sangeeta Singh, Krishna Misra
Candida albicans is one of the most virulent and opportunistic fungal strains. In the present scenario, majority metabolic imbalances and unsuccessful treatments of some severe diseases including cancer, diabetes, HIV, psoriasis are because of invasive Candida emergence. Being a beneficial integral part of human biome, its elimination is not possible. The major pathogenicity characteristics in Candida involve hyphal growth, biofilm formation, HSP90 down regulation and genetic modifications. Ras1-pka pathway initiated by HSP90 down regulation is important for hyphal growth and has been focused in the present study...
July 5, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681298/biodeterioration-of-pompeian-mural-paintings-fungal-colonization-favoured-by-the-presence-of-volcanic-material-residues
#17
Marco Veneranda, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Maite Maguregui, Hector Morillas, Iker Marcaida, Kepa Castro, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Massimo Osanna
This work was focused on the study of the biodegradation processes jeopardizing a mural painting conserved in the basement of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy). The fresco stood out for its peculiar state of preservation: the upper part, recovered in 1988, was just barely colonized by microorganisms. On the contrary, the lower part (excavated in 2005) was almost completely covered by extensive biological patinas. The genomic characterization carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) highlighted the presence of seven different fungi strains on the mural surface...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680858/biofilm-induced-type-2-innate-immunity-in-a-cystic-fibrosis-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Jan Boddaert, Tom K Raju, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh
Biofilm-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In these patients, increased levels of IL-17 as well as of IL-5 and IL-13 along with arginase (Arg)-positive macrophages have been observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. While IL-17 is a strong proinflammatory cytokine associated with host defense against bacterial and fungal infections and is also elevated in several autoimmune diseases, IL-5/IL-13 and Arg1-positive M2 macrophages are part of the anti-inflammatory type 2 (Th2) immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676673/formulation-and-candidacidal-activity-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-coated-with-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-ceragenin-csa-13
#19
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Grażyna Tokajuk, Ewelina Piktel, Grzegorz Michalak, Xiaobo Gu, Alina Kułakowska, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Fungal infections caused by Candida spp. represent an emerging problem during treatment of immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious principal diseases. The ever-growing number of fungal strains exhibiting drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial therapies including those based on membrane-permeabilizing agents and nanomaterials as drug carriers. In this study, the fungicidal activities of LL-37 peptide, ceragenin CSA-13 and its magnetic derivatives (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) against laboratory and clinical strains of C...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667801/a-study-of-selected-factors-affecting-efficacy-of-compost-tea-against-several-fungal-pathogens-of-potato
#20
W K Mengesha, W M Gill, S M Powell, K J Evans, K M Barry
AIM: To investigate selected factors of two nonaerated compost teas (NCT) and mechanisms that influence the restriction of several fungal potato pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two NCTs, made from either commercial compost, (CCT) or vineyard compost (VCT), were tested for their ability to suppress potato pathogens. The VCT was more suppressive than CCT to mycelial growth of Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolate 299, but not for R. solani isolate 422. Metagenomic studies of microbial diversity revealed that the CCT had higher fungal and bacterial diversity and richness than the VCT...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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