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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081296/short-synthetic-%C3%AE-helical-forming-peptide-amphiphiles-for-fungal-keratitis-treatment-in-vivo
#1
Hong Wu, Shaoqiong Liu, Nikken Wiradharma, Zhan Yuin Ong, Yan Li, Yi Yan Yang, Jackie Y Ying
The emergence of fungal keratitis is on the rise globally. However, current antifungal therapeutics are ineffective in severe keratomycosis. Previously reported α-helical peptides comprising 8-14 amino acids demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Here, α-helical peptides of the optimized sequences are investigated for antifungal biofilm in vitro and in vivo using a fungal biofilm-caused mouse keratitis model. The peptides with the optimal composition demonstrate higher α-helical propensity and improve antifungal activity in dispersing Candida albicans biofilm in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072890/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 9, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064360/greater-species-richness-of-bacterial-skin-symbionts-better-suppresses-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#3
Jonah Piovia-Scott, Daniel Rejmanek, Douglas C Woodhams, S Joy Worth, Heather Kenny, Valerie McKenzie, Sharon P Lawler, Janet E Foley
The symbiotic microbes that grow in and on many organisms can play important roles in protecting their hosts from pathogen infection. While species diversity has been shown to influence community function in many other natural systems, the question of how species diversity of host-associated symbiotic microbes contributes to pathogen resistance is just beginning to be explored. Understanding diversity effects on pathogen resistance could be particularly helpful in combating the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) which has caused dramatic population declines in many amphibian species and is a major concern for amphibian conservation...
January 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057761/microtubules-are-reversibly-depolymerized-in-response-to-changing-gaseous-microenvironments-within-aspergillus-nidulans-biofilms
#4
Nandini Shukla, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
How microtubules (MTs) are regulated during fungal biofilm formation is unknown. By tracking MT +end binding proteins (+TIPS) in Aspergillus nidulans we report MTs are regulated to depolymerize within forming fungal biofilms. During this process EB1, dynein and ClipA form transient fibrous then bar-like structures, novel configurations for +TIPS. Cells also respond in an automatous manner with cells separated by a septum able to maintain different MT dynamics. Surprisingly, all cells with depolymerized MTs rapidly repolymerize their MTs after air exchange above the static culture media of biofilms...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056742/fungal-biofilm-a-real-obstacle-against-an-efficient-therapy-lessons-from-candida
#5
Thaís Pereira de Mello, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Lys Adriana Braga-Silva, Marta Helena Branquinha, André Luis Souza Dos Santos
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in invasive fungal infections, especially caused by different species belonging to the Candida genus. Nowadays, even after many improvements in several medical procedures, Candida infections (candidiasis) still account for an unacceptable high rate of morbimortality in hospital settings. Corroborating this statement, fungal biofilms formed on both abiotic and living surfaces are responsible for an important medical and economic burden, since biofilm lifestyle confers numerous advantages to the pathogens, including high tolerance to environmental stresses such as antimicrobials and host immune responses...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054493/epilithic-and-endolithic-microorganisms-and-deterioration-on-stone-church-facades-subject-to-urban-pollution-in-a-sub-tropical-climate
#6
Christine Gaylarde, Jose Antônio Baptista-Neto, Akiko Ogawa, Matthew Kowalski, Sukriye Celikkol-Aydin, Iwona Beech
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces)...
January 5, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051303/tackling-fungal-resistance-by-biofilm-inhibitors
#7
Shanchao Wu, Yan Wang, Na Liu, Guoqiang Dong, Chunquan Sheng
The high incidence and mortality of invasive fungal infections and serious drug resistance have become a global public health issue. The ability of fungal cells to form biofilms is an important reason for the emergence of severe resistance to most clinically available antifungal agents. Targeting fungal biofilm formation by small molecules represents a promising new strategy for the development of novel antifungal agents. This perspective will provide a comprehensive review of fungal biofilm inhibitors. In particular, discovery strategies, chemical structures, antibiofilm/antifungal activities and structure-activity relationship studies will be discussed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039134/characterizing-a-family-of-secretory-proteins-associated-with-different-morphotypes-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#8
Rachana Gyawali, Srijana Upadhyay, Joshua Way, Xiaorong Lin
: Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, can undergo yeast to hyphal transition in response to environmental cues. This morphological transition is associated with changes in the expression of cell surface proteins. The Cryptococcus cell surface and secreted protein Cfl1 is the first identified adhesin in Basidiomycota. Cfl1 is shown to regulate morphology, biofilm formation, and intercellular communication. Four additional homologs of CFL1 are encoded in the Cryptococcus genome: DHA1, DHA2, CPL1, and CFL105 The common features of this gene family are the conserved C-terminal SIGC domain and the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026958/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-self-assembly-prevents-adhesion-and-suppresses-virulence-traits-of-candida-albicans
#9
Phoom Chairatana, I-Ling Chiang, Elizabeth M Nolan
HD6 is a host-defense peptide that contributes to intestinal innate immunity and mediates homeostasis at mucosal surfaces by forming non-covalent oligomers that capture bacteria and prevent bacterial invasion into the epithelium. Our present work illustrates a new role of HD6 in defending the host epithelium against pathogenic microorganisms. We report that HD6 blocks Candida albicans adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses two C. albicans virulence traits, namely invasion into human epithelial cells and biofilm formation...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999568/potential-antifungal-targets-against-a-candida-biofilm-based-on-an-enzyme-in-the-arachidonic-acid-cascade-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Xinning Liu, Decai Wang, Cuixiang Yu, Tao Li, Jianqiao Liu, Shujuan Sun
Candida is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen, especially in biofilm associated infections. The formation of a Candida biofilm can decrease Candida sensitivity to antifungal drugs and cause drug resistance. Although many effective antifungal drugs are available, their applications are limited due to their high toxicity and cost. Seeking new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilm-associated infection is an urgent need. Many research efforts are underway, and some progress has been made in this field...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998758/the-synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-of-20s-3%C3%AE-acetoxy-5%C3%AE-pregnane-20-16%C3%AE-carbolactone-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-cells
#11
Izabella Jastrzebska, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Wioleta I Brzozowska, Robert Bucki
An efficient procedure for the synthesis of (20S)-3β-acetoxy-5α-pregnane-20,16β-carbolactone is described. Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the lactone against different bacteria such as MSSA, MRSA, E. coli ESBL, P. aeruginosa and clinical isolates of Candida spp., in planktonic and biofilm growth stage were assessed. Additionally, the affinity of this new compound to microbial plasma membrane and hemoglobin release from human red blood cells were determined using fluorometric and colorimetric assay, respectively...
December 18, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994582/disruption-of-protein-mannosylation-affects-candida-guilliermondii-cell-wall-immune-sensing-and-virulence
#12
María J Navarro-Arias, Tatiana A Defosse, Karine Dementhon, Katalin Csonka, Erika Mellado-Mojica, Aline Dias Valério, Roberto J González-Hernández, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Nahúm V Hernández, Luis A Pérez-García, Dhirendra K Singh, Csaba Vizler, Attila Gácser, Ricardo S Almeida, Thierry Noël, Mercedes G López, Nicolas Papon, Héctor M Mora-Montes
The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975924/biodiversity-of-fungal-community-associated-to-lichens-active-against-candida-biofilms
#13
P Jargeat, M Girardot, C Rouger, W Aucher, M Millot, C Imbert, L Mambu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935844/cooperative-evolutionary-strategy-between-the-bacteriome-and-mycobiome
#14
Mahmoud Ghannoum
Nonhealing chronic wounds are all unique in origin and circumstance, and attempting to isolate a single etiology for the failure of a wound to heal is daunting. Wounds represent complex systems of multispecies fungal and bacterial biofilms. The survival strategies of interactive microbial communities have led to cooperative evolutionary strategies that culminate in biofilm formation. In microbial dysbiosis, biofilms are beneficial to both bacterial and fungal communities but detrimental to the host. Fungi benefit by a surge in their virulence factors, while bacteria become tolerant to antibacterials as a consequence of living under the protective umbrella of the biofilm matrix...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922746/plant-extracts-initial-screening-identification-of-bioactive-compounds-and-effect-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#15
Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti, Marcos José Salvador, Aline Vidal Lacerda Gontijo, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Ádina Cléia Botazzo Delbem, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de Oliveira, Camila Miorelli Girondi, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
AIM: This study screened plants from Brazilian Pantanal for Candida albicans antibiofilm activity. MATERIAL & METHODS: Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants using different extraction methods. Antifungal activity was assessed. Effects on biofilm inhibition and disruption and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. The most active extract was chemically characterized. RESULTS:  Buchenavia tomentosa ethanolic extract showed noticeable antifungal activity and was selected for biofilm experiments...
January 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#16
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915337/quercetin-assists-fluconazole-to-inhibit-biofilm-formations-of-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-managements-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#17
Mei Gao, Hui Wang, LiJuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. METHODS: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#18
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
January 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897199/hydroxychavicol-a-phytochemical-targeting-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#19
Intzar Ali, Naresh Kumar Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Rajendra Prasad, Inshad Ali Khan
The present study was designed to investigate the potency of hydroxychavicol on selected cutaneous human pathogenic fungi by the use of in vitro and in vivo assays and mechanistic characterization along with toxicological effects. Hydroxychavicol consistently displayed a fungicidal effect against all fungal species tested. Inoculum concentrations over the range of 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/ml did not significantly alter its antifungal potential and time-kill curve results revealed concentration-dependent killing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896598/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-anodized-titanium-alloys-with-fluorine
#20
Concepcion Perez-Jorge, Maria-Angeles Arenas, Ana Conde, Juan-Manuel Hernández-Lopez, Juan-Jose de Damborenea, Steve Fisher, Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jaime Esteban, Garth James
Orthopaedic device-related infections are closely linked to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these devices. Several modified titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces doped with fluorine were studied in order to evaluate the influence of these modifications on biofilm formation by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as a yeast. The biofilm studies were performed according to the standard test method approved by ASTM (Designation: E2196-12) using the Rotating Disk Reactor. Four types of Ti-6Al-4V samples were tested; chemically polished (CP), two types of nanostructures containing fluorine, nanoporous (NP) and nanotubular (NT), and non-nanostructured fluorine containing samples (fluoride barrier layers, FBL)...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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