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Fungal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211996/alternating-current-electrophoretic-deposition-for-the-immobilization-of-antimicrobial-agents-on-titanium-implant-surfaces
#1
Annabel Braem, Katrijn De Brucker, Nicolas Delattin, Manuela Sonja Killian, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Tomohiko Yoshioka, Satoshi Hayakawa, Patrik Schmuki, Bruno P A Cammue, Sannakaisa Virtanen, Karin Thevissen, Bram Neirinck
One prominent cause of implant failure is infection, therefore research is focusing on developing surface coatings that render the surface resistant to colonization by micro-organisms. Permanently attached coatings of antimicrobial molecules are of particular interest because of the reduced cytoxicity and lower risk of developing resistance compared to controlled release coatings. In this study, we focus on the chemical grafting of bioactive molecules on titanium. To concentrate the molecules at the metallic implant surface, we propose electrophoretic deposition (EPD) applying alternating current (AC) signals with an asymmetrical wave shape...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211475/biofilm-formation-of-the-black-yeast-like-fungus-exophiala-dermatitidis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antiinfective-agents
#2
Lisa Kirchhoff, Maike Olsowski, Katrin Zilmans, Silke Dittmer, Gerhard Haase, Ludwig Sedlacek, Eike Steinmann, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192619/genomic-signatures-of-adaptation-to-wine-biological-aging-conditions%C3%A2-in-biofilm-forming-flor-yeasts
#3
A L Coi, F Bigey, S Mallet, S Marsit, G Zara, P Gladieux, V Galeote, M Budroni, S Dequin, J L Legras
The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological aging are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose, and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187935/effect-of-bacteria-on-the-degradation-ability-of-pleurotus-ostreatus
#4
Hana Válková, Čeněk Novotný, Kateřina Malachová, Pavlína Šlosarčíková, Jindřich Fojtík
White-rot fungi are efficient degraders of lignin whose extracellular enzymes have a potential to degrade organopollutants. In natural conditions these fungi enter into interactions with other organisms, which may affect their biodegradation capacity. The aim was to investigate the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus to form stable biofilms and to test the capacity of the fungus to degrade Remazol Brilliant Blue R in mixed cultures with bacteria. Bacterial counts were determined to see the behavior of the bacterium in the mixed culture with the fungus...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180946/new-developments-and-directions-in-the-clinical-application-of-the-echinocandins
#5
REVIEW
C C Chang, M A Slavin, S C-A Chen
The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167935/antifungal-therapy-new-advances-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-mycosis
#6
REVIEW
Liliana Scorzoni, Ana C A de Paula E Silva, Caroline M Marcos, Patrícia A Assato, Wanessa C M A de Melo, Haroldo C de Oliveira, Caroline B Costa-Orlandi, Maria J S Mendes-Giannini, Ana M Fusco-Almeida
The high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by fungal infections are associated with the current limited antifungal arsenal and the high toxicity of the compounds. Additionally, identifying novel drug targets is challenging because there are many similarities between fungal and human cells. The most common antifungal targets include fungal RNA synthesis and cell wall and membrane components, though new antifungal targets are being investigated. Nonetheless, fungi have developed resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pump proteins and biofilm formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding these mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155334/inhibitory-effects-of-the-essential-oils-%C3%AE-longipinene-and-linalool-on-biofilm-formation-and-hyphal-growth-of-candida-albicans
#7
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Soon-Il Kim, Jintae Lee
Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens, and causes systemic and invasive infections in humans. C. albicans biofilms are composed of yeast and hyphal and pseudohyphal elements, and the transition of yeast to the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. In this study, diverse essential oils were initially investigated for anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans strains, and cascarilla bark oil and helichrysum oil and their components α-longipinene (a major constituent of both) and linalool were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth...
February 3, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149831/repurposing-approach-identifies-auranofin-with-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity-that-targets-mia40-erv1-pathway
#8
Shankar Thangamani, Matthew Maland, Haroon Mohammad, Pete E Pascuzzi, Larisa Avramova, Carla M Koehler, Tony R Hazbun, Mohamed N Seleem
Current antifungal therapies have limited effectiveness in treating invasive fungal infections. Furthermore, the development of new antifungal is currently unable to keep pace with the urgent demand for safe and effective new drugs. Auranofin, an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inhibits growth of a diverse array of clinical isolates of fungi and represents a new antifungal agent with a previously unexploited mechanism of action. In addition to auranofin's potent antifungal activity against planktonic fungi, this drug significantly reduces the metabolic activity of Candida cells encased in a biofilm...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149170/effectiveness-of-five-antidandruff-cosmetic-formulations-against-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-dermatophytes
#9
Renan Martins Dos Santos, Marcus Vinícius Dias-Souza
This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antifungal effectiveness of five different formulations against dandruff and ringworm dermatophytes. Candida albicans was also included in our assays. Fungal susceptibility tests were performed with planktonic cells and biofilms of reference strains. Microbiological and physicochemical quality parameters were assessed for all formulations. Our data indicated that the formulations were effective against the dermatophytes strains, and to our knowledge, the effectiveness of cosmetic formulations against fungal biofilms is shown for the first time...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138373/resistance-of-candida-albicans-biofilms-to-drugs-and-the-host-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Doblin Sandai, Yasser M Tabana, Ahmad El Ouweini, Ishola Oluwaseun Ayodeji
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that resides on mucosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts in humans. However, it can cause an infection when the immune system of the host is impaired or if a niche becomes available. Many C. albicans infections are due to the organism's ability to form a biofilm on implanted medical devices. A biofilm represents an optimal medium for the growth of C. albicans as it allows cells to be enclosed by a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM)...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137805/antimicrobial-effects-of-antipyretics
#11
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Antipyretics are some of the most commonly used drugs. Since they are often co-administered with antimicrobial therapy, it is important to understand the interactions between these two classes of drugs. Our review is the first to summarise the antimicrobial effects of antipyretic drugs and the underlying mechanisms involved.Antipyretic drugs can inhibit virus replication, inhibit or promote bacterial or fungal growth, alter the expression of virulence factors, change surface hydrophobicity of microbes, influence biofilm production, affect motility, adherence and metabolism of pathogens, interact with the transport and release of antibiotics by leukocytes, modify the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics and induce or reduce the frequency of mutations leading to antimicrobial resistance...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134351/candida-albicans-stimulates-streptococcus-mutans-microcolony-development-via-cross-kingdom-biofilm-derived-metabolites
#12
Dongyeop Kim, Arjun Sengupta, Tagbo H R Niepa, Byung-Hoo Lee, Aalim Weljie, Veronica S Freitas-Blanco, Ramiro M Murata, Kathleen J Stebe, Daeyeon Lee, Hyun Koo
Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection of Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children affected with early-childhood caries, a prevalent and costly oral disease. The presence of C. albicans enhances S. mutans growth within biofilms, yet the chemical interactions associated with bacterial accumulation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate how microbial products from this cross-kingdom association modulate S. mutans build-up in biofilms. Our data revealed that bacterial-fungal derived conditioned medium (BF-CM) significantly increased the growth of S...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117709/microbiological-contamination-at-workplaces-in-a-combined-heat-and-power-chp-station-processing-plant-biomass
#13
Justyna Szulc, Anna Otlewska, Małgorzata Okrasa, Katarzyna Majchrzycka, Michael Sulyok, Beata Gutarowska
The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115357/synthesis-antifungal-activity-and-biocompatibility-of-novel-dabco-compounds-and-dabco-containing-denture-base-resins
#14
Jenny L Herman, Yapin Wang, Elizabeth Lilly, Thomas Lallier, Suleiman Hamdan, Xiaoming Xu, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes a variety of oral infections including denture stomatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures, and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. While antifungal treatment reduces symptoms, infections are often recurrent. One strategy to address this problem is to incorporate compounds with fungicidal activities into denture materials to prevent colonization. Our laboratory synthesized novel derivatives of DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114348/polymicrobial-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-fighting-in-vitro-candida-albicans-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-with-antifungal-antibacterial-combination-therapy
#15
Maria E Rodrigues, Susana P Lopes, Cláudia R Pereira, Nuno F Azevedo, Anália Lourenço, Mariana Henriques, Maria O Pereira
The polymicrobial nature of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is now evident, with mixed bacterial-fungal biofilms colonizing the VAP endotracheal tube (ETT) surface. The microbial interplay within this infection may contribute for enhanced pathogenesis and exert impact towards antimicrobial therapy. Consequently, the high mortality/morbidity rates associated to VAP and the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has promoted the search for novel therapeutic strategies to fight VAP polymicrobial infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112955/fate-of-eight-different-polymers-under-uncontrolled-composting-conditions-relationships-between-deterioration-biofilm-formation-and-the-material-surface-properties
#16
Anne Mercier, Kevin Gravouil, Willy Aucher, Sandra Brosset-Vincent, Linette Kadri, Jenny Colas, Didier Bouchon, Thierry Ferreira
With the ever-increasing volume of polymer wastes and their associated detrimental impacts on the environment, the plastic life-cycle has focused increasing attention. Here, eight commercial polymers selected from biodegradable to environmentally-persistent materials, all formulated under a credit card format, were incubated in an outdoor compost to evaluate their fate over time and to profile the microbial communities colonizing their surfaces. After 450 days in compost, the samples were all colonized by multispecies biofilms, these latest displaying different amounts of adhered microbial biomass and significantly distinct bacterial and fungal community compositions depending on the substrate...
January 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094180/antifungal-activity-of-substituted-aurones
#17
Caleb L Sutton, Zachary E Taylor, Mary B Farone, Scott T Handy
Novel antifungals are in high demand as there is a growing resistance to antifungals currently in use. In particular, opportunistic fungal infections caused by Candida spp. are on the rise with infections by this genus accounting for the most severe fungal infections following chemotherapy, implantation procedures, and in patients with HIV/AIDS. A series of simple aurone analogs were synthesized and screened for antifungal activity versus Candida spp. Several compounds displayed activity at 100μM, with two having IC50 values below 20μM for three species of Candida...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092844/enhanced-effect-in-combination-of-curcumin-and-ketoconazole-loaded-methoxy-poly-ethylene-glycol-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-micelles
#18
Fangfang Teng, Peizong Deng, Zhimei Song, Feilong Zhou, Runliang Feng
In order to enhance water-solubility and realize controlled release while keeping synergistic effects of ketoconazole and curcumin, drug-loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) micelles were prepared through thin membrane hydration method. Transmission electric microscopy and dynamitic light scattering characterization revealed the formation of ketoconazole- and curcumin-loaded micelles with an average size of 44.70nm and 39.56nm, respectively. The drug-loaded micelles endowed the two drugs' slow controlled release with water-solubility enhanced to 85 and 82000 folds higher than the corresponding raw drugs, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081296/short-synthetic-%C3%AE-helical-forming-peptide-amphiphiles-for-fungal-keratitis-treatment-in-vivo
#19
Hong Wu, Shaoqiong Liu, Nikken Wiradharma, Zhan Yuin Ong, Yan Li, Yi Yan Yang, Jackie Y Ying
The emergence of fungal keratitis is on the rise globally. However, current antifungal therapeutics are ineffective in severe keratomycosis. Previously reported α-helical peptides comprising 8-14 amino acids demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Here, α-helical peptides of the optimized sequences are investigated for antifungal biofilm in vitro and in vivo using a fungal biofilm-caused mouse keratitis model. The peptides with the optimal composition demonstrate higher α-helical propensity and improve antifungal activity in dispersing Candida albicans biofilm in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072890/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 9, 2017: New Microbiologica
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