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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#1
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915337/quercetin-assists-fluconazole-to-inhibit-biofilm-formations-of-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-managements-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#2
Mei Gao, Hui Wang, LiJuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. METHODS: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#3
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897199/hydroxychavicol-a-phytochemical-targeting-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#4
Intzar Ali, Naresh Kumar Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Rajendra Prasad, Inshad Ali Khan
The present study was designed to investigate the potency of hydroxychavicol on selected cutaneous human pathogenic fungi by the use of in vitro and in vivo assays and mechanistic characterization along with toxicological effects. Hydroxychavicol consistently displayed a fungicidal effect against all fungal species tested. Inoculum concentrations over the range of 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/ml did not significantly alter its antifungal potential and time-kill curve results revealed concentration-dependent killing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896598/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-anodized-titanium-alloys-with-fluorine
#5
Concepcion Perez-Jorge, Maria-Angeles Arenas, Ana Conde, Juan-Manuel Hernández-Lopez, Juan-Jose de Damborenea, Steve Fisher, Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jaime Esteban, Garth James
Orthopaedic device-related infections are closely linked to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these devices. Several modified titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces doped with fluorine were studied in order to evaluate the influence of these modifications on biofilm formation by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as a yeast. The biofilm studies were performed according to the standard test method approved by ASTM (Designation: E2196-12) using the Rotating Disk Reactor. Four types of Ti-6Al-4V samples were tested; chemically polished (CP), two types of nanostructures containing fluorine, nanoporous (NP) and nanotubular (NT), and non-nanostructured fluorine containing samples (fluoride barrier layers, FBL)...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891094/anti-acne-activity-of-italian-medicinal-plants-used-for-skin-infection
#6
Kate Nelson, James T Lyles, Tracy Li, Alessandro Saitta, Eugenia Addie-Noye, Paula Tyler, Cassandra L Quave
Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888610/camp-independent-signal-pathways-stimulate-hyphal-morphogenesis-in-candida-albicans
#7
Salvatore M Parrino, Haoyu Si, Shamoon Naseem, Kevin Groudan, Justin Gardin, James B Konopka
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can transition from budding to hyphal growth, which promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth into tissues. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP induces hyphal morphogenesis. The failure of cells lacking adenylyl cyclase (cyr1Δ) to form hyphae has suggested that cAMP signaling is essential for hyphal growth. However, cyr1Δ mutants also grow slowly and have defects in morphogenesis, making it unclear whether hyphal inducers must stimulate cAMP, or if normal basal levels of cAMP are required to maintain cellular health needed for hyphal growth...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#8
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870871/functional-genomic-analysis-of-candida-albicans-adherence-reveals-a-key-role-for-the-arp2-3-complex-in-cell-wall-remodelling-and-biofilm-formation
#9
Jason A Lee, Nicole Robbins, Jinglin L Xie, Troy Ketela, Leah E Cowen
Fungal biofilms are complex, structured communities that can form on surfaces such as catheters and other indwelling medical devices. Biofilms are of particular concern with Candida albicans, one of the leading opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans. C. albicans biofilms include yeast and filamentous cells that are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, and they are intrinsically resistant to antifungal drugs such that resolving biofilm infections often requires surgery to remove the contaminated device. C...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870863/characteristics-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-association-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-mixed-biofilm
#10
Elise Melloul, Stéphanie Luiggi, Leslie Anaïs, Pascal Arné, Jean-Marc Costa, Vincent Fihman, Benoit Briard, Eric Dannaoui, Jacques Guillot, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Anne Beauvais, Françoise Botterel
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are communal structures of microorganisms that have long been associated with a variety of persistent infections poorly responding to conventional antibiotic or antifungal therapy. Aspergillus fumigatus fungus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria are examples of the microorganisms that can coexist to form a biofilm especially in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised patients or cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess an in vitro model of a mixed biofilm associating S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851809/a-genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-of-yeast-hyphal-transition-in-candida-tropicalis-by-rna-seq
#11
Yuan Wu, Yin-Hu Li, Shuan-Bao Yu, Wen-Ge Li, Xiao-Shu Liu, Lei Zhao, Jin-Xing Lu
Candida tropicalis is considered as the leading pathogen in nosocomial fungemia and hepatosplenic fungal infections in patients with cancer, particularly in leukemia. The yeast-filament transition is required for virulent infection by Candida. Several studies have explored the genome-wide transcription profile of Candida, however, no report on the transcriptional profile of C. tropicalis under yeast-filament transition has been published. In this study, the transcriptomes of three C. tropicalis isolates with different adhesion and biofilm formation abilities, identified in our previous studies, were analyzed in both the yeast and filament states using RNA-Seq...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830437/temporal-profile-of-biofilm-formation-gene-expression-and-virulence-analysis-in-candida-albicans-strains
#12
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Felipe De Camargo Ribeiro, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
The characterization of Candida albicans strains with different degrees of virulence became very useful to understand the mechanisms of fungal virulence. Then, the objective of this study was to assess and compare the temporal profiles of biofilms formation, gene expression of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 and virulence in Galleria mellonella of C. albicans ATCC18804 and a clinical sample isolated from an HIV-positive patient (CA60). Although the CFU/mL counting was higher in biofilms formed in vitro by ATCC strain, the temporal profile of the analysis of the transcripts of the C...
November 9, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822731/are-cystic-fibrosis-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-different-intermicrobial-interactions-with-pseudomonas
#13
Hasan Nazik, Richard B Moss, Vyshnavi Karna, Karl V Clemons, Niaz Banaei, Kevin Cohen, Varun Choudhary, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading bacterial and fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that Af biofilms are susceptible to Pseudomonas, particularly CF phenotypes. Those studies were performed with a reference virulent non-CF Aspergillus. Pseudomonas resident in CF airways undergo profound genetic and phenotypic adaptations to the abnormal environment. Studies have also indicated Aspergillus from CF patients have unexpected profiles of antifungal susceptibility...
November 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815078/ziziphora-tenuior-l-essential-oil-from-dana-biosphere-reserve-southern-jordan-chemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-biological-activities
#14
M S Abu-Darwish, C Cabral, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, M Paoli, F Tomi, T Efferth, L Salgueiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant in Jordan, which is included in various antimicrobial, antiseptic, expectorant and wound healing preparations. It is used for the treatment of cough, stomach ache, dysentery, fever, uterus infection, gut inflammation and painful menstruation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Z. tenuior originated from southern Jordan and its antifungal effects against several yeasts...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809313/large-scale-production-and-isolation-of-candida-biofilm-extracellular-matrix
#15
Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, David R Andes
The extracellular matrix of biofilm is unique to the biofilm lifestyle, and it has key roles in community survival. A complete understanding of the biochemical nature of the matrix is integral to the understanding of the roles of matrix components. This knowledge is a first step toward the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics to address persistent biofilm infections. Many of the assay methods needed for refined matrix composition analysis require milligram amounts of material that is separated from the cellular components of these complex communities...
December 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780306/the-multidrug-resistance-transporters-cgtpo1_1-and-cgtpo1_2-play-a-role-in-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#16
Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated to Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773854/fabrication-of-antimicrobial-silver-doped-carbon-structures-by-combinatorial-pulsed-laser-deposition
#17
Ion N Mihailescu, Dorota Bociaga, Gabriel Socol, George E Stan, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Coralia Bleotu, Marius A Husanu, Gianina Popescu-Pelin, Liviu Duta, Catalin R Luculescu, Irina Negut, Claudiu Hapenciuc, Cristina Besleaga, Irina Zgura, Florin Miculescu
We report on the selection by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of Silver-doped Carbon structures with reliable physical-chemical characteristics and high efficiency against microbial biofilms. The investigation of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, bonding strength "pull-out" tests, and surface energy measurements. In vitro biological assays were carried out using a large spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains, i...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770500/pathogenic-factors-in-candida-biofilm-related-infectious-diseases
#18
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765351/the-anthraquinones-rubiadin-and-its-1-methyl-ether-isolated-from-heterophyllaea-pustulata-reduces-candida-tropicalis-biofilms-formation
#19
Juliana Marioni, María Angel da Silva, José Luis Cabrera, Susana C Núñez Montoya, María Gabriela Paraje
BACKGROUND: Candida tropicalis is increasingly becoming among the most commonly isolated pathogens causing fungal infections with an important biofilm-forming capacity. PURPOSE: This study addresses the antifungal effect of rubiadin (AQ1) and rubiadin 1-methyl ether (AQ2), two photosensitizing anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata, against C. tropicalis biofilms, by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in two experimental conditions: darkness and irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757101/genes-required-for-the-anti-fungal-activity-of-a-bacterial-endophyte-isolated-from-a-corn-landrace-grown-continuously-by-subsistence-farmers-since-1000-bc
#20
Hanan R Shehata, Cassandra L Ettinger, Jonathan A Eisen, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize) landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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