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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783771/adhesins-in-candida-glabrata
#1
REVIEW
Bea Timmermans, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño, Patrick Van Dijck
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans . An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778067/succession-of-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-within-biofilms-of-a-chlorinated-drinking-water-distribution-system
#2
I Douterelo, K E Fish, J B Boxall
Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months...
May 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#3
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760550/synergistic-antifungal-effect-of-chitosan-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#4
Humberto H Lara, Gregory Guisbiers, Jonathan Mendoza, Lawrence C Mimun, Brandy A Vincent, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Kelly L Nash
Background: Candida albicans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. One of the most important virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of candidiasis is its ability to form biofilms. A key characteristic of Candida biofilms is their resistance to antifungal agents. Due to significant morbidity and mortality rates related to biofilm-associated drug resistance, there is an urgency to develop novel nanotechnology-based approaches preventing biofilm-related infections. Methods: In this study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by irradiating selenium pellets by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid chitosan as a capping agent...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#5
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744453/studies-on-the-cytocompatibility-mechanical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-3d-printed-poly-methyl-methacrylate-beads
#6
David K Mills, Uday Jammalamadaka, Karthik Tappa, Jeffery Weisman
Osteomyelitis is typically a bacterial infection (usually from Staphylococcus) or, more rarely, a fungal infection of the bone. It can occur in any bone in the body, but it most often affects the long bones (leg and arm), vertebral (spine), and bones of the foot. Microbial success in osteomyelitis is due to their ability to form biofilms which inhibit the wound healing process and increases resistance to anti-infective agents. Also, biofilms do not allow easy penetration of antibiotics into their matrix making clinical treatment a challenge...
June 2018: Bioactive Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735833/echinocandins-their-role-in-the-management-of-candida-biofilms
#7
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731748/oral-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiome-impacts-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Klara Klimesova, Zuzana Jiraskova Zakostelska, Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova
Host's physiology is significantly influenced by microbiota colonizing the epithelial surfaces. Complex microbial communities contribute to proper mucosal barrier function, immune response, and prevention of pathogen invasion and have many other crucial functions. The oral cavity and large intestine are distant parts of the digestive tract, both heavily colonized by commensal microbiota. Nevertheless, they feature different proportions of major bacterial and fungal phyla, mostly due to distinct epithelial layers organization and different oxygen levels...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730283/photodynamic-therapy-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-infected-leg-ulcers
#9
REVIEW
Aleksandra Kawczyk-Krupka, Barbara Pucelik, Anna Międzybrodzka, Aleksander Sieroń, Janusz M Dąbrowski
Infected leg ulcers are painful, debilitating and immensely reducing patient's quality of life, therefore they are becoming a more and more significant clinical and socioeconomic problems nowadays. Increasing resistance to antibiotics, drugs and therapies is one of the most urgent challenge in medicine worldwide and requires searching for a new, innovative and more efficient medical strategies. One of the opportunities for the cure of leg ulcers is photodynamic inactivation (PDI), that has been widely used in the treatment of various bacterial, fungal and viral infections...
May 3, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730068/biofilm-testing-of-microbiota-an-essential-step-during-corneal-scrap-examination-in-egyptian-acanthamoebic-keratitis-cases
#10
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Haidy S M Khalil
PURPOSE: To detect co-infections in the culture-proven acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) cases, and to test the capability of biofilm formation in the isolated microbiota. The clinical findings, habit of wearing contact lens and in-vitro antibiotic resistance were analyzed further according to the biofilm formation capability. METHODS: After clinical examination, corneal scraps and swabs were taken from 240 clinically suspected AK cases, for Acanthamoeba and microbiological cultures...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720131/intestinal-candida-parapsilosis-isolates-from-rett-syndrome-subjects-bear-potential-virulent-traits-and-capacity-to-persist-within-the-host
#11
Francesco Strati, Antonio Calabrò, Claudio Donati, Claudio De Felice, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Lisa Rizzetto, Carlotta De Filippo, Duccio Cavalieri
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene. It has been shown that MeCP2 impairments can lead to cytokine dysregulation due to MeCP2 regulatory role in T-helper and T-reg mediated responses, thus contributing to the pro-inflammatory status associated with RTT. Furthermore, RTT subjects suffer from an intestinal dysbiosis characterized by an abnormal expansion of the Candida population, a known factor responsible for the hyper-activation of pro-inflammatory immune responses...
May 2, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705532/paeoniflorin-augments-systemic-candida-albicans-infection-through-inhibiting-th1-and-th17-cell-expression-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Xue Kong, Dongni Leng, Guanzhao Liang, Hailin Zheng, Qiong Wang, Yongnian Shen, Guixia Lu, Huailiang Zhang, Dongmei Shi, Weida Liu
Paeoniflorin (PF), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in clinical practice in China because of its dual immunoregulatory effects. A previous study found that PF inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro; however, whether PF plays an antifungal role in vivo is still unexplored. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of PF alone or in combination with an antifungal agent, fluconazole (FCZ), using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results showed that the survival time of mice treated with PF alone or PF + FCZ decreased compared with the Infected alone and FCZ treated groups, respectively (8...
April 26, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705201/fungal-communities-associated-with-evernia-prunastri-ramalina-fastigiata-and-pleurosticta-acetabulum-three-epiphytic-lichens-potentially-active-against-candida-biofilms
#13
Aurélie Lagarde, Patricia Jargeat, Mélanie Roy, Marion Girardot, Christine Imbert, Marion Millot, Lengo Mambu
Fungal communities associated to three epiphytic lichens active against Candida, were investigated using culture-based methods We hypothetized that associated fungi would contribute to lichens activities. The ability of specific fungi to grow inside or outside lichens was investigated. To detect biogenesis pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites, genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I) were screened by PCR from fungal DNA extracts. Both endo and epilichenic communities were isolated from two fructicose (Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata) and one foliose (Pleurosticta acetabulum) lichens...
June 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697380/actual-issues-of-odontogenic-maxillary-sinusitis-review
#14
S Grygorov, G Poberezhnik, A Grygorova
Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis has now increasing incidence in dental and otorhynolaryngological practice. Its incidence varies from 10-12 % to 50-75 %, according to different authors. Literature study showed that odontogenic maxillary sinusites are mostly unilateral, and significantly differ in complaints, clinical signs, and diagnostic and treatment measures from other types of sinusitis. This should be taken into account, because often odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is misdiagnosed with common sinusitis, and only in 77 % such patients are examined by both dental specialist and otorhynolaryngologist...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696387/electron-microscopic-features-of-the-lacrimal-sac-mucopeptide-concretions
#15
Mohammad Javed Ali, Martin Schicht, Jens Heichel, Siva Kumar Nadimpalli, Friedrich Paulsen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of the mucopeptide concretions obtained from the lacrimal sac. METHODS: Mucopeptide concretions obtained from the lacrimal sacs of 10 patients during a dacryocystorhinostomy were immediately fixed for electron microscopic analysis. The surfaces were studied separately and longitudinal and transverse ultra-thin sections were obtained at different levels and all were studied using the standard protocols of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
April 26, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691631/lovastatin-synergizes-with-itraconazole-against-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-through-the-regulation-on-ergosterol-biosynthesis-pathway
#16
Yujie Zhou, Hong Yang, Xuedong Zhou, Hongke Luo, Fan Tang, Jin Yang, Gil Alterovitz, Lei Cheng, Biao Ren
The increase of fungal infectious diseases and lack of safe and efficacious antifungal drugs result in the urgent need of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we repurposed the lovastatin (LOV) as a synergistic antifungal potentiator to itraconazole (ITZ) against Candida albicans planktonic cells and biofilms in vitro for the first time. Mutants from ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were employed and key gene expression profiles of ergosterol pathway were also measured. LOV single treatment was unable to inhibit C...
April 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684195/a-confocal-microscopy-based-method-to-monitor-extracellular-ph-in-fungal-biofilms
#17
Sebastian Schlafer, Anja Kamp, Javier E Garcia
pH in fungal biofilms is important for a variety of fungal infections and industrial applications involving fungal biofilms, but to date, it has never been measured directly inside the biofilm matrix. In the present study, a new methodology was developed allowing for confocal microscopy based monitoring of extracellular pH inside fungal biofilms. Monospecies biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Cryptococcus neoformans were stained with the pH dependent ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4, imaged with a confocal microscope, and a digital image analysis procedure was developed to determine pH in the extracellular matrix...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683287/the-role-of-biofilms-in-onychomycosis
#18
Aditya K Gupta, Kelly A Foley
Onychomycosis is a difficult to treat fungal infection of the nails. The chronic nature of onychomycosis contributes to high recurrence rates and the difficulty in treating both dermatophyte and non- dermatophyte infections. It has been hypothesized that the formation of biofilms, sessile, multicellular communities of fungi surrounded by a protective extracellular matrix, allow for fungi to evade current antifungal therapies and contribute to observed antifungal resistance. This review presents the experimental evidence that has accumulated in recent years implicating biofilms in the pathogenesis of onychomycosis...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681390/the-skin-commensal-yeast-malassezia-globosa-thwarts-bacterial-biofilms-to-benefit-the-host
#19
Giuseppe Ianiri, Joseph Heitman, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia are abundant, lipid-dependent, commensal yeasts in the skin microbiome that also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders. Malassezia genomes encode myriad lipases and proteases thought to mediate lipid utilization and pathogenesis. Li et al. report the biochemical characterization of a unique secreted aspartyl protease produced by Malassezia globosa, MgSAP1, and demonstrate its active role in hindering biofilm formation of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Because biofilms are an established virulence attribute of S...
May 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678464/biofilm-inhibition-and-anti-candida-activity-of-a-cationic-lipo-benzamide-molecule-with-twin-nonyl-chain
#20
Tushar Jain, Prathap Reddy Muktapuram, Komal Sharma, Owk Ravi, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Surendar Reddy Bathula, Dibyendu Banerjee
A series of cationic lipo-benzamide compounds with varying lengths of hydrocarbon chains (C2M-C18M) were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Four compounds harbouring 8-11 hydrocarbon chains demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of fungal cell growth with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ≤6.2 µg ml-1 . The most active compound (C9M) inhibited growth of both Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and is equally active against pairs of azole sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C...
April 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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