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Fungal biofilm

Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Barbara Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Przemysław Bernat, Sylwia Różalska
Due to low efficacy of classic antimicrobial drugs, finding new active preparations attracts much attention. In this study an innovative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method was applied to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using filamentous fungi Metarhizium robertsii biomass waste. It was shown that these NPs possess prominent antifungal effects against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis reference strains. Further detailed studies were performed on C. albicans ATCC 90028. AgNPs kill curve (CFU method and esterase-mediated reduction of fluorescein diacetate); fractionally inhibitory concentration index (FICI) with fluconazole (FLC); effect on fungal cell membrane permeability (propidium iodide (PI) staining), membrane lipids profile (HPLC-MS), yeast morphotypes and intracellular reactive oxygen species level (H2DCFDA probe) were investigated...
2018: PloS One
Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Rajendra H Patil, Firoz A Kalam Khan, Kaivalya Jadhav, Manoj Damale, Siddique Akber Ansari, Hamad M Alkahtani, Azmat Ali Khan, Shantanu D Shinde, Rajesh Patil, Jaiprakash N Sangshetti
We report the synthesis of some new piperazine-sulphonamide linked Schiff bases as fungal biofilm inhibitors with antibacterial and antifungal potential. The biofilm inhibition result of Candida albicans proposed that the compounds 6b (IC50  = 32.1 μM) and 6j (IC50  = 31.4 μM) showed higher inhibitory activity than the standard fluconazole (IC50  = 40 μM). Compound 6d (MIC = 26.1 μg/mL) with a chloro group at the para position was found to be the most active antibacterial agent of the series against Bacillus subtilis when compared with the standard ciprofloxacin (MIC = 50 μg/mL)...
March 15, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Raza Aly, Tate Winter, Steve Hall, Tracey Vlahovic
Dermatophytoma is a little-known, difficult to treat fungal infection that complicates onychomycosis. First described by Roberts and Evans in the late 1990's, dermatophytoma presents as a dense concentration of fungal hyphae within or under the nail plate and is generally white or yellow/brown in color, and linear (streaks) or round (patches) in shape; primary etiologic organisms are dermatophytes. Oral antifungals have limited success in treating dermatophytoma owing to difficulties accessing and penetrating what is hypothesized to be a fungal biofilm...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Paweł Borowiecki, Patrycja Wińska, Maria Bretner, Małgorzata Gizińska, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Monika Staniszewska
Three out of 16 newly synthesized 1,3-dimethylxanthine derivatives (proxyphylline analogues) exhibited consistencies between antifungal and anticancer properties. Proxyphylline possessing 1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl (6) and polybrominated benzimidazole (41) or benzotriazole moiety (42) remained selectively cidal against Candida albicans (lg R ≥ 3 at conc. of 31, 36 and 20 μM, respectively) however not against normal mammalian Vero cell line in vitro (IC50  ≥ 280 μM) and Galleria mellonella in vivo...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yu Cao, Hualiang Pi, Pete Chandrangsu, Yongtao Li, Yuqi Wang, Han Zhou, Hanqin Xiong, John D Helmann, Yanfei Cai
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) provide an effective and environmentally sustainable method to protect crops against pathogens. The spore-forming Bacilli are attractive PGPR due to their ease of storage and application. Here, we characterized two rhizosphere-associated Bacillus velezensis isolates (Y6 and F7) that possess strong antagonistic activity against Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We identified three lipopeptide (LP) compounds (surfactin, iturin and fengycin) as responsible for the antimicrobial activity of these two strains...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toby Spribille
The term symbiosis was first used in biology to describe the 'living together' of fungi and algae in lichens. For much of the 20th century, the fungal partner was assumed to be invested with the ability to produce the lichen body plan in presence of a photosynthesizing partner. However, studies of fungal evolution have uncovered discordance between lichen symbiotic outcomes and genome evolution of the fungus. At the same time, evidence has emerged that the structurally important lichen cortex contains lichen-specific, single-celled microbes, suggesting it may function like a biofilm...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Marjan M Hashemi, Brett S Holden, Maddison F Taylor, John Wilson, Jordan Coburn, Brian Hilton, Tania Nance, Shawn Gubler, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Ceragenins were designed as non-peptide mimics of endogenous antimicrobial peptides, and they display broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities, including the ability to eradicate established biofilms. These features of ceragenins make them attractive potential therapeutics for persistent infections in the lung, including those associated with cystic fibrosis. A characteristic of an optimal therapeutic for use in the lungs and trachea is the exertion of potent antimicrobial activities without damaging the cilia that play a critical role in these tissues...
March 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hao Zhou, Guochen Wang, Minghuo Wu, Weiping Xu, Xuwang Zhang, Lifen Liu
A moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) effectively removes pollutants and even runs under extreme conditions. However, the pH shock resistance of a biofilm in MBBRs has been rarely reported. In this study, simulated phenol wastewater with acidic shock (pH 7.5-3.0) was used. In the pH shock phase, the phenol and COD removal efficiencies initially decreased and gradually increased to more than 90%. Microscopic studies showed that the superficial biofilm was mainly composed of fungi (yeasts) in the acidic pH shock phase...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tânia Raquel Rodrigues Grainha, Paula Alexandra da Silva Jorge, Martín Pérez-Pérez, Gael Pérez Rodríguez, Maria Olívia Baptista Oliveira Pereira, Anália Maria Garcia Lourenço
The complex virulence attributes of Candida albicans are an attractive target to exploit in the development of new antifungals and anti-virulence strategies to combat C. albicans infections. Particularly, quorum-sensing (QS) has been reported as critical for virulence regulation in C. albicans. This work presents two knowledge networks with up-to-date information about QS regulation and experimentally tested anti-QS and anti-virulence agents for C. albicans. A semi-automatic bioinformatics workflow that combines literature mining and expert curation was used to retrieve otherwise scattered information from the scientific literature...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Rhiannon L Wallace, Danielle L Hirkala, Louise M Nelson
The ability of <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i> isolates 1-112, 2-28, and 4-6, to control <i>Mucor piriformis</i> (Mucor rot) on 'Gala', 'McIntosh', 'Ambrosia', and 'Spartan' apples in commercial cold storage, and their possible mechanisms of action were investigated. Isolates 1-112 and 2-28, provided significant levels of disease control on 'McIntosh' and 'Spartan' apples, while isolate 4-6 provided control of Mucor rot on 'Gala' and 'Spartan' apples compared with control fruits after 15 weeks storage at 0°C...
March 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Ewelina Namiecinska, Marta Sobiesiak, Magdalena Malecka, Piotr Guga, Barbara Rozalska, Elzbieta Budzisz
Antibiotic resistance acquired by various bacterial fungal and viral pathogens poses therapeutic problems of increasing severity. Among the infections that are very difficult to treat, biofilm-associated cases are one of the most hazardous. Complex structure of a biofilm and unique physiology of the biofilm cells contribute to their extremely high resistance to environmental conditions, antimicrobial agents and the mechanisms of host immune response. Therefore, the biofilm formation, especially by multidrug-resistant pathogens, is a serious medical problem, playing a pivotal role in the development of chronic and recurrent infections...
February 28, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mafalda Cavalheiro, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal
Microbes have their own communication systems. Secretion and reception of chemical signaling molecules and ion-channels mediated electrical signaling mechanism are yet observed two special ways of information transmission in microbial community. In this article, we address the aspects of various crucial machineries which set the backbone of microbial cell-to-cell communication process such as quorum sensing mechanism (bacterial and fungal), quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation, gene expression, virulence, swarming, quorum quenching, role of noise in quorum sensing, mathematical models (therapy model, evolutionary model, molecular mechanism model and many more), synthetic bacterial communication, bacterial ion-channels, bacterial nanowires and electrical communication...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Virginia E Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J Krysan
Genetic interaction analysis is a powerful approach to the study of complex biological processes that are dependent on multiple genes. Because of the largely diploid nature of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans , genetic interaction analysis has been limited to a small number of large-scale screens and a handful for gene-by-gene studies. Complex haploinsufficiency, which occurs when a strain containing two heterozygous mutations at distinct loci shows a phenotype that is distinct from either of the corresponding single heterozygous mutants, is an expedient approach to genetic interactions analysis in diploid organisms...
February 22, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Jéssica Aparecida Vaz, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Daniel Assis Santos, Susana Johann
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic or primary fungal infection considered to be the most prevalent fatal fungal disease worldwide. Owing to the limited number of available drugs, it is necessary to search for novel antifungal compounds. In the present work, we assessed the antifungal efficacy of three thiazole derivatives (1, 2, and 3). We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate their effects on important virulence factors, such as capsule and biofilm formation. In addition, the phagocytosis index of murine macrophages exposed to compounds 1, 2, and 3 and the in vivo efficacy of 1, 2, and 3 in Galleria mellonella infected with Cryptococcus spp...
February 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Gargee Dhar Purkayastha, Preeti Mangar, Aniruddha Saha, Dipanwita Saha
The aim of the present study is to evaluate plant growth promoting and biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain ETR17 isolated from tea rhizosphere for the effective management of root rot disease in tea. Isolated bacterial culture ETR17 showed significant level of in vitro antagonism against nine different foliar and root pathogens of tea. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of ETR17 revealed the identity of the bacterium as Serratia marcescens. The bacterium was found to produce several hydrolytic enzymes like chitinase, protease, lipase, cellulase and plant growth promoting metabolites like IAA and siderophore...
2018: PloS One
Yu-Cheng Lin, Matthew D Sekedat, William Cole Cornell, Gustavo M Silva, Chinweike Okegbe, Alexa Price-Whelan, Christine Vogel, Lars E P Dietrich
Microbes in biofilms face the challenge of substrate limitation. In particular, cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing in the laboratory or during host colonization often become limited for oxygen. Previously we found that phenazines, antibiotics produced by P. aeruginosa , balance the intracellular redox state for cells in biofilms. Here, we show that genes involved in denitrification are induced in phenazine-null (Δ phz ) mutant biofilms grown under an aerobic atmosphere, even in the absence of nitrate...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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