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calcific aortic stenosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777507/rankl-expression-is-increased-in-circulating-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-calcific-aortic-stenosis
#1
Marcello Rattazzi, Elisabetta Faggin, Elisa Bertacco, Roberta Buso, Massimo Puato, Mario Plebani, Martina Zaninotto, Davide Condotta, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Leopoldo Pagliani, Giuseppe Tarantini, Sabino Iliceto, Elisa Covolo, Giuseppe Faggian, Francesco Onorati, Mikhail Dodonov, Alessandro Daniotti, Paola Pantano, Zoran Olivari, Giovanni Benfari, Paolo Pauletto
We aimed to investigate whether the expression of the OPG/RANK/RANKL triad in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and circulating levels of markers of ectopic mineralization (OPG, FGF-23, PPi) are modified in patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). We found that patients affected by CAVD (n = 50) had significantly higher circulating levels of OPG as compared to control individuals (p = 0.003). No differences between the two groups were found in FGF-23 and PPi levels. RANKL expression was higher in the PBMC from CAVD patients (p = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762932/pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-possible-cause-of-paradoxical-low-flow-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis
#2
Yuta Watanabe, Haruhiko Higashi, Katsuji Inoue, Jun Aono, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Shuntaro Ikeda
Paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS) is recognized as a subtype of aortic stenosis. A small left ventricular (LV) cavity with marked LV concentric remodeling leads to a reduced stroke volume in this condition. The case is reported of a paradoxical LFLG AS patient who was undergoing treatment for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and interstitial pneumonia associated with scleroderma. Echocardiography demonstrated enlargement of the right ventricle and a diminished LV cavity. Moreover, the aortic valve opening was restricted despite a preserved LV ejection fraction (61%)...
September 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752279/a-comprehensive-study-of-calcific-aortic-stenosis-from-rabbit-to-human-samples
#3
L Mourino-Alvarez, M Baldan-Martin, T Sastre-Oliva, M Martin-Lorenzo, A S Maroto, N Corbacho-Alonso, R Rincon, T Martin-Rojas, L F Lopez-Almodovar, G Alvarez-Llamas, F Vivanco, L R Padial, F de la Cuesta, M G Barderas
The global incidence of calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is increasing due, in part, to a growing elderly population, and poses a great challenge to public health because of the multiple comorbidities of these patients. Using a rabbit model of CAS, we sought to characterize protein alterations associated with calcified valve tissue that can be ultimately measured in plasma as non-invasive biomarkers of CAS.Aortic valves from healthy and mild stenotic rabbits were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and selected reaction monitoring was used to directly measure the differentially expressed proteins in plasma from the same rabbits to corroborate their potential as diagnostic indicators, and also in plasma from human subjects, to examine their translatability to the clinical setting...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731112/degenerative-mitral-stenosis-from-pathophysiology-to-challenging-interventional-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Marko Banovic, Mark DaCosta
Mitral stenosis (MS) is characterized by obstruction of left ventricular inflow as a result of narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. Although its prevalence has declined over the last decade, especially in developed countries, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality.  The most often cause of MS worldwide is still postrheumatic mitral valve disease. However, in developed countries, degenerative or calcific changes cause MS in a siginificant proportion of patients. Although the range of treatment for mitral valve disease has grown over the years in parallel with transcatheter therapies for aortic valve disease, these improvements in mitral valve disease therapy have experienced slower development...
April 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721704/workup-and-management-of-patients-with-paradoxical-low-flow-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis
#5
REVIEW
Mohamed-Salah Annabi, Marine Clisson, Marie-Annick Clavel, Philippe Pibarot
About 60% of patients with paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient (PLF-LG) aortic stenosis (AS) have a severe disease that justifies aortic valve replacement (AVR). The first step in patients with symptomatic PLF AS should be to rule out measurement errors and treat hypertension. The second step is to distinguish pseudo-severe from true severe AS (TSAS). The third step is to select the optimal treatment modality at the right time. Regarding the second step, projected aortic valve area calculated using stress echocardiography is superior to traditional severity criteria (AVA < 1...
May 2, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713180/calcification-score-versus-arterial-stenosis-grading-comparison-of-two-ct-based-methods-for-risk-assessment-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-esophagectomy-and-gastric-pull-up
#6
De-Hua Chang, Sebastian Brinkmann, Lucy Smith, Ingrid Becker, Wolfgang Schroeder, Arnulf H Hoelscher, Stefan Haneder, David Maintz, Judith Eva Spiro
Purpose: Anastomotic leakage is a major surgical complication following esophagectomy and gastric pull-up. Specific risk factors such as celiac trunk (TC) stenosis and high calcification score of the aorta have been identified, but no data are available on their relative prognostic values. This retrospective study aimed to compare and evaluate calcification score versus stenosis quantification with regards to prognostic impact on anastomotic leakage. Patients and methods: Preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans of 164 consecutive patients with primary esophageal cancer were evaluated by two radiologists to apply a calcification score (0-3 scale) assessing the aorta, the celiac axis and the right and left postceliac arteries...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701397/syphilitic-aortitis-diagnosis-in-clinical-setting
#7
Bruno Fernandes, Arsénio Santos, Lina Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular syphilis can manifest as aortic aneurysms, aortic regurgitation and coronary ostial stenosis. Tertiary syphilis was the most commom reported cause of thoracic aortic aneurysm in the pre-antibiotic era, contributing to 5- 10% of cardiovascular deaths. However, in the 21st century, it has virtually disappered from the devoloping nations. Tertiay syphilis may develop in about one third of cases of untreated syphilis. In the pre-penicilin era, it was calculated that cardiovascular syphilis was responsible for 10-15% of clinical syphilis...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701358/carotid-stenosis-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#8
Pedro Pinto Sousa, Gabriela Teixeira, João Gonçalves, Carlos Veiga, Pedro Sá Pinto, Pedro Brandão, Alexandra Canedo, Luis Vouga, Rui Almeida
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke is a potential perioperative complication after an open heart surgery (OHS). Whether a carotid stenosis or occlusion is associated with an increased risk of perioperative stroke in patients or just a risk factor has been a concern of intense debate in the literature. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients submitted to OHS between January and December2016 with known asymptomatic carotid disease. The data from 85 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or both was collected...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662315/pitfalls-in-the-ankle-brachial-index-and-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity
#9
Dai Ato
Background: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are indices of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. The Japan-made measuring devices of those indices have spread widely because of their convenience and the significance of the parameters. However, studies that comprehensively discuss the various pitfalls in using these indices are not available. Methods: This study presents several representative pitfalls in using the ABI and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) by showing the result sheets of the device, "the Vascular Profiler"...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652429/successful-rotational-atherectomy-for-abdominal-aortic-stenosis-with-severe-calcification-in-a-patient-treated-with-transfemoral-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#10
Toru Naganuma, Hiroyoshi Kawamoto, Hirokazu Onishi, Sunao Nakamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629555/transcatheter-valve-with-a-hollow-balloon-for-aortic-valve-insufficiency
#11
Jacques Scherman, Braden van Breda, Harish Appa, Carel Heerden, Chima Ofoegbu, Deon Bezuidenhout, Peter Zilla
During the past decade transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized our approach to heart valve disease. Although largely applied to patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis, there is an unmet clinical need to also treat patients with aortic valve insufficiency in patients with non-calcific aortic valve disorders. The following Techno-College tutorial demonstrates our pre-clinical experience with a novel non-occlusive, self-homing TAVI system, developed with Strait Access Technologies, that we hope will improve outcomes for treatment of non-calcific aortic valve insufficiency...
February 26, 2018: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614432/pathological-significance-of-lipoprotein-a-in-aortic-valve-stenosis
#12
Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Qutayba Hamid, Ahmad Mardini, Ateeque Siddique, Louis Philippe Aguilar-Gonzalez, Georges Makhoul, Hossny Alaws, Jacques Genest, George Thanassoulis, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) affects a significant percentage of our elderly population and younger subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been associated with AVS in recent genetic studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Lp(a) on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs), and to identify apolipoproteins and phospholipids in diseased human aortic valves. METHODS: We examined the effects of Lp(a) on HAVICs mineralization and oxidant formation...
March 15, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582395/inhibition-of-aortic-valve-calcification-by-local-delivery-of-zoledronic-acid-an-experimental-study
#13
Andreas Synetos, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Maria Drakopoulou, Iosif Koutagiar, George Benetos, Rafail Kotronias, Nikolaos Anousakis-Vlachochristou, George Latsios, Antonis Karanasos, George Agrogiannis, Marinos Metaxas, Konstantinos Stathogiannis, Aggelos Papanikolaou, Alexandros Georgakopoulos, Nikoleta Pianou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Efstratios Patsouris, Apostolos Papalois, Dennis Cokkinos, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
The aim of this study was to evaluate in an experimental model of aortic valve (AV) stenosis the effectiveness of zoledronate on the inhibition of calcification. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were placed on vitamin D-enriched diet for 3 weeks. All animals underwent PET/CT at baseline and before euthanasia to assess calcification. Thereafter, the AVs of eight animals were treated with local delivery of 500 μg/l zoledronate. A placebo mixture was administered in the remaining eight animals. Standardized uptake values were corrected for blood pool activity, providing mean tissue to background ratios (TBRmean)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561783/bicuspid-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-the-effect-of-vitamin-k2-on-calcification-using-18-f-sodium-fluoride-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-the-basik2-rationale-and-trial-design
#14
Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561453/prognostic-value-of-area-of-calcified-aortic-valve-by-2-dimensional-echocardiography-in-asymptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis-patients-with-preserved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction
#15
Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Masaaki Takeuchi, Yasufumi Nagata, Masaki Izumo, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Fen-Chiung Lin, Yutaka Otsuji
We hypothesized that area of calcified aortic valve (ACAV) measured by 2D echocardiography (2DE) can predict future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS).Multidetector computed tomography determined aortic valve calcification load is strongly associated with AS severity but has risks for radiation exposure. Quantification of ACAV by transthoracic 2DE is simple and convenient but its clinical utility has not been extensively studied.We measured ACAV in 124 asymptomatic severe AS patients (80 ± 9 years, 45 males) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548665/comparative-analysis-of-balloon-versus-mechanically-expandable-transcatheter-heart-valves-considering-landing-zone-calcification
#16
Niklas Schofer, Florian Deuschl, Gerhard Schön, Moritz Seiffert, Matthias Linder, Andreas Schaefer, Johannes Schirmer, Edith Lubos, Hermann Reichenspurner, Stefan Blankenberg, Lenard Conradi, Ulrich Schäfer
BACKGROUND: The balloon-expandable Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) and the mechanically-expandable Lotus valve (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) are established devices for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We sought to compare both transcatheter heart valves (THV) under consideration of the extent of THV landing zone calcification. METHODS: This retrospective analysis includes consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with Sapien 3 (S3; n=212) or Lotus (n=61) THV via transfemoral access...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539583/increased-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-in-response-to-a-diabetogenic-procalcific-diet-in-the-ldlr-apob-100-100-mouse-model
#17
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
February 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525246/evaluation-and-management-of-aortic-stenosis-for-the-emergency-clinician-an-evidence-based-review-of-the-literature
#18
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis is a common condition among older adults that can be associated with dangerous outcomes, due to both the disease itself and its influence on other conditions. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current emergency department (ED) evaluation and management of aortic stenosis. DISCUSSION: Aortic stenosis refers to significant narrowing of the aortic valve and can be caused by calcific disease, congenital causes, or rheumatic valvular disease...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522810/vascular-complications-in-the-sapien-3-era-continued-role-of-transapical-approach-to-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#19
William Toppen, William Suh, Olcay Aksoy, Peyman Benharash, Cayley Bowles, Richard J Shemin, Murray Kwon
With the introduction of the latest generation Sapien 3 (S3) transcatheter aortic valve, there has been a reduction in the usage of transapical (TA) approach for transcatheter aortic valve replacements in many centers. However, despite the smaller sheath size and the more streamlined delivery system, vascular complications continue to occur, especially in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Thus, our institution has maintained a stringent TA protocol aiming to prevent these complications. We hypothesize that this protocol has helped to reduce vascular complications and improve outcomes at our institution even in the S3 era...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520694/calcific-aortic-valve-disease-a-developmental-biology-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Punashi Dutta, Joy Lincoln
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to highlight the past and more current literature related to the multifaceted pathogenic programs that contribute to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) with a focus on the contribution of developmental programs. RECENT FINDINGS: Calcification of the aortic valve is an active process characterized by calcific nodule formation on the aortic surface leading to a less supple and more stiffened cusp, thereby limiting movement and causing clinical stenosis...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
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