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Chronic noncommunicable illnesses

Thais Moura Ribeiro do Valle Nascimento, Ken Resnicow, Marcia Nery, Alexandra Brentani, Elizabeth Kaselitz, Pooja Agrawal, Simanjit Mand, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes are escalating in low and middle-income countries such as Brazil. Scalable primary care-based interventions are needed to improve self-management and clinical outcomes of adults with diabetes. This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of training community health agents (CHAs) in Motivational Interviewing (MI)-based counseling for patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care center in São Paulo, Brazil...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Carlos Nunes, Ana Margarida Pereira, Mário Morais-Almeida
In recent decades, both asthma prevalence and incidence have been increasing worldwide, not only due to the genetic background, but mainly because of the effect of a wide number of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In many countries noncommunicable diseases, like asthma, are not yet considered a healthcare priority. This review will analyze and discuss disparities in asthma management in several countries and regions, such as access to healthcare human resources and medications, due to limited financial capacity to develop strategies to control and prevent this chronic disease...
2017: Asthma research and practice
Enrico Girardi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Laura Camoni, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Stefano Bonora, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Cingolani, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Silvia Adami, Luca Degli Esposti, Margherita Andretta
HIV disease has dramatically changed in the last two decades from a progressive, lethal disease to a chronic manageable condition. These changes are due to the availability of potent antiretroviral combination therapy, which also have the potential to contribute significantly to the control of the epidemic. Among persons living with HIV, incidence of immunosuppression-related opportunistic illnesses has clearly decreased, while an increase was observed in the prevalence of age-related noncommunicable comorbidities, including cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, bone and hepatic disease, due to chronic inflammatory state and to an overall aging of the population of persons with HIV...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Michael Sagner, Amy McNeil, Pekka Puska, Charles Auffray, Nathan D Price, Leroy Hood, Carl J Lavie, Ze-Guang Han, Zhu Chen, Samir Kumar Brahmachari, Bruce S McEwen, Marcelo B Soares, Rudi Balling, Elissa Epel, Ross Arena
Chronic diseases (i.e., noncommunicable diseases), mainly cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory diseases and type-2-diabetes, are now the leading cause of death, disability and diminished quality of life on the planet. Moreover, these diseases are also a major financial burden worldwide, significantly impacting the economy of many countries. Healthcare systems and medicine have progressively improved upon the ability to address infectious diseases and react to adverse health events through both surgical interventions and pharmacology; we have become efficient in delivering reactive care (i...
August 18, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Ebun Ladipo Bamgboye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
George A Atiim, Susan J Elliott
Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few studies exploring its relevance especially in the context of emerging allergic disorders in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this article, we address the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa through the lens of epidemiologic transition theory...
April 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Celia Landmann Szwarcwald, Nayara Lopes Gomes, Jarbas Barbosa Silva Júnior, Ademar Arthur Chioro Dos Reis
OBJECTIVE: To describe the major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Brazil, according to the information collected from individuals aged 18 years or older. METHODS: Data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, a transversal population-based study, were used. The proportions of each NCD were calculated and presented according to sex, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), with the absolute values. RESULTS: Of the total respondents, 45...
December 2015: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Stephanie Maximous, Laurence Huang, Alison Morris
There are myriad pulmonary conditions associated with HIV, ranging from acute infections to chronic noncommunicable diseases. The epidemiology of these diseases has changed significantly in the era of widespread antiretroviral therapy. Evaluation of the HIV-infected patient involves assessment of the severity of illness and a thorough yet efficient pursuit of definitive diagnosis, which may involve multiple etiologies simultaneously. Important clues to a diagnosis include medical and social history, demographic details such as travel and geography of residence, substance use, sexual practices, and domiciliary and incarceration status...
April 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Manolis Linardakis, Angeliki Papadaki, Emmanouil Smpokos, Katerina Micheli, Maria Vozikaki, Anastas Philalithis
INTRODUCTION: Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of illness and death worldwide; behavioral risk factors (BRFs) contribute to these diseases. We assessed the presence of multiple BRFs among European adults according to their physical and mental health status. METHODS: We used data from 26,026 adults aged 50 years or older from 11 countries that participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-2005). BRFs (overweight or obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and risky alcohol consumption) were assessed according to physical health (ie, presence of chronic diseases, disease symptoms, or limitations in activities of daily living) and mental health (depression) through multiple regression estimations...
2015: Preventing Chronic Disease
Avery DeVries, Donata Vercelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma and allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic noncommunicable diseases of childhood. Although epidemiologic studies suggest that asthma begins in the preschool years, the lack of firm diagnostic criteria to distinguish children who will wheeze only transiently during early-life lower respiratory illnesses from children who will wheeze persistently and develop asthma prevents pinpointing the time at which disease truly begins. Epigenetic mechanisms link gene regulation to environmental cues and developmental trajectories...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A Kautzky-Willer
Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways...
September 2014: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Norm R C Campbell, Mark L Niebylski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review demonstrates the need for enhancing strategic approaches to the prevention and control of hypertension, a global health issue. RECENT FINDINGS: An epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases is threatening national healthcare systems' sustainability and the economy of many countries. Increased blood pressure is the leading risk for premature death and disability and accounts for approximately 10% of healthcare spending. Four of nine recent United Nations' targets for reducing chronic noncommunicable diseases relate directly or indirectly to hypertension...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Lesley Jo Weaver, Emily Mendenhall
Medical anthropologists working with global health agendas must develop transdisciplinary frameworks to communicate their work. This article explores two similar but underutilized theoretical frameworks in medical anthropology, and discusses how they facilitate new insights about the relationships between epidemiological patterns and individual-level illness experiences. Two cases from our fieldwork in New Delhi and Chicago are presented to illustrate how syndemics and chronicity theories explain the epidemic problems of co-occurring depression and type 2 diabetes...
2014: Medical Anthropology
Marcello Tonelli
Over the last 4 decades, there has been tremendous growth in the number of long-term hemodialysis patients and kidney transplantation has been identified as the renal replacement modality of choice. These developments have been accompanied by substantial increases in the age and comorbid conditions of the typical dialysis patient, a general failure to identify treatments that prevent hard clinical outcomes in dialysis populations, and the recognition that patients and their physicians often have very different perspectives about which outcomes matter most...
January 2014: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
David J Hunter, K Srinath Reddy
The United Nations has held only two meetings of heads of state on a health-related issue. The first, in 2001, was on human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The second, in September 2011, was on noncommunicable diseases. Although noncommunicable diseases..
October 3, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Majid Ezzati, Elio Riboli
Except in eastern Europe and parts of Africa, mortality among adults has declined in most countries for decades. Lower rates of death from infectious diseases were the early driver of this improvement, but there have been subsequent declines in mortality from cardiovascular disease and some cancers...
September 5, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Young-Ho Khang
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study...
July 2013: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Urmila Deshmukh, Prachi Katre, Chittaranjan S Yajnik
The burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is shifting rapidly to low- and middle-income countries. It calls for a review of the classic 'dogma' of genetic predisposition, precipitated by adult lifestyle. The paradigm of early life origins of chronic disease has focused attention on maternal health and nutrition as major determinants of the health of the offspring. India has high burden of maternal ill health and also of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, offering unique opportunities to study the links between the two...
2013: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Deborah A Chyun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Nursing Research
You fa Wang, Hyunjung Lim, Yang Wu
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death globally, which kill more each year than all other causes combined. It is estimated that 63% of global total deaths were due to NCDs. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. China contributes the largest number of NCD patients and deaths. NCD rates have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past two decades in China and many other countries. Population-wide interventions can help reduce NCD burden and can be cost effective...
October 18, 2012: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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