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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#1
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077237/interplay-of-extracellular-matrix-and-leukocytes-in-lung-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert, Jason S Debley, Stephen R Reeves, William C Parks, Steven F Ziegler
During inflammation, leukocytes influx into lung compartments and interact with extracellular matrix (ECM). Two ECM components, versican and hyaluronan, increase in a range of lung diseases. The interaction of leukocytes with these ECM components controls leukocyte retention and accumulation, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and activation as part of the inflammatory phase of lung disease. In addition, bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts generate an ECM that is adherent for monocytes/macrophages...
December 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011624/association-of-estrogen-metabolism-with-breast-cancer-risk-in-different-cohorts-of-postmenopausal-women
#3
Joshua N Sampson, Roni T Falk, Catherine Schairer, Steven C Moore, Barbara J Fuhrman, Cher M Dallal, Doug C Bauer, Joanne F Dorgan, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng, Louise A Brinton, Mitchell H Gail, Regina G Ziegler, Xia Xu, Robert Hoover, Gretchen L Gierach
Endogenous estradiol and estrone are linked causally to increased risks of breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated multiple competing hypotheses for how metabolism of these parent estrogens may influence risk. Prediagnostic concentrations of estradiol, estrone, and 13 metabolites were measured in 1298 postmenopausal cases of breast cancer and 1524 matched controls in four separate patient cohorts. Median time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.4-12.7 years across the cohorts. Estrogen analytes were measured in serum or urine by liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry...
December 23, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002730/inhaled-fine-particles-induce-alveolar-macrophage-death-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-release-to-promote-inducible-bronchus-associated-lymphoid-tissue-formation
#4
Etsushi Kuroda, Koji Ozasa, Burcu Temizoz, Keiichi Ohata, Christine X Koo, Tomohiro Kanuma, Takato Kusakabe, Shingo Kobari, Masanori Horie, Yasuo Morimoto, Saeko Nakajima, Kenji Kabashima, Steven F Ziegler, Yoichiro Iwakura, Wataru Ise, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Takahiro Nagatake, Jun Kunisawa, Naoki Takemura, Satoshi Uematsu, Masayuki Hayashi, Taiki Aoshi, Kouji Kobiyama, Cevayir Coban, Ken J Ishii
Particulate pollution is thought to function as an adjuvant that can induce allergic responses. However, the exact cell types and immunological factors that initiate the lung-specific immune responses are unclear. We found that upon intratracheal instillation, particulates such as aluminum salts and silica killed alveolar macrophages (AMs), which then released interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and caused inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation in the lung. IL-1α release continued for up to 2 weeks after particulate exposure, and type-2 allergic immune responses were induced by the inhalation of antigen during IL-1α release and iBALT formation, even long after particulate instillation...
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941576/sedation-of-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-during-neuroimaging-effects-on-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity
#5
Muriëlle Kirsch, Pieter Guldenmund, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Athena Demertzi, Katherine Baquero, Lizette Heine, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Carol Di Perri, Erik Ziegler, Jean-François Brichant, Andrea Soddu, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys
BACKGROUND: To reduce head movement during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, post-coma patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) are frequently sedated with propofol. However, little is known about the effects of this sedation on the brain connectivity patterns in the damaged brain essential for differential diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging 3T data obtained over several years of scanning patients for diagnostic and research purposes, we employed a seed-based approach to examine resting state connectivity in higher-order (default mode, bilateral external control, and salience) and lower-order (auditory, sensorimotor, and visual) resting state networks and connectivity with the thalamus, in 20 healthy unsedated controls, 8 unsedated patients with DOC, and 8 patients with DOC sedated with propofol...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895126/versican-deficiency-significantly-reduces-lung-inflammatory-response-induced-by-polyinosine-polycytidylic-acid-stimulation
#6
Inkyung Kang, Ingrid A Harten, Mary Y Chang, Kathleen R Braun, Alyssa Sheih, Mary P Nivison, Pamela Y Johnson, Gail Workman, Gernot Kaber, Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Mervyn J Merrilees, Steven F Ziegler, Michael G Kinsella, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Viral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases, such as asthma, via mechanisms that are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly(I:C) stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815425/stat6-regulates-the-development-of-eosinophilic-versus-neutrophilic-asthma-in-response-to-alternaria-alternata
#7
Andrea C Valladao, Charles W Frevert, Lisa K Koch, Daniel J Campbell, Steven F Ziegler
Human asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the expression of both Th2 and Th17 cytokines. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown a reciprocal regulation between Th2 and Th17 pathways, suggesting a potential induction of neutrophil-promoting Th17 inflammation in the absence of a Th2 response. Alternaria alternata is a clinically relevant allergen that is associated with severe and fatal asthma exacerbations. Exposure to A. alternata is characterized by a predominant Th2 response, but can also induce the production of factors associated with Th17 responses (e...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639653/assessment-of-kinematics-and-electromyography-following-arthroscopic-single-tendon-rotator-cuff-repair
#8
Jessica M Fritz, Ryan R Inawat, Brooke A Slavens, John R McGuire, Dean W Ziegler, Sergey S Tarima, Steven I Grindel, Gerald F Harris
BACKGROUND: The increasing demand for rotator cuff (RC) repair patients to return to work as soon as they are physically able has led to exploration of when this is feasible. Current guidelines from our orthopedic surgery clinic recommend a return to work at 9 weeks postoperation. To more fully define capacity to return to work, the current study was conducted using a unique series of quantitative tools. To date, no study has combined 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis with electromyography (EMG) assessment during activities of daily living (ADLs), including desk tasks, and commonly prescribed rehabilitation exercise...
September 14, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598620/modified-high-molecular-weight-hyaluronan-promotes-allergen-specific-immune-tolerance
#9
John A Gebe, Koshika Yadava, Shannon M Ruppert, Payton Marshall, Paul Hill, Ben A Falk, Johanna M Sweere, Hongwei Han, Gernot Kaber, Carlos Medina, Katalin Mikecz, Steven F Ziegler, Swathi Balaji, Sundeep G Keswani, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez, Manish J Butte, Kari Nadeau, William A Altemeier, Neil Fanger, Paul L Bollyky
The extracellular matrix in asthmatic lungs contains abundant low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, and this is known to promote antigen presentation and allergic responses. Conversely, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), typical of uninflamed tissues, is known to suppress inflammation. We investigated whether HMW-HA can be adapted to promote tolerance to airway allergens. HMW-HA was thiolated to prevent its catabolism and was tethered to allergens via thiol linkages. This platform, which we call "XHA," delivers antigenic payloads in the context of antiinflammatory costimulation...
January 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587788/a-meta-analysis-of-multiple-myeloma-risk-regions-in-african-and-european-ancestry-populations-identifies-putatively-functional-loci
#10
Kristin A Rand, Chi Song, Eric Dean, Daniel J Serie, Karen Curtin, Xin Sheng, Donglei Hu, Carol Ann Huff, Leon Bernal-Mizrachi, Michael H Tomasson, Sikander Ailawadhi, Seema Singhal, Karen Pawlish, Edward S Peters, Cathryn H Bock, Alex Stram, David J Van Den Berg, Christopher K Edlund, David V Conti, Todd Zimmerman, Amie E Hwang, Scott Huntsman, John Graff, Ajay Nooka, Yinfei Kong, Silvana L Pregja, Sonja I Berndt, William J Blot, John Carpten, Graham Casey, Lisa Chu, W Ryan Diver, Victoria L Stevens, Michael R Lieber, Phyllis J Goodman, Anselm J M Hennis, Ann W Hsing, Jayesh Mehta, Rick A Kittles, Suzanne Kolb, Eric A Klein, Cristina Leske, Adam B Murphy, Barbara Nemesure, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Sara S Strom, Ravi Vij, Benjamin A Rybicki, Janet L Stanford, Lisa B Signorello, John S Witte, Christine B Ambrosone, Parveen Bhatti, Esther M John, Leslie Bernstein, Wei Zheng, Andrew F Olshan, Jennifer J Hu, Regina G Ziegler, Sarah J Nyante, Elisa V Bandera, Brenda M Birmann, Sue A Ingles, Michael F Press, Djordje Atanackovic, Martha J Glenn, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Brandt Jones, Guido Tricot, Thomas G Martin, Shaji K Kumar, Jeffrey L Wolf, Sandra L Deming Halverson, Nathaniel Rothman, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, S Vincent Rajkumar, Laurence N Kolonel, Stephen J Chanock, Susan L Slager, Richard K Severson, Nalini Janakiraman, Howard R Terebelo, Elizabeth E Brown, Anneclaire J De Roos, Ann F Mohrbacher, Graham A Colditz, Graham G Giles, John J Spinelli, Brian C Chiu, Nikhil C Munshi, Kenneth C Anderson, Joan Levy, Jeffrey A Zonder, Robert Z Orlowski, Sagar Lonial, Nicola J Camp, Celine M Vachon, Elad Ziv, Daniel O Stram, Dennis J Hazelett, Christopher A Haiman, Wendy Cozen
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European populations have identified genetic risk variants associated with multiple myeloma. METHODS: We performed association testing of common variation in eight regions in 1,318 patients with multiple myeloma and 1,480 controls of European ancestry and 1,305 patients with multiple myeloma and 7,078 controls of African ancestry and conducted a meta-analysis to localize the signals, with epigenetic annotation used to predict functionality...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401342/unique-and-shared-signaling-pathways-cooperate-to-regulate-the-differentiation-of-human-cd4-t-cells-into-distinct-effector-subsets
#11
Cindy S Ma, Natalie Wong, Geetha Rao, Akira Nguyen, Danielle T Avery, Kathryn Payne, James Torpy, Patrick O'Young, Elissa Deenick, Jacinta Bustamante, Anne Puel, Satoshi Okada, Masao Kobayashi, Ruben Martinez-Barricarte, Michael Elliott, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Jamila El Baghdadi, Yoshiyuki Minegishi, Aziz Bousfiha, Nic Robertson, Sophie Hambleton, Peter D Arkwright, Martyn French, Annaliesse K Blincoe, Peter Hsu, Dianne E Campbell, Michael O Stormon, Melanie Wong, Stephen Adelstein, David A Fulcher, Matthew C Cook, Polina Stepensky, Kaan Boztug, Rita Beier, Aydan Ikincioğullari, John B Ziegler, Paul Gray, Capucine Picard, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Tri Giang Phan, Bodo Grimbacher, Klaus Warnatz, Steven M Holland, Gulbu Uzel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Stuart G Tangye
Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291797/female-chromosome-x-mosaicism-is-age-related-and-preferentially-affects-the-inactivated-x-chromosome
#12
Mitchell J Machiela, Weiyin Zhou, Eric Karlins, Joshua N Sampson, Neal D Freedman, Qi Yang, Belynda Hicks, Casey Dagnall, Christopher Hautman, Kevin B Jacobs, Christian C Abnet, Melinda C Aldrich, Christopher Amos, Laufey T Amundadottir, Alan A Arslan, Laura E Beane-Freeman, Sonja I Berndt, Amanda Black, William J Blot, Cathryn H Bock, Paige M Bracci, Louise A Brinton, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Laurie Burdett, Julie E Buring, Mary A Butler, Federico Canzian, Tania Carreón, Kari G Chaffee, I-Shou Chang, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Chu Chen, Constance Chen, Kexin Chen, Charles C Chung, Linda S Cook, Marta Crous Bou, Michael Cullen, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Ti Ding, Jennifer Doherty, Eric J Duell, Caroline G Epstein, Jin-Hu Fan, Jonine D Figueroa, Joseph F Fraumeni, Christine M Friedenreich, Charles S Fuchs, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Mia M Gaudet, J Michael Gaziano, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Lynn Goldin, Alisa M Goldstein, Christopher A Haiman, Goran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Roger Henriksson, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, Chao A Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, David J Hunter, Amy Hutchinson, Mazda Jenab, Christoffer Johansen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Hee Nam Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young Tae Kim, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Woon-Puay Koh, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Peter Kraft, Vittorio Krogh, Robert C Kurtz, Andrea LaCroix, Qing Lan, Maria Teresa Landi, Loic Le Marchand, Donghui Li, Xiaolin Liang, Linda M Liao, Dongxin Lin, Jianjun Liu, Jolanta Lissowska, Lingeng Lu, Anthony M Magliocco, Nuria Malats, Keitaro Matsuo, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Lisa Mirabello, Lee Moore, Sara H Olson, Irene Orlow, Jae Yong Park, Ana Patiño-Garcia, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Loreall Pooler, Jennifer Prescott, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Francisco X Real, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Benjamin Rodriguez-Santiago, Avima M Ruder, Sharon A Savage, Fredrick Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Adeline Seow, Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Xin Sheng, Min-Ho Shin, Xiao-Ou Shu, Debra T Silverman, Margaret R Spitz, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel Stram, Ze-Zhong Tang, Philip R Taylor, Lauren R Teras, Geoffrey S Tobias, David Van Den Berg, Kala Visvanathan, Sholom Wacholder, Jiu-Cun Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Lucy Xia, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Kai Yu, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Regina G Ziegler, Luis A Perez-Jurado, Neil E Caporaso, Nathaniel Rothman, Margaret Tucker, Michael C Dean, Meredith Yeager, Stephen J Chanock
To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0...
June 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193440/endogenous-estrogens-estrogen-metabolites-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-postmenopausal-chinese-women
#13
Steven C Moore, Charles E Matthews, Xiao Ou Shu, Kai Yu, Mitchell H Gail, Xia Xu, Bu-Tian Ji, Wong-Ho Chow, Qiuyin Cai, Honglan Li, Gong Yang, David Ruggieri, Jennifer Boyd-Morin, Nathaniel Rothman, Robert N Hoover, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Regina G Ziegler
BACKGROUND: The role of estrogen metabolism in determining breast cancer risk and differences in breast cancer rates between high-incidence and low-incidence nations is poorly understood. METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of estradiol and estrone (parent estrogens) and 13 estrogen metabolites formed by irreversible hydroxylation at the C-2, C-4, or C-16 positions of the steroid ring in a nested case-control study of 399 postmenopausal invasive breast cancer case participants and 399 matched control participants from the population-based Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort...
October 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183651/correction-cd4-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilc-form-a-functionally-distinct-ilc-subset-that-is-increased-in-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Florence Roan, Thomas A Stoklasek, Elizabeth Whalen, Jerry A Molitor, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Jane H Buckner, Steven F Ziegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165713/acute-blockade-of-il-25-in-a-colitis-associated-colon-cancer-model-leads-to-increased-tumor-burden
#15
Tennille D Thelen, Ryan M Green, Steven F Ziegler
Chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract results in an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Epithelial cytokines, including interleukin-25 (IL-25), are produced in the colon and are critical for protection from parasites, but can also be pathogenic in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases and allergy. Whether IL-25 is involved in the progression from inflammation to cancer is still largely unexplored. Using a well-established murine model for colitis-induced colon cancer; we aimed to determine the role of IL-25 in this process...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140479/division-of-labour-by-cd4-t-helper-cells
#16
Steven F Ziegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126823/subepithelial-accumulation-of-versican-in-a-cockroach-antigen-induced-murine-model-of-allergic-asthma
#17
Stephen R Reeves, Gernot Kaber, Alyssa Sheih, Georgiana Cheng, Mark A Aronica, Mervyn J Merrilees, Jason S Debley, Charles W Frevert, Steven F Ziegler, Thomas N Wight
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important contributor to the asthmatic phenotype. Recent studies investigating airway inflammation have demonstrated an association between hyaluronan (HA) accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration of the airways. The ECM proteoglycan versican interacts with HA and is important in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes during inflammation. We investigated the role of versican in the pathogenesis of asthmatic airway inflammation. Using cockroach antigen (CRA)-sensitized murine models of allergic asthma, we demonstrate increased subepithelial versican in the airways of CRA-treated mice that parallels subepithelial increases in HA and leukocyte infiltration...
June 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106789/mtorc2-mediates-cxcl12-induced-angiogenesis
#18
Mary E Ziegler, Michaela M S Hatch, Nan Wu, Steven A Muawad, Christopher C W Hughes
The chemokine CXCL12, through its receptor CXCR4, positively regulates angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation. However, the relevant downstream signaling pathways in EC have not been defined. Similarly, the upstream activators of mTORC2 signaling in EC are also poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CXCL12 regulation of angiogenesis requires mTORC2 but not mTORC1. We find that CXCR4 signaling activates mTORC2 as indicated by phosphorylation of serine 473 on Akt and does so through a G-protein- and PI3K-dependent pathway...
July 2016: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934097/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-improves-survival-and-reduces-inflammation-in-sepsis
#19
Adrian M Piliponsky, Asha Lahiri, Phuong Truong, Morgan Clauson, Nicholas J Shubin, Hongwei Han, Steven F Ziegler
The mechanisms that contribute to homeostasis of the immune system in sepsis are largely unknown. One study suggests a potential detrimental role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in sepsis; however, the immune-regulatory effects of TSLP on myeloid cells within the intestinal microenvironment suggest the contrary. Our objective was to clarify TSLP's role in sepsis. Cecal ligation and puncture was performed in mice with total or myeloid-specific deficiency in the TSLP receptor (TSLPR). Survival was monitored closely, peritoneal fluids and plasma were analyzed for markers of inflammation, and myeloid cell numbers and their ability to produce inflammatory mediators was determined...
August 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882250/contemplating-autoimmunity-in-the-aegean-islands
#20
Lucy S K Walker, Steven Ziegler, Burkhard Becher
The Greek island of Crete became host to lively discussions on immunoregulation as experts from around the world gathered for the 7th Aegean Conference on Autoimmunity in September 2015.
March 2016: Nature Immunology
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