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Urothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724419/real-life-clinical-practice-results-with-vinflunine-in-patients-with-relapsed-platinum-treated-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-an-italian-multicenter-study-movie-goirc-01-2014
#1
Rodolfo Passalacqua, Silvia Lazzarelli, Maddalena Donini, Rodolfo Montironi, Rosa Tambaro, Ugo De Giorgi, Sandro Pignata, Raffaella Palumbo, Giovanni Luca Ceresoli, Gianluca Del Conte, Giuseppe Tonini, Franco Morelli, Franco Nolè, Stefano Panni, Ermanno Rondini, Annalisa Guida, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Laura Doni, Elisa Iezzi, Caterina Caminiti
BACKGROUND: Vinflunine is the only chemotherapeutic agent shown to improve survival in platinum-refractory patients with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) in a phase III clinical trial, which led to product registration for this indication in Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of vinflunine and to evaluate the prognostic significance of risk factors in a large, unselected cohort of patients with metastatic TCCU treated according to routine clinical practice...
July 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716122/systematic-evaluation-of-oligodeoxynucleotide-binding-and-hybridization-to-modified-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Anika Kaufmann, Silke Hampel, Christiane Rieger, David Kunhardt, Darja Schendel, Susanne Füssel, Bernd Schwenzer, Kati Erdmann
BACKGROUND: In addition to conventional chemotherapeutics, nucleic acid-based therapeutics like antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN) represent a novel approach for the treatment of bladder cancer (BCa). An efficient delivery of AS-ODN to the urothelium and then into cancer cells might be achieved by the local application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). In the present study, pristine MWCNT and MWCNT functionalized with hydrophilic moieties were synthesized and then investigated regarding their physicochemical characteristics, dispersibility, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and mucoadhesive properties...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693848/does-penile-tourniquet-application-alter-bacterial-adhesion-to-rat-urethral-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Ozlem Boybeyi-Turer, Birgul Kacmaz, Esra Arat, Pınar Atasoy, Ucler Kisa, Yasemin Dere Gunal, Mustafa Kemal Aslan, Tutku Soyer
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of penile tourniquet (PT) application on bacterial adhesion to urothelium. METHODS: Fifty-six rats were allocated into control group (CG), sham group (SG), PT group (PTG). No intervention was applied in CG. A 5mm-length urethral repair was performed in SG and PTG. In PTG, a 10-min duration of PT was applied during the procedure and the tissue oxygenation monitor was used to adjust the same degree of ischemia in all subjects. Samples were examined for wound healing parameters and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, eNOS, e-selectin, and ICAM-1antibodies...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689864/long-term-complications-arising-from-bowel-interposition-in-the-urinary-tract
#4
REVIEW
Alberto Martini, Donata Villari, Giulio Nicita
After radical cystectomy or pathologies affecting the ureter(s), bowel segments can be employed to restore the natural urine flow or to create an external urinary diversion. Nevertheless, the interposition of bowel segments in the urinary tract is not devoid of complications. In fact, bowel's microstructure differs from the urothelium; specifically its mucosa is aimed at reabsorption, rather than storage. The aim of this paper is to revise the pathophysiology of complications related to bowel's mucosal properties...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668578/computer-assisted-three-dimensional-tracking-of-sensory-innervation-in-the-murine-bladder-mucosa-with-two-photon-microscopy
#5
Anna Schueth, Bart Spronck, Marc A M J van Zandvoort, Gommert A van Koeveringe
A strong association between functional bladder disorders and bladder sensation is well-known, with a relationship between malfunctioning detrusor muscle and abnormal sensation arising from the sub-urothelium and the lamina propria (LP), has been suggested. However, the exact underlying pathophysiology of these bladder disorders is not completely understood. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge on sensory innervation of the urinary bladder in order to understand the neural network function in healthy and diseased bladder...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655527/changes-in-adenosine-triphosphate-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-urothelium-of-benign-prostate-hyperplasia-in-patients-with-detrusor-underactivity
#6
Kang Jun Cho, Jun Sung Koh, Jinbong Choi, Joon Chul Kim
PURPOSE: We investigated changes in the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) in the urothelium of detrusor underactivity (DU) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 men who planned to undergo surgical treatment for BPH. Patients whose bladder contractility index (BCI) was less than 100 were assigned to the DU group (n = 15), while patients whose BCI was more than 100 were assigned to the no DU group (n = 15)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646909/the-morphological-regeneration-and-functional-restoration-of-bladder-defects-by-a-novel-scaffold-and-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-a-rat-augmentation-model
#7
Qiong Wang, Dong-Dong Xiao, Hao Yan, Yang Zhao, Shi Fu, Juan Zhou, Zhong Wang, Zhe Zhou, Ming Zhang, Mu-Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: Due to the multilineage differentiation ability and paracrine role of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for bladder defect repair, various scaffolds have been applied in combination with ASCs to promote bladder regeneration and restore bladder function. However, the low survival rate of ASCs and the difficulty of promoting bladder functional recovery are still unsolved. To explore these problems, we investigated the feasibility of a novel scaffold seeded with ASCs in a rat model of bladder augmentation...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638274/hypoxia-regulated-microrna-210-overexpression-is-associated-with-tumor-development-and-progression-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#8
Hung-Lung Ke, Wei-Ming Li, Hui-Hui Lin, Wei-Chi Hsu, Ya-Ling Hsu, Lin-Li Chang, Chun-Nung Huang, Ching-Chia Li, Hsin-Ping Chang, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Chien-Feng Li, Wen-Jeng Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia has been shown to facilitate tumor progression. Hypoxia-regulated microRNA-210 (miR-210) may play an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of miR-210 expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). METHODS: Eighty-three UTUC patients participated in this study. All of them provided cancer tissue samples and 50 of them provided non-cancerous urothelium samples. Clinicopathologic data were collected by reviewing medical records...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637487/the-nf1-somatic-mutational-landscape-in-sporadic-human-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Charlotte Philpott, Hannah Tovell, Ian M Frayling, David N Cooper, Meena Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia...
June 21, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627636/formulation-and-characterization-of-egcg-for-the-treatment-of-superficial-bladder-cancer
#10
Katarzyna Dettlaff, Maciej Stawny, Magdalena Ogrodowczyk, Anna Jelińska, Waldemar Bednarski, Dorota Wątróbska-Świetlikowska, Rick W Keck, Omar A Khan, Ibrahim H Mostafa, Jerzy Jankun
In the United States, the annual incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 70,000 new cases, with a mortality rate of approximately 15,000/year. The most common subtype (70%) of bladder cancer is superficial, namely hte non-muscle invasive disease form limited to the urothelium. The rate of progression and recurrence is up to 40 and 70%, respectively. Urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder is typically treated with transurethral resection. The cancerous cells can float onto the adjacent epithelium, increasing the risk of recurrence...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609582/mild-heating-and-reduction-of-bladder-spontaneous-contractions
#11
Darryl G Kitney, Rita I Jabr, Bahareh Vahabi, Christopher H Fry
OBJECTIVES: To measure the effect of external heating on bladder wall contractile function, histological structure and expression of proteins related to tissue protection and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro preparations of bladder wall and ex vivo perfused pig bladders were heated from 37°C to 42, 46 and 50°C for 15 minutes. Isolated preparations were heated by radiant energy and perfused bladders by altering perfusate temperature. Spontaneous contractions or pressure variations were recorded, as well as responses to the muscarinic agonist carbachol or motor nerve excitation in vitro during heating...
June 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592436/bladder-fibrosis-during-outlet-obstruction-is-triggered-through-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-the-production-of-il-1%C3%AE
#12
Francis Monty Hughes, Stephanie J Sexton, Huixia Jin, Vihasa Govada, J Todd Purves
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) triggers inflammation in the bladder through the NLRP3 inflammasome. BOO also activates fibrosis, which is largely responsible for the decompensation of the bladder in the chronic state. Because fibrosis can be driven by inflammation, we have explored a role for NLRP3 (and IL-1β produced by NLRP3) in the activation and progression of BOO-induced fibrosis. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) control, 2) sham, 3) BOO + Vehicle, 4) BOO + the NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide or 5) BOO + the IL-1β receptor antagonist anakinra...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588015/intravesical-bcg-induces-cd4-t-cell-expansion-in-an-immune-competent-model-of-bladder-cancer
#13
Max Kates, Thomas Nirschl, Nikolai A Sopko, Hotaka Matsui, Christina M Kochel, Leonardo O Reis, George J Netto, Mohammad Hoque, Noah M Hahn, David J McConkey, Alex S Baras, Charles G Drake, Trinity J Bivalacqua
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is the standard of care in treating non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, yet its mechanism of action remains elusive. Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been implicated in BCG activity. Although prior research has indirectly demonstrated the importance of T cells and shown a rise in CD4(+) T cells in bladder tissue after BCG, T-cell subpopulations have not been fully characterized. We investigated the relationship between effector and regulatory T cells in an immune competent, clinically relevant rodent model of bladder cancer...
July 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579283/optimizing-management-of-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Matthew T Campbell, Amishi Y Shah, Surena F Matin, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke
Upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) is a rare cancer of the urothelium, comprising only a fraction of cases as compared to urothelial tumors of the bladder. As a result, systemic treatment approaches in bladder cancer are often applied to patients with UTUC. Given the anatomical location of these tumors, the age, the comorbid conditions of these patients with UTUC, and the need for radical nephroureterectomy for treatment, most patients have substantial impairment of renal reserve. There is growing evidence for the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy in this disease...
June 1, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560313/urothelial-tight-junction-barrier-dysfunction-sensitizes-bladder-afferents
#15
Nicolas Montalbetti, Anna C Rued, Stefanie N Taiclet, Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann, Marcelo D Carattino
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic voiding disorder that presents with pain in the urinary bladder and surrounding pelvic region. A growing body of evidence suggests that an increase in the permeability of the urothelium, the epithelial barrier that lines the interior of the bladder, contributes to the symptoms of IC/BPS. To examine the consequence of increased urothelial permeability on pelvic pain and afferent excitability, we overexpressed in the urothelium claudin 2 (Cldn2), a tight junction (TJ)-associated protein whose message is significantly upregulated in biopsies of IC/BPS patients...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560089/characterization-of-a-murine-model-of-bioequivalent-bladder-wound-healing-and-repair-following-subtotal-cystectomy
#16
Mona Zarifpour, Karl-Erik Andersson, Sneha S Kelkar, Aaron Mohs, Cathy Mendelsohn, Kerry Schneider, Frank Marini, George J Christ
Previous work demonstrated restoration of a bioequivalent bladder within 8 weeks of removing the majority of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy or STC) in rats. The goal of the present study was to extend our investigations of bladder repair to the murine model, to harness the power of mouse genetics to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed robust bladder regrowth. Female C57 black mice underwent STC, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-STC, bladder repair and function were assessed via cystometry, ex vivo pharmacologic organ bath studies, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554752/diagnostic-utility-of-ki-67-immunohistochemistry-in-small-endoscopic-biopsies-of-the-ureter-and-renal-pelvis
#17
Yuichi Koyama, Teppei Morikawa, Jimpei Miyakawa, Yu Miyama, Tohru Nakagawa, Yukio Homma, Masashi Fukayama
Diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in ureteroscopic biopsies is challenging. Therefore, an immunohistochemical marker that can differentiate between malignant and benign urothelium and predict final pathological features is necessary. In this study, we investigated Ki-67 expression in 26 ureteroscopic biopsies of the ureter and renal pelvis diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma (UC) and in 13 biopsies with non-neoplastic urothelium, using digital image analysis. The median Ki-67 labeling index was 1...
April 20, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554536/succinate-increased-in-metabolic-syndrome-activates-gpr91-receptor-signaling-in-urothelial-cells
#18
Abubakr H Mossa, Monica Velasquez Flores, Philippe G Cammisotto, Lysanne Campeau
Metabolic syndrome is associated with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and increased circulating levels of succinate, an intermediate of the Krebs cycle. The urothelium is an essential regulator of bladder muscle contraction. This study aimed to determine if GPR91, the succinate receptor, is expressed and functional in the bladder. Urothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were cultured and characterized. PCR revealed that urothelial cells express GPR91, twice as much as SMCs. Incubation of cells with succinate stimulated phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in urothelial cells...
May 26, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551011/urothelial-acetylcholine-involvement-in-atp-induced-contractile-responses-of-the-rat-urinary-bladder
#19
Johanna Stenqvist, Michael Winder, Thomas Carlsson, Patrik Aronsson, Gunnar Tobin
Both acetylcholine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) are released from the urothelium. In in vivo experiments ATP has been shown to evoke contractile responses that are significantly reduced by atropine. Currently, we aimed to examine the cholinergic part of the ATP-evoked contractile response of normal and inflamed (cyclophosphamide-treated rats) bladders. A whole bladder preparation that enabled drug administration either outside or inside the urinary bladder was used. The responses were examined in bladders from control and cyclophosphamide-treated rats that were either intact or urothelium-denuded...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545586/disulfide-high-mobility-group-box-1-causes-bladder-pain-through-bladder-toll-like-receptor-4
#20
Fei Ma, Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Katherine L Meyer-Siegler, Karin N Westlund, David E Hunt, Pedro L Vera
BACKGROUND: Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Understanding the mechanism of bladder pain is important, particularly when the pain is not accompanied by bladder pathology. Stimulation of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the urothelium results in bladder pain through release of urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HGMB1 has two functionally active redox states (disulfide and all-thiol) and it is not known which form elicits bladder pain...
May 25, 2017: BMC Physiology
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