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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349669/positive-correlation-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcome-in-bladder-cancer-patients
#1
R Singh, A Mandhani, V Agrawal, Minal Garg
Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334289/the-extracellular-matrix-degrading-protein-adamts5-is-expressed-in-the-nuclei-of-urothelial-cells-in-healthy-rats
#2
Dick Delbro, Lena Hallsberg, Ralph Peeker, Nikolai Scherbak, Magnus Fall, Rebecka Arnsrud Godtman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether protein expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading protease ADAMTS5 can be demonstrated in the urinary bladder of healthy rats, and, if so, to determine the localization of this enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted with eight inbred male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ADAMTS5 in the urinary bladder. Negative controls were established by either excluding the primary antibody or applying the antibody after it had been preabsorbed with its immunogenic peptide...
January 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323757/differentiation-associated-urothelial-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase-predicates-the-xenobiotic-metabolising-activity-of-luminal-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancers
#3
Simon C Baker, Volker M Arlt, Radek Indra, Madeleine Joel, Marie Stiborova, Ian Eardley, Niaz Ahmad, Wolfgang Otto, Maximilian Burger, Peter Rubenwolf, David H Phillips, Jennifer Southgate
Extra-hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics by epithelial tissues has evolved as a self-defence mechanism but has potential to contribute to the local activation of carcinogens. Bladder epithelium (urothelium) is bathed in excreted urinary toxicants and pro-carcinogens. This study reveals how differentiation affects cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and the role of NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcripts were inducible in normal human urothelial (NHU) cells maintained in both undifferentiated and functional barrier-forming differentiated states in vitro...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323081/primary-signet-cell-adenocarcinoma-of-bladder
#4
Prateek Kinra, S P Rashmi, Aftab Alam, Harkirat Singh, S C Dash
Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323077/epidermoid-cyst-of-the-renal-pelvis-masquerading-as-malignancy
#5
Dinesh Pradhan, Gabriela Quiroga-Garza, Ronald Hrebinko, Rajiv Dhir, Anil V Parwani
Epidermoid cyst of the renal pelvis is exceptionally rare. The histogenetic mechanism has not been well characterized. Herein, we report a case of intrarenal epidermoid cyst in a 62-year-old woman who had undergone left nephrolithotomy for a staghorn calculus. She was being followed up for bilateral renal cysts when a complex mass was noted arising from the lower pole of the left kidney. Renal ultrasound showed a small left kidney with a solid vascular echogenic mass. A laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322793/mir-1-3p-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-regulating-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-in-bladder-cancer
#6
L Gao, P Yan, F F Guo, H J Liu, Z F Zhao
Recent studies have confirmed the existence of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in normal and cancerous urothelium. However, the corresponding mechanisms and upstream signal pathways of BDNF/TrkB have not been fully discovered. This study aimed to investigate the effects of miR-1-3p on bladder cancer (BC) by regulating BDNF-TrkB signal pathway. The expression of miR-1-3p and BDNF in BC tissues and cell lines were detected by Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) microarray analysis, RT-qPCR and western blot...
2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310594/the-impact-of-cathelicidin-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Ibrahim H Babikir, Elsir A Abugroun, Naser Eldin Bilal, Abdullah Ali Alghasham, Elmuataz Elmansi Abdalla, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: The defense mechanisms of the urinary tract are attributed mainly to the innate immune system and the urinary tract urothelium which represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens and maintaining sterility of the urinary tract. There are only a few publications regarding cathelicidin (LL-37) and a urinary tract infection (UTI). This study was done to investigate the plasma and urine levels of human LL-37 in patients with UTI. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Hospital, Sudan during the period from August 2014 to May 2017...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291392/urothelial-bladder-afferent-neurons-in-the-rat-are-anatomically-and-neurochemically-distinct-from-non-urothelial-afferents
#8
Buffie J Clodfelder-Miller, Hirosato Kanda, Jianguo G Gu, Judy R Creighton, Timothy J Ness, Jennifer J DeBerry
There is mounting evidence underscoring a role for the urothelium in urinary bladder sensation. Previous functional studies have identified bladder primary afferents with mechanosensitive properties suggesting urothelial innervation and/or communication. The current study identifies a group of urothelium-innervating afferent neurons in rat, and characterizes and compares the properties of these and non-urothelial afferent neuron populations. Lumbosacral (LS) primary afferent neurons were retrogradely labeled using intraparenchymal (IPar) microinjection or intravesical (IVes) infusion of tracer into the bladder...
December 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284441/expression-of-cannabinoid-1-and-2-receptors-and-the-effects-of-cannabinoid-1-and-2-receptor-agonists-on-detrusor-overactivity-associated-with-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-rats
#9
Sung Dae Kim, Kang Jun Cho, Joon Chul Kim
BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes in the expression of cannabinoid (CB) receptors and the effects of CB1 and CB2 agonists on detrusor overactivity (DO) associated with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) in each group. The control group comprised sham-operated rats. A animals in the BOO, CB1 agonist and CB2 agonist groups all underwent BOO surgery. Three weeks postoperatively, cystometrography (CMG) was performed on all rats...
December 29, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281667/urothelial-maxik-activity-regulates-mucosal-and-detrusor-metabolism
#10
Yi Wang, Gary G Deng, Kelvin P Davies
There is increasing evidence for a role of MaxiK potassium channel-activity in regulating the metabolism and intracellular signaling of non-contractile bladder mucosal tissues. At present however no studies have determined the impact of urothelial MaxiK-activity on overall bladder metabolism. To address this we have investigated the effect of bladder lumen instillation of the MaxiK inhibitor, iberiotoxin (IBTX), on mucosal and detrusor metabolism using metabolomics. Since IBTX does not cross plasma membranes, when instilled into the bladder lumen it would only effect urothelially expressed MaxiK-activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250796/xiap-overexpression-promotes-bladder-cancer-invasion-in-vitro-and-lung-metastasis-in-vivo-via-enhancing-nucleolin-mediated-rho-gdi%C3%AE-mrna-stability
#11
Yonghui Yu, Honglei Jin, Jiheng Xu, Jiayan Gu, Xin Li, Qipeng Xie, Haishan Huang, Jingxia Li, Zhongxian Tian, Guosong Jiang, Caiyi Chen, Feng He, Xue-Ru Wu, Chuanshu Huang
Our recent studies demonstrate that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is essential for regulating colorectal cancer invasion. Here we discovered that RhoGDIβ was a key XIAP downstream effector mediating bladder cancer (BC) invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found that both XIAP and RhoGDIβ expressions were consistently elevated in BCs of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-treated mice in comparison to bladder tissues from vehicle-treated mice and human BCs in comparison to the paired adjacent normal bladder tissues...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237956/utility-of-the-laminin-immunohistochemical-stain-in-distinguishing-invasive-from-noninvasive-urothelial-carcinoma
#12
Dinesh Pradhan, Milon Amin, Shveta Hooda, Rajiv Dhir, Sheldon Bastacky, Anil V Parwani
BACKGROUND: To study the utility of the laminin immunostain in distinguishing invasive from noninvasive urothelial carcinoma (UC). The distinction is difficult but clinically significant as it can affect the decision to administer intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or can even lead to cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representative sections of the transurethral resection of bladder tumor specimens from 25 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded invasive UCs and 25 cases of noninvasive UCs were selected for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with laminin (Ventana, Oro Valley, AZ, USA)...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221474/increased-expression-of-neuregulin-1-in-the-urothelium-of-rat-bladder-with-partial-bladder-outlet-obstruction
#13
Seung Woo Yang, Seong Woo Jeong, Ki Hak Song
BACKGROUND: This study determined whether changes in the expression of neuregulin (NRG) 1, erbB2 tyrosine kinase (ErbB2) and the M2 muscarinic receptor in the urothelium and detrusor muscle of the rat bladder were associated with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 250-300 g) were used and subdivided into control (n = 10) and PBOO groups (n = 20). PBOO was induced for 21 days, and the expression of NRG1, ErbB2 and M2 muscarinic receptor mRNA and protein was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively...
December 8, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214354/wide-field-autofluorescence-guided-tur-b-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-a-pilot-study
#14
Maximilian C Kriegmair, P Honeck, M Theuring, C Bolenz, M Ritter
PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and value of wide-field autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for the detection of bladder cancer during transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B). METHODS: For imaging, the D-Light/AF System (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) and a customized band pass filter (≈ 480-780 nm) at the eyepiece of the endoscope were used. The excitation light wavelength was 440 nm. Representative spectral measurements of tissue autofluorescence (AF) were performed using a spectrometer attached behind the AF band pass filter in selected patients...
December 6, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207636/characterization-of-urinary-extracellular-vesicle-proteins-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#15
Christopher R Silvers, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Edward M Messing, George J Netto, Yi-Fen Lee
The mechanisms of bladder cancer progression are unknown, and new treatments and biomarkers are needed. Patient urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) derive in part from bladder cancer cells and contain a specific protein cargo which may provide information about the disease. We conducted a proteomics study comparing EVs from the muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cell line TCCSUP to EVs from normal urothelial line SVHUC. GO term analysis showed that TCCSUP EVs are enriched in proteins associated with the cell membrane, extracellular matrix, and inflammation and angiogenesis signaling pathways...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207162/mir-33a-hinders-the-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-urothelial-cells-in-an-inductive-condition-by-targeting-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-and-tgfr
#16
Gang Fan, Zhenzhou Xu, Xiang Hu, Mingfeng Li, Jie Zhou, Yong Zeng, Yu Xie
Tissue engineering technology offers an appealing approach for tissue reconstruction of the urothelium. Adipose‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) represent an abundant source for tissue engineering applications. However, ASCs primarily possess mesoderm lineage differentiation potential. It is difficult to induce differentiation of ASCs towards urothelial cells that are derived from the endoderm, although a recent findings have reported that a conditioned medium may drive ADSCs towards differentiation into the urothelium phenotype...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201515/a-novel-method-in-decision-making-for-the-diagnosis-of-anterior-urethral-stricture-using-methylene-blue-dye
#17
Pankaj Joshi, Cevdet Kaya, Sandesh Surana, Devang J Desai, Hazem Orabi, Subramanian Iyer, Sanjay B Kulkarni
Objective: The use of methylene blue dye (MB) to highlight anatomical structures in urology has been well-established. Urethral stricture may extend about a centimeter beyond the abnormal area seen on urethrogram. Although the current literature suggests a tension-free and end- to- end anastomosis after excision of the strictured urethral segment with spongiofibrosis and surrounding corpus spongiosum in short bulbar strictures, some centers dealing with urethroplasty prefer anastomosis for short bulbar strictures while others prefer augmentation...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181884/mir-221-222-cluster-expression-improves-clinical-stratification-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-tat1-patients-risk-for-short-term-relapse-and-progression
#18
Foteini D Tsikrika, Margaritis Avgeris, Panagiotis K Levis, Theodoros Tokas, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Andreas Scorilas
Clinical heterogeneity of bladder cancer prognosis requires the identification of bladder tumors' molecular profile to improve the prediction value of the established and clinically used markers. In the present study, we have analyzed miR-221/222 cluster expression in bladder tumors and its clinical significance for patients' prognosis and disease outcome. The study included 387 tissue specimens. Following extraction, total RNA was polyadenylated at 3΄-end and reversed transcribed. SYBR-Green based qPCR assays were performed for the quantification of miR-221/222 expression...
November 27, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178500/identifying-unique-subtypes-of-spinal-afferent-nerve-endings-within-the-urinary-bladder-of-mice
#19
Nick J Spencer, Sarah Greenheigh, Melinda Kyloh, Tim J Hibberd, Harman Sharma, Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley, Andrea M Harrington, Elizabeth A Beckett, Simon J Brookes, Vladimir P Zagorodnyuk
Spinal afferent neurons are responsible for the transduction and transmission of noxious (painful) stimuli and innocuous stimuli that do not reach conscious sensations from visceral organs to the central nervous system. Although the location of the nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents is well known to reside in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the morphology and location of peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials is poorly understood. The individual nerve endings of spinal afferents that innervate the urinary bladder have never been unequivocally identified in any species...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173895/mode-of-surgical-injury-influences-the-source-of-urothelial-progenitors-during-bladder-defect-repair
#20
Frank-Mattias Schäfer, Khalid Algarrahi, Alyssa Savarino, Xuehui Yang, Catherine Seager, Debra Franck, Kyle Costa, Shanshan Liu, Tanya Logvinenko, Rosalyn Adam, Joshua R Mauney
The bladder urothelium functions as a urine-blood barrier and consists of basal, intermediate, and superficial cell populations. Reconstructive procedures such as augmentation cystoplasty and focal mucosal resection involve localized surgical damage to the bladder wall whereby focal segments of the urothelium and underlying submucosa are respectively removed or replaced and regeneration ensues. We demonstrate using lineage-tracing systems that urothelial regeneration following augmentation cystoplasty with acellular grafts exclusively depends on host keratin 5-expressing basal cells to repopulate all lineages of the de novo urothelium at implant sites...
November 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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