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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627636/formulation-and-characterization-of-egcg-for-the-treatment-of-superficial-bladder-cancer
#1
Katarzyna Dettlaff, Maciej Stawny, Magdalena Ogrodowczyk, Anna Jelińska, Waldemar Bednarski, Dorota Wątróbska-Świetlikowska, Rick W Keck, Omar A Khan, Ibrahim H Mostafa, Jerzy Jankun
In the United States, the annual incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 70,000 new cases, with a mortality rate of approximately 15,000/year. The most common subtype (70%) of bladder cancer is superficial, namely hte non-muscle invasive disease form limited to the urothelium. The rate of progression and recurrence is up to 40 and 70%, respectively. Urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder is typically treated with transurethral resection. The cancerous cells can float onto the adjacent epithelium, increasing the risk of recurrence...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609582/mild-heating-and-reduction-of-bladder-spontaneous-contractions
#2
Darryl G Kitney, Rita I Jabr, Bahareh Vahabi, Christopher H Fry
OBJECTIVES: To measure the effect of external heating on bladder wall contractile function, histological structure and expression of proteins related to tissue protection and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro preparations of bladder wall and ex vivo perfused pig bladders were heated from 37°C to 42, 46 and 50°C for 15 minutes. Isolated preparations were heated by radiant energy and perfused bladders by altering perfusate temperature. Spontaneous contractions or pressure variations were recorded, as well as responses to the muscarinic agonist carbachol or motor nerve excitation in vitro during heating...
June 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592436/bladder-fibrosis-during-outlet-obstruction-is-triggered-through-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-the-production-of-il-1%C3%AE
#3
Francis Monty Hughes, Stephanie J Sexton, Huixia Jin, Vihasa Govada, J Todd Purves
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) triggers inflammation in the bladder through the NLRP3 inflammasome. BOO also activates fibrosis, which is largely responsible for the decompensation of the bladder in the chronic state. Because fibrosis can be driven by inflammation, we have explored a role for NLRP3 (and IL-1β produced by NLRP3) in the activation and progression of BOO-induced fibrosis. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) control, 2) sham, 3) BOO + Vehicle, 4) BOO + the NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide or 5) BOO + the IL-1β receptor antagonist anakinra...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588015/intravesical-bcg-induces-cd4-t-cell-expansion-in-an-immune-competent-model-of-bladder-cancer
#4
Max Kates, Thomas Nirschl, Nikolai A Sopko, Hotaka Matsui, Christina M Kochel, Leonardo O Reis, George J Netto, Mohammad Hoque, Noah M Hahn, David J McConkey, Alex S Baras, Charles G Drake, Trinity J Bivalacqua
Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is the standard of care in treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, yet its mechanism of action remains elusive.  Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been implicated in BCG activity. Although prior research has indirectly demonstrated the importance of T cells and shown a rise in CD4(+) T cells in bladder tissue after BCG, T-cell subpopulations have not been fully characterized.  We investigated the relationship between effector and regulatory T cells in an immune competent, clinically relevant rodent model of bladder cancer...
June 6, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579283/optimizing-management-of-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Matthew T Campbell, Amishi Y Shah, Surena F Matin, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke
Upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) is a rare cancer of the urothelium, comprising only a fraction of cases as compared to urothelial tumors of the bladder. As a result, systemic treatment approaches in bladder cancer are often applied to patients with UTUC. Given the anatomical location of these tumors, the age, the comorbid conditions of these patients with UTUC, and the need for radical nephroureterectomy for treatment, most patients have substantial impairment of renal reserve. There is growing evidence for the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy in this disease...
June 1, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560313/urothelial-tight-junction-barrier-dysfunction-sensitizes-bladder-afferents
#6
Nicolas Montalbetti, Anna C Rued, Stefanie N Taiclet, Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann, Marcelo D Carattino
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic voiding disorder that presents with pain in the urinary bladder and surrounding pelvic region. A growing body of evidence suggests that an increase in the permeability of the urothelium, the epithelial barrier that lines the interior of the bladder, contributes to the symptoms of IC/BPS. To examine the consequence of increased urothelial permeability on pelvic pain and afferent excitability, we overexpressed in the urothelium claudin 2 (Cldn2), a tight junction (TJ)-associated protein whose message is significantly upregulated in biopsies of IC/BPS patients...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560089/characterization-of-a-murine-model-of-bioequivalent-bladder-wound-healing-and-repair-following-subtotal-cystectomy
#7
Mona Zarifpour, Karl-Erik Andersson, Sneha S Kelkar, Aaron Mohs, Cathy Mendelsohn, Kerry Schneider, Frank Marini, George J Christ
Previous work demonstrated restoration of a bioequivalent bladder within 8 weeks of removing the majority of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy or STC) in rats. The goal of the present study was to extend our investigations of bladder repair to the murine model, to harness the power of mouse genetics to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed robust bladder regrowth. Female C57 black mice underwent STC, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-STC, bladder repair and function were assessed via cystometry, ex vivo pharmacologic organ bath studies, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554752/diagnostic-utility-of-ki-67-immunohistochemistry-in-small-endoscopic-biopsies-of-the-ureter-and-renal-pelvis
#8
Yuichi Koyama, Teppei Morikawa, Jimpei Miyakawa, Yu Miyama, Tohru Nakagawa, Yukio Homma, Masashi Fukayama
Diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in ureteroscopic biopsies is challenging. Therefore, an immunohistochemical marker that can differentiate between malignant and benign urothelium and predict final pathological features is necessary. In this study, we investigated Ki-67 expression in 26 ureteroscopic biopsies of the ureter and renal pelvis diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma (UC) and in 13 biopsies with non-neoplastic urothelium, using digital image analysis. The median Ki-67 labeling index was 1...
April 20, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554536/succinate-increased-in-metabolic-syndrome-activates-gpr91-receptor-signaling-in-urothelial-cells
#9
Abubakr H Mossa, Monica Velasquez Flores, Philippe G Cammisotto, Lysanne Campeau
Metabolic syndrome is associated with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and increased circulating levels of succinate, an intermediate of the Krebs cycle. The urothelium is an essential regulator of bladder muscle contraction. This study aimed to determine if GPR91, the succinate receptor, is expressed and functional in the bladder. Urothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were cultured and characterized. PCR revealed that urothelial cells express GPR91, twice as much as SMCs. Incubation of cells with succinate stimulated phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in urothelial cells...
May 26, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551011/urothelial-acetylcholine-involvement-in-atp-induced-contractile-responses-of-the-rat-urinary-bladder
#10
Johanna Stenqvist, Michael Winder, Thomas Carlsson, Patrik Aronsson, Gunnar Tobin
Both acetylcholine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) are released from the urothelium. In in vivo experiments ATP has been shown to evoke contractile responses that are significantly reduced by atropine. Currently, we aimed to examine the cholinergic part of the ATP-evoked contractile response of normal and inflamed (cyclophosphamide-treated rats) bladders. A whole bladder preparation that enabled drug administration either outside or inside the urinary bladder was used. The responses were examined in bladders from control and cyclophosphamide-treated rats that were either intact or urothelium-denuded...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545586/disulfide-high-mobility-group-box-1-causes-bladder-pain-through-bladder-toll-like-receptor-4
#11
Fei Ma, Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Katherine L Meyer-Siegler, Karin N Westlund, David E Hunt, Pedro L Vera
BACKGROUND: Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Understanding the mechanism of bladder pain is important, particularly when the pain is not accompanied by bladder pathology. Stimulation of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the urothelium results in bladder pain through release of urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HGMB1 has two functionally active redox states (disulfide and all-thiol) and it is not known which form elicits bladder pain...
May 25, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543959/epidemiology-of-urothelial-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
The epithelium lining is defined as the mucosal surfaces of the renal collecting tubules, calyces and pelvis, as well as the ureter, bladder and urethra. The term "urothelium" is used to refer to these surfaces. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare subset of urothelial cancers with a poor prognosis. Urinary bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is more common in men than in women, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. The incidence of urinary bladder cancer is also higher in men...
May 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540814/lyso-thermosensitive-liposomal-doxorubicin-for-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#13
Andrew S Mikhail, Ayele H Negussie, William F Pritchard, Dieter Haemmerich, David Woods, Ivane Bakhutashvili, Juan Esparza-Trujillo, Sam J Brancato, John Karanian, Piyush K Agarwal, Bradford J Wood
PURPOSE: To evaluate lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD, ThermoDox(®)) in combination with loco-regional mild hyperthermia (HT) for targeted drug delivery to the bladder wall and potential treatment of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Porcine in vivo studies were performed with the following groups: (i) intravenous (IV) LTLD with hyperthermia (LTLD + HT); (ii) IV doxorubicin (DOX) with hyperthermia (IV DOX + HT) and (iii) IV LTLD without hyperthermia (LTLD - HT)...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539335/special-k-once-the-fun-is-over-an-emt-arrives-for-the-bladder
#14
Warren G Hill, Weiqun Yu
Wang et al. report that in rats exposed to daily ketamine for sixteen weeks, the urothelium begins to undergo phenoconversion to a more mesenchymal state. This epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), has several classic molecular hallmarks and Wang et al. demonstrate convincingly that a number of these including downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibroblast specific protein (FSP-1), colocalization of both epithelial and mesenchymal markers in a subset of urothelium-associated cells and upregulation of TGFβ expression in urothelium are all present...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525382/sulfatase-1-overexpression-indicates-poor-prognosis-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder-and-upper-tract
#15
Hsiang-Ying Lee, Bi-Wen Yeh, Ti-Chun Chan, Kei-Fu Yang, Wei-Ming Li, Chun-Nung Huang, Hung-Lung Ke, Ching-Chia Li, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Peir-In Liang, Yow-Ling Shiue, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chien-Feng Li
Urothelial carcinoma (UC), arising from the urothelium of the urinary tract, can occur in the upper (UTUC) and the urinary bladder (UBUC). A representative molecular aberration for UC characteristics and prognosis remains unclear. Data mining of Gene Expression Omnibus focusing on UBUC, we identified sulfatase-1 (SULF1) upregulation is associated with UC progression. SULF1 controls the sulfation status of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and plays a role in tumor growth and metastasis, while its role is unexplored in UC...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506860/characterization-of-late-recurrence-after-radical-cystectomy-in-a-large-multicenter-cohort-of-bladder-cancer-patients
#16
Francesco Soria, Marco Moschini, Gregory J Wirth, Kilian M Gust, Tobias Klatte, Alberto Briganti, Paolo Gontero, Mohammad Abufaraj, Mehmet Özsoy, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Shahrokh F Shariat
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of late recurrence (LR) in bladder cancer (BCa) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) and to identify clinico-pathologic predictors of LR and post-recurrence survival. METHODS: This multicenter study included 1652 BCa patients. LR was defined as occurring more than 5 years after RC. Differences in post-recurrence overall survival according to the timing of disease recurrence and to the location of recurrence were calculated using the log rank test...
May 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500846/the-trophoblast-cell-surface-antigen-2-and-mir-125b-axis-in-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#17
Chiara Avellini, Caterina Licini, Raffaella Lazzarini, Rosaria Gesuita, Emanuela Guerra, Giovanni Tossetta, Clara Castellucci, Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Antonio Procopio, Saverio Alberti, Roberta Mazzucchelli, Fabiola Olivieri, Daniela Marzioni
Human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop-2) is a 40-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified as a marker of human trophoblast cells. Trop-2 acts on cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration by activating a number of intracellular signalling pathways. Elevated Trop-2 expression has been demonstrated in several types of cancer and correlated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Since no data are available on Trop-2 in bladder cancer (BC), the purpose of the study was to determine its levels in tissue specimens from normal individuals and patients with BC at different stages...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477359/inhibitory-effect-of-the-urothelium-lamina-propria-on-female-porcine-urethral-contractility-effect-of-age
#18
Oladayo Seun Folasire, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Jayne Sellers
The urethral uroepithelium has been implicated in urethral sensation and maintenance of continence. However, relatively little is known about the function of the urethral urothelium compared with that of the bladder. The aim of the study was to examine the role of the urothelium/lamina propria on contractility of the porcine urethra, along with the influence of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and ageing. Porcine urethral tissues, intact and denuded of urothelium/lamina propria, were mounted in tissue baths and contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and carbachol obtained...
May 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471659/urinary-tract-infection-which-conformation-of-the-bacterial-lectin-fimh-is-therapeutically-relevant
#19
Katharina Mayer, Deniz Eris, Oliver Schwardt, Christoph P Sager, Said Rabbani, Simon Kleeb, Beat Ernst
Frequent antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, necessitating alternative treatment options. One such approach centers around FimH antagonists that block the bacterial adhesin FimH, which would otherwise mediate binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the host urothelium to trigger the infection. Although the FimH lectin can adopt three distinct conformations, the evaluation of FimH antagonists has mainly been performed with a truncated construct of FimH locked in one particular conformation...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463605/comparison-of-poly-l-lactide-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-and-poly-trimethylene-carbonate-membranes-for-urethral-regeneration-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#20
Reetta Sartoneva, Panu Nordback, Suvi Haimi, Dirk W Grijpma, Kalle Lehto, Rooney Niall, Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko Md Dds PhD, Susanna Miettinen, Tuija Lahdes-Vasama
Urethral defects are normally reconstructed using patient's own genital tissue; however, in severe cases, additional grafts are needed. We studied the suitability of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) membranes for urethral reconstruction in vivo. Further, the compatibility of the materials was evaluated in vitro with human urothelial cells (hUC). The attachment and viability of hUCs and the expression of different urothelial cell markers (Cytokeratin 7, 8, 19 and Uroplakin Ia, Ib and III) were studied after in vitro cell culture on PLCL and PTMC...
May 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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