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Mai Michishita, Kazuo Yano, Ken-Ichi Tomita, Osamu Matsuzaki, Ken-Ichi Kasahara
AIMS: For patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), storage symptoms due to bladder dysfunction are bothersome, and that mechanism elucidation is needed. Piezo1, a mechanically activated ion channel, is believed to play a role in sensing bladder distension. To investigate the involvement of Piezo1 in bladder dysfunction, we examined the expression and distribution of Piezo1 and neurofilament (NF-L) to understand pathological alterations in rat bladders with partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO), an animal model of BPH...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Maria G Kuba, Allison Wasserman, Cindy L Vnencak-Jones, Julia A Bridge, Lan Gellert, Omar Hameed, Giovanna A Giannico
OBJECTIVES: Primary carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm with few cases reported in the literature. Here we present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a primary carcinoid tumor arising in the left renal pelvis of a horseshoe kidney in a 61-year-old female patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologic features were evaluated with standard hematoxylin and eosin sections and immunohistochemical studies. A literature review was performed to place our case in context to previous reports...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Michal Andrzej Matuszewski, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Łukasz Dołowy, Beata Szymańska, Janusz Dembowski, Romuald Zdrojowy
INTRODUCTION: Urothelium is a highly specialized type of epithelium covering the interior of the urinary tract. One of the structures responsible for its unique features are urothelial plaques formed from glycoprotein heteropolymers, the uroplakins. Four types of uroplakins are known - UPIa, UPIb, UPII, UPIII. Herein we review the current status of knowledge about uroplakins and discuss their potential clinical applications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to find original and review papers about uroplakins...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Andrea Necchi, Guru Sonpavde, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Daniele Giardiello, Aristotelis Bamias, Simon J Crabb, Lauren C Harshman, Joaquim Bellmunt, Ugo De Giorgi, Cora N Sternberg, Linda Cerbone, Sylvain Ladoire, Yu-Ning Wong, Evan Y Yu, Simon Chowdhury, Gunter Niegisch, Sandy Srinivas, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Jack Baniel, Ali-Reza Golshayan, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Daniel W Bowles, Matthew I Milowsky, Christine Theodore, Dominik R Berthold, Gedske Daugaard, Srikala S Sridhar, Thomas Powles, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Matthew D Galsky, Luigi Mariani
BACKGROUND: The available prognostic models for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been derived from clinical trial populations of cisplatin-treated patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new model based on real-world patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011...
October 8, 2016: European Urology
Zhankui Zhao, Honglian Yu, Chengjuan Fan, Qingsheng Kong, Deqian Liu, Lin Meng
Ureter reconstruction is still a tough task for urologist. Cell-based tissue engineering serves a better technique for patients with long segments of ureter defect who need ureter reconstruction. In this study, we sought to evaluate the differentiation potential of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) into urothelial lineage and smooth muscle lineage and to assess the possibility of ureter reconstruction using differentiated cells seeded vessel extracellular matrix (VECM) in a rabbit model. ADSCs were isolated from adipose tissue and identified in vitro...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Galina Reshetnikova, Viktoriya S Sidorenko, Terry Whyard, Mark Lukin, Wayne Waltzer, Takeji Takamura-Enye, Victor Romanov
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a potential human carcinogen, is present in diesel exhaust. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone, was detected in urine of miners occupationally exposed to diesel emissions. Environmental and occupational factors play an important role in development of bladder cancer (BC), one of the most frequent malignancies. It is expected that exposure of urothelium to 3-NBA and its metabolites may induce BC initiation and/or progression. To test this hypothesis, we studied geno- and cytotoxicity of 3-NBA using an in vitro BC model...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Georgios Gakis, Peter C Black, Bernard H Bochner, Stephen A Boorjian, Arnulf Stenzl, George N Thalmann, Wassim Kassouf
CONTEXT: Urothelial carcinoma is considered a pan-urothelial disease. As such, the remnant urothelium in the upper urinary tract and urethra following radical cystectomy (RC) remains at risk for secondary urothelial tumors (SUTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with SUTs after RC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed database according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to identify studies between 1970 and 2016 reporting on malignant diseases of the urothelium after RC for bladder cancer...
October 6, 2016: European Urology
Savino M Di Stasi, Cristian Verri, Francesco Celestino, Francesco De Carlo, Vincenzo Pagliarulo
Bladder cancer is very common and most cases are diagnosed as nonmuscle invasive disease, which is characterized by its propensity to recur and progress. Intravesical therapy is used to delay recurrence and progression, while cystectomy is reserved for patients who are refractory to transurethral resection and intravesical therapy. There is an increasing interest in methods to enhance the delivery of intravesical chemotherapeutic agents to improve efficacy. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that electro-osmosis of mitomycin C (MMC) is more effective in delivering this drug into the urothelium, lamina propria, and superficial muscle layers of the bladder wall than is passive transport...
October 4, 2016: Urologia
Jianqi Yang, Lance T Platt, Biswanath Maity, Katelin E Ahlers, Zili Luo, Zhibo Lin, Bandana Chakravarti, Stella-Rita Ibeawuchi, Ryan W Askeland, Jolanta Bondaruk, Bogdan A Czerniak, Rory A Fisher
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is largely caused by exposure to toxic chemicals including those in cigarette smoke (i.e. BBN). An activating SNP in RGS6 is associated with a pronounced reduction in UBC risk, especially among smokers. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that RGS6 is robustly expressed in human urothelium, where urothelial cell carcinoma originates, and is downregulated in human UBC. Utilizing RGS6-/- mice we interrogated a possible role for RGS6 as a tumor suppressor using the BBN-induced bladder carcinogenesis model that closely recapitulates human disease...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Matthieu Rousseau, H M Sharon Goh, Sarah Holec, Matthew L Albert, Rohan B H Williams, Molly A Ingersoll, Kimberly A Kline
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infections. Here, we report that bladder catheterization initiated a persistent sterile inflammatory reaction within minutes of catheter implantation. Catheterization resulted in increased expression of genes associated with defense responses and cellular migration, with ensuing rapid and sustained innate immune cell infiltration into the bladder. Catheterization also resulted in hypersensitivity to Enterococcus faecalis and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection, in which colonization was achieved using an inoculum 100-fold lower than the ID90 for infection of an undamaged urothelium with the same uropathogens...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Laura-Maria Krabbe, Solomon L Woldu, Shahrokh F Shariat, Yair Lotan
The high recurrence rates associated with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer requires close surveillance with cystoscopy, an invasive and expensive procedure with risk of missing cancer. Finding an accurate urinary biomarker that can detect recurrent disease would represent a significant advancement in management. Areas covered: This review summarizes the commercially-available urinary biomarkers including cytology, UroVysion, BTA, NMP22, uCyt+, and CxBladder assays. Additionally, we review recent investigational urinary biomarkers that hold promise in bladder cancer surveillance...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Vikram L Sundararaghavan, Puneet Sindhwani, Terry D Hinds
Bladder cancer has been linked to numerous toxins which can be concentrated in the bladder after being absorbed into the blood and filtered by the kidneys. Excessive carcinogenic load to the bladder urothelium may result in the development of cancer. However, enzymes within the bladder can metabolize carcinogens into substrates that are safer. Importantly, these proteins, namely the UGT's (uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases), have been shown to possibly prevent bladder cancer. Also, studies have shown that the UGT1 expression is decreased in uroepithelial carcinomas, which may allow for the accumulation of carcinogens in the bladder...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Jovana Golijanin, Ali Amin, Anna Moshnikova, Joseph M Brito, Timothy Y Tran, Ramona-Cosmina Adochite, Gregory O Andreev, Troy Crawford, Donald M Engelman, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak, Dragan Golijanin
Bladder cancer is the fifth most common in incidence and one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Early detection greatly improves the chances of survival and bladder preservation. The pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye [indocyanine green (ICG)] targets low extracellular pH, allowing visualization of malignant lesions in human bladder carcinoma ex vivo. Cystectomy specimens obtained after radical surgery were immediately irrigated with nonbuffered saline and instilled with a solution of the ICG pHLIP construct, incubated, and rinsed...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Suming Xu, Xu Wang, Yaoqin Wang, Susan Lutgendorf, Catherine Bradley, Andrew Schrepf, Karl Kreder, Michael O'Donnell, Yi Luo
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is one of the key chemokines that play important roles in diverse inflammatory and chronic pain conditions. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder characterized by the hallmark symptoms of pelvic pain and voiding dysfunction. To facilitate IC/BPS research, we used transgenic technology to develop a novel urothelial MCP-1 secretion mouse model (URO-MCP-1). A transgene consisting of the uroplakin II gene promoter and the mouse MCP-1 coding sequence with a secretory element was constructed and microinjected...
2016: PloS One
Yuichiro Ikado, Daisuke Obinata, Taro Matsumoto, Yasutaka Murata, Koichiro Kano, Noboru Fukuda, Kenya Yamaguchi, Satoru Takahashi
PURPOSE: Autologous cells potentially provide an ideal injectable substance for management in vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The aim of this study is to examine the effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cell transplantation on VUR in a rat bladder pressurization-induced VUR model. METHODS: To create VUR, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent urethral clamping and placement of cystostomy followed by intravesical pressurization. Rat DFAT cells (1 × 10(6) cells, DFAT group, n = 5) or saline (control group, n = 5) was then injected into the bilateral vesicoureteral junctions...
September 28, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Ryusei Yokokawa, Hironobu Akino, Hideaki Ito, Xinmin Zha, Osamu Yokoyama
AIMS: There are some reports that bladder C-fibers are partially involved in detrusor overactivity in patients with brain lesions. We investigated the contribution of bladder C-fiber to decreased bladder capacity in rats with cerebral infarction. METHODS: Cerebral infarction was induced under halothane anesthesia by left middle cerebral artery occlusion with 4-0 nylon thread in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Intramural amounts of ATP and prostaglandin E2 , in vivo and in vitro ATP, NGF, and prostaglandin E2 release from the distended bladder urothelium, and changes in mRNA expressions of sensor molecules and receptors were monitored 6 h after the occlusion...
September 27, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Matt S Conover, Ségolène Ruer, Joemar Taganna, Vasilios Kalas, Henri De Greve, Jerome S Pinkner, Karen W Dodson, Han Remaut, Scott J Hultgren
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the dominant cause of urinary tract infections, clinically described as cystitis. UPEC express CUP pili, which are extracellular fibers tipped with adhesins that bind mucosal surfaces of the urinary tract. Here we identify the role of the F9/Yde/Fml pilus for UPEC persistence in the inflamed urothelium. The Fml adhesin FmlH binds galactose β1-3 N-acetylgalactosamine found in core-1 and -2 O-glycans. Deletion of fmlH had no effect on UPEC virulence in an acute mouse model of cystitis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Shao-Hung Wang, Shou-Chieh Wang, Pei-Ching Chen, Shou-Tsung Wang, Yi-Wen Liu
In the present data, we found that Candida albicans (C. albicans) caused bladder epithelial cell morphology alteration, cell damage, and inflammatory responses, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and protein expression as well as prostaglandin E2 accumulation. In addition, the molecular pathway underlying C. albicans-induced urothelial COX-2 gene expression was examined. Among MAPK pathways, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK each increased following C. albicans infection for 12 h. However, C. albicans-induced COX-2 protein expression was inhibited by specific inhibitors of ERK and p38 (U0126 and SB203580) but not by JNK inhibitor SP600125...
September 23, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Na N Guan, Karl Svennersten, Petra J de Verdier, N Peter Wiklund, Lars E Gustafsson
The proximal urethra and urinary bladder trigone play important roles in continence. We have previously shown that PGD2 is released from guinea pig bladder urothelium/suburothelium and can inhibit detrusor contractile responses. We presently wished to investigate PGD2 actions in guinea pig out-flow region and the distribution of DP1 /DP2 receptors. The effects of PGD2 on urothelium-intact trigone and proximal urethra contractility were studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of DP1 /DP2 receptor proteins was analysed by western blot...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Natalia M Yudintceva, Yulia A Nashchekina, Miralda I Blinova, Nadezhda V Orlova, Alexandr N Muraviov, Tatiana I Vinogradova, Magomed G Sheykhov, Elena Y Shapkova, Dmitriy V Emeljannikov, Petr K Yablonskii, Igor A Samusenko, Anastasiya L Mikhrina, Artem V Pakhomov, Maxim A Shevtsov
In the present study, a poly-l-lactide/silk fibroin (PL-SF) bilayer scaffold seeded with allogenic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated as a potential approach for bladder tissue engineering in a model of partial bladder wall cystectomy in rabbits. The inner porous layer of the scaffold produced from silk fibroin was designed to promote cell proliferation and the outer layer produced from poly-l-lactic acid to serve as a waterproof barrier. To compare the feasibility and efficacy of BMSC application in the reconstruction of bladder defects, 12 adult male rabbits were divided into experimental and control groups (six animals each) that received a scaffold seeded with BMSCs or an acellular one, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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