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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916750/comprehensive-multiregional-analysis-of-molecular-heterogeneity-in-bladder-cancer
#1
Mathilde Borg Houlberg Thomsen, Iver Nordentoft, Philippe Lamy, Søren Vang, Line Reinert, Christophe Kamungu Mapendano, Søren Høyer, Torben F Ørntoft, Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen, Lars Dyrskjøt
Genetic alterations identified in adjacent normal appearing tissue in bladder cancer patients are indicative of a field disease. Here we assessed normal urothelium transformation and intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) in four patients with bladder cancer. Exome sequencing identified private acquired mutations in a lymph node metastasis and local recurrences. Deep re-sequencing revealed presence of at least three and four subclones in two patients with multifocal disease, while no demarcation of subclones was identified in the two patients with unifocal disease...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915233/the-utility-of-stem-cells-in-pediatric-urinary-bladder-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Philip M Iannaccone, Vasil Galat, Matthew I Bury, Yongchao C Ma, Arun K Sharma
Pediatric patients with a neurogenic urinary bladder caused by developmental abnormalities including spina bifida exhibit chronic urological problems. Surgical management in the form of enterocystoplasty is used to enlarge the bladder but is associated with significant clinical complications. Thus, alternative methods to enterocystoplasty have been explored through the incorporation of stem cells with tissue engineering strategies. Within the context of this review, we will examine the use of bone marrow stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as they relate to bladder regeneration at the anatomic and molecular levels...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901710/reduced-urothelial-regeneration-in-rat-bladders-augmented-with-permeable-porcine-small-intestinal-submucosa-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Qing Yang, Ding Xia, Rheal A Towner, Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Kar-Ming Fung, Christopher E Aston, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Robert E Hurst, Sundararajan V Madihally, Bradley P Kropp, Hsueh-Kung Lin
Augmentation enterocystoplasty remains the gold standard surgical bladder reconstruction procedure to increase the capacity and compliance of dysfunctional bladders. Since the use of the patient's intestine has severe risks of complications, alternative biodegradable matrices have been explored. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has gained immense interests in bladder reconstruction due to its favorable properties. However, trials have shown inconsistent regeneration with SIS, attributed to the heterogeneity in microstructures and mechanical properties...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892907/clear-cell-adenocarcinoma-of-female-urethra
#4
Sharada Raju Rane, Ashwini Nivrutti Ghodke, Sharvari Vishwasrao
Primary malignancies of female urethra are infrequent, constituting a fraction of less than 1% of genitourinary malignancies. Primary clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra, is even rarer, that histomorphologically resembles clear-cell carcinoma of the female genital tract, occurs predominantly in women and is associated with a relatively poor prognosis. The histogenesis of this rare urethral neoplasm has not been completely determined. Various hypotheses concerning the origin have been postulated, including (1) diverticular origin (2) mullerian origin (3), glandular differentiation of urothelium or urothelial carcinoma...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889383/in-vitro-differentiation-and-propagation-of-urothelium-from-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#5
Stephanie L Osborn, Eric A Kurzrock
Bioengineering of bladder tissue, particularly for those patients who have advanced bladder disease, requires a source of urothelium that is healthy, capable of significant proliferation in vitro and immunologically tolerated upon transplant. As pluripotent stem cells have the potential to fulfill such criteria, they provide a critical cell source from which urothelium might be derived in vitro and used clinically. Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of urothelium from the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line through the definitive endoderm (DE) phase via selective culture techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888113/tissue-engineered-human-3d-model-of-bladder-cancer-for-invasion-study-and-drug-discovery
#6
Cassandra Ringuette Goulet, Geneviève Bernard, Stéphane Chabaud, Amélie Couture, Alexandre Langlois, Bertrand Neveu, Frédéric Pouliot, Stéphane Bolduc
The tumour microenvironment is critical to both the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis. Reconstitution of the microenvironment is a major challenge for in vitro cancer models. Indeed, conventional 2D culture systems cannot replicate the complexity, diversity and dynamic nature of the tumour microenvironment. In this study, we have developed a 3D endotheliazed vesical equivalent by using tissue engineering from primary human cells in which non-invasive or invasive bladder cancer (BCa) cell lines, cultured as compact spheroids, were incorporated...
August 29, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882129/igf1r-activation-and-the-in-vitro-antiproliferative-efficacy-of-igf1r-inhibitor-are-inversely-correlated-with-igfbp5-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#7
Yann Neuzillet, Elodie Chapeaublanc, Clémentine Krucker, Leanne De Koning, Thierry Lebret, François Radvanyi, Isabelle Bernard-Pierrot
BACKGROUND: The insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer. We characterized the expression of components of the IGF pathway - insulin growth factor receptors (INSR, IGF1R, IGF2R), ligands (INS, IGF1, IGF2), and binding proteins (IGFBP1-7, IGF2BP1-3) - in bladder cancer and its correlation with IGF1R activation, and the anti-proliferative efficacy of an IGF1R kinase inhibitor in this setting. METHODS: We analyzed transcriptomic data from two independent bladder cancer datasets, corresponding to 200 tumoral and five normal urothelium samples...
September 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881406/the-circadian-expression-of-piezo1-trpv4-connexin26-and-vnut-associated-with-the-expression-levels-of-the-clock-genes-in-mouse-primary-cultured-urothelial-cells
#8
Tatsuya Ihara, Takahiko Mitsui, Yuki Nakamura, Mie Kanda, Sachiko Tsuchiya, Satoru Kira, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Norifumi Sawada, Yuri Hirayama, Keisuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yoichi Shinozaki, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, Atsuhito Nakao, Masayuki Takeda, Schuichi Koizumi
AIMS: To investigate circadian gene expressions in the mouse bladder urothelium to establish an experimental model and study the functions of the circadian rhythm. METHODS: The gene expression rhythms of the clock genes, mechano-sensors such as Piezo1 and TRPV4, ATP release mediated molecules (ARMM) such as Cx26 and VNUT were investigated in mouse primary cultured urothelial cells (UCs) of wild-type (WT) and Clock mutant (Clock(Δ19)(/Δ)(19) ) mice using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analysis...
September 7, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871659/overexpression-of-her-2-via-immunohistochemistry-in-canine-urinary-bladder-transitional-cell-carcinoma-a-marker-of-malignancy-and-possible-therapeutic-target
#9
F Millanta, J Impellizeri, L McSherry, G Rocchigiani, L Aurisicchio, G Lubas
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in the urinary bladder. Distant metastases to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, abdominal organs or bones are noted in up to 50% of dogs at time of death. Surgical excision is often not practical as TCC typically involve the trigone of the bladder and/or occurs multifocally throughout the bladder with field cancerization. Therapeutic approaches are very challenging and the requirement to evaluate alternative therapeutic protocols that may prolong survival times in dogs bearing these tumours is compelling...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871206/gold-nanoparticles-approach-to-detect-chondroitin-sulphate-and-hyaluronic-acid-urothelial-coating
#10
Gabriella Guelfi, Valentina Stefanetti, Danilo Zampini, Oommen P Oommen, Gabriele Brecchia, Cecilia Dall'Aglio, Rolando Arcelli, Giovanni Cochetti, Andrea Boni, Ettore Mearini
This study investigated the location of hyaluronic acid (HA)- and chondroitin sulphate (CS)-coated gold nanoparticles in rabbit bladder and evaluated gene expression of CD44, RHAMM and ICAM-1 receptors involved in HA and CS transport into the cell. Gold nanoparticles were synthesised by reduction of gold salts with HA or CS to form HA-AuNPs and CS-AuNPs. Bladder samples were incubated with CS-AuNPs and HA-AuNPs or without glycosaminoglycans. Transmission electron microscopy, optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the location of the synthesised AuNPs...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862729/ls-clinical-practice-aligned-with-the-latest-scientific-evidence-on-gag-therapy
#11
Dick A W Janssen
The role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as key components of the protective bladder barrier is well accepted. Replenishment of the GAG layer could restore the normal protective barrier function of the damaged bladder urothelium and re-establish normal permeability. A number of bladder diseases, including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, recurrent urinary tract infections, radiation cystitis, and other forms of cystitis may benefit from GAG therapy.
August 17, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843746/cytological-and-histological-changes-in-the-urothelium-produced-by-electromotive-drug-administration-emda-and-by-the-combination-of-intravescical-hyperthermia-and-chemotherapy-thermochemotherapy
#12
Francesco Pierconti, Patrizia Straccia, Sacco Emilio, Pier Francesco Bassi, Ivana De Pascalis, Rita C Marques, Metka Volavsek, Luigi M Larocca, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
The treatment of non muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) encompasses a range of different procedures. Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and chemo-hyperthermia (C-HT; Synergo) represent a minimally-invasive methods of intravesical instillation of therapeutic agents as mitomycin C (MMC). We selected patients with high grade NMIBC, BCG non responder, treated with EMDA/MMC and C-HT/MMC and we also examined the morphological changes in urine cytology samples. During the period from 2012 to 2014, 110 patients with high grade NMIBC, BCG refractory were selected...
August 1, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831205/phosphorylated-mtor-expression-profiles-in-human-normal-and-carcinoma-tissues
#13
Hojung Lee
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key controller of cell growth and proliferation in normal tissues and solid tumors. In the present study, an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression pattern of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) was performed in human normal fetal and adult tissues and various carcinoma tissues. p-mTOR expression showed tissue and cell type specificity in normal and cancer tissues. In normal fetal and adult tissues, p-mTOR staining was observed in the intestinal crypt, intrahepatic bile ductule, pancreatic duct, distal nephron of the kidney, umbrella cell of urothelium, mesothelial cell, and choroid plexus...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827631/improved-efficacy-and-in-vivo-cellular-properties-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derivative-in-a-preclinical-model-of-bladder-pain-syndrome
#14
Aram Kim, Hwan Yeul Yu, Jisun Lim, Chae-Min Ryu, Yong Hwan Kim, Jinbeom Heo, Ju-Young Han, Seungun Lee, Yoon Sung Bae, Jae Young Kim, Dong-Jun Bae, Sang-Yeob Kim, Byeong-Joo Noh, Ki-Sung Hong, Ji-Yeon Han, Sang Wook Lee, Miho Song, Hyung-Min Chung, Jun Ki Kim, Dong-Myung Shin, Myung-Soo Choo
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is an intractable disease characterized by severe pelvic pain and urinary frequency. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising approach to treat incurable IC/BPS. Here, we show greater therapeutic efficacy of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived multipotent stem cells (M-MSCs) than adult bone-marrow (BM)-derived counterparts for treating IC/BPS and also monitor long-term safety and in vivo properties of transplanted M-MSCs in living animals. Controlled hESC differentiation and isolation procedures resulted in pure M-MSCs displaying typical MSC behavior...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826558/elucidating-mechanisms-of-bladder-repair-after-hyaluronan-instillation-in-ketamine-induced-ulcerative-cystitis-in-animal-model
#15
Yi-Lun Lee, Kun-Ling Lin, Shu-Mien Chuang, Yung-Chin Lee, Mei-Chin Lu, Bin-Nan Wu, Wen-Jeng Wu, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan, Wan-Ting Ho, Yung-Shun Juan
Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) initially damaged the bladder mucosa and induced contracted bladder thereafter. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) instillation to the bladder has been used to treat KIC. The present study investigated bladder injury by urothelial defect and HA degeneration and bladder repair by urothelium proliferation and differentiation. This work was based on the hypothesis that HA treatment altered the bladder urothelial layer and the expression of hyaluronan-metabolizing enzymes and/or HA receptors in KIC...
September 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818454/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-intravesical-administration-of-normal-urothelial-cells-on-bladder-cancer
#16
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
BACKGROUND AIMS: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract and for advanced forms of the disease it has a high mortality rate. There are no approved new molecularly targeted agents or chemotherapeutics for advanced UBC beyond cisplatin-based chemotherapy except the recently approved anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) antibody. With complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumors, despite several druggable targets identified, to cure UBC is still a challenging unmet medical need...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816296/-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-associated-with-vesical-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
K H Hua, L Yang, X W Zhang, W J Bai, Q Li, T Xu
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a very uncommon genetic disorder that results from the resistance of androgen receptor (AR) to androgen, which influences the formation of the male genitalia and in turn presents with female phenotype. Surgical resection of undesceaded testicle and different kinds of genitoplasty are crucial methods to correct the deformity of reproductive system, as well as hormone replacement therapy, which is an essential therapy for postoperational rehabilitation in AIS patients...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791236/interstitial-cystitis-intravesical-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Tanya Ha, Jie Hua Xu
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a progressive bladder disorder that presents with symptoms of bladder urgency, frequency and pain. The aetiology of the disease remains uncertain, but it is postulated that there is an initial infective insult which damages the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer of the bladder urothelium. This defect allows an influx of ions, particularly potassium, which initiates an inflammatory reaction in the bladder wall, which incites the symptoms described above. Treatment initially involves behavioural and oral medication, with second line being intravesical instillation therapy...
July 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782880/adaptive-changes-of-telocytes-in-the-urinary-bladder-of-patients-affected-by-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity
#19
Chiara Traini, Maria-Simonetta Fausssone-Pellegrini, Daniele Guasti, Giulio Del Popolo, Jacopo Frizzi, Sergio Serni, Maria-Giuliana Vannucchi
Urinary bladder activity involves central and autonomic nervous systems and bladder wall. Studies on the pathogenesis of voiding disorders such as the neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to suprasacral spinal cord lesions have emphasized the importance of an abnormal handling of the afferent signals from urothelium and lamina propria (LP). In the LP (and detrusor), three types of telocytes (TC) are present and form a 3D-network. TC are stromal cells able to form the scaffold that contains and organizes the connective components, to serve as guide for tissue (re)-modelling, to produce trophic and/or regulatory molecules, to share privileged contacts with the immune cells...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766915/metabolomics-analysis-reveals-distinct-profiles-of-nonmuscle-invasive-and-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#20
Divya Sahu, Yair Lotan, Bryan Wittmann, Bruce Neri, Donna E Hansel
Urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, but pathway changes that occur with stage-wise progression have not been well defined. We used a metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolic pathways uniquely altered in normal urothelium, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We performed global metabolomic profiling using GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and LC-MS platforms to identify metabolite signatures between normal urothelium and high-grade urothelial carcinoma of different stages...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Medicine
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