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Urothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754130/urothelial-carcinoma-of-an-allograft-ureter-10-years-after-deceased-donor-kidney-transplantation
#1
Kevin P Gaughan, Usman Haroon, Niall F Davis, Ponnusamy Mohan
The incidence of urothelial carcinoma (UC; formerly transitional cell carcinoma) is higher among renal transplant recipients compared with the general population. Upper urinary tract UC (UUT-UC) of allograft urothelium is a rare event with approximately 40 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe the clinical presentation and management of UUT-UC in a transplant ureter 10 years after deceased donor kidney transplantation.
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734214/alleviation-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic-cystitis-by-dietary-pomegranate-a-comparative-experimental-study-with-mesna
#2
Negin Mahmoudi, Sahar Eftekharzadeh, Marzieh Golmohammadi, Reza Khorramirouz, Javad Hashemi, Zeinab Kashani, Maryam Alijani, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
In this study, we investigated the effects of pomegranate on alleviating cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). Initially, 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (CP) in which HC was induced by cyclophosphamide; group 3 (CP+M), HC-induced rats that received Mesna regimen, and group 4 (CP+P), which compromised rats that had been on a 14-day diet of pomegranate juice before HC induction. Cystometry was performed a few hours before euthanasia; after euthanasia, aortic blood samples and bladder tissue samples were obtained to perform TUNEL assay, and histopathologic and biochemical assessments...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729649/oncosuppressor-protein-p53-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-p21-regulate-interstitial-cystitis-associated-gene-expression
#3
Susan Keay, Shreeram C Nallar, Padmaja Gade, Chen-Ou Zhang, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic syndrome that affects the urinary bladder. The etiology of this disease is unclear, and no effective therapies are available at this time. Although inflammation is suspected, no clear evidence for a role of conventional mediators of inflammation, such as cytokines and their downstream molecules, has been obtained to date. Our previous studies indicated that primary cell cultures derived from IC urothelium abnormally express molecules associated with cell adhesion. Here we describe a mechanism by which transcriptional changes in tight junction and adhesion molecules are mediated...
May 2, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724418/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-pretreatment-staging-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#4
Christian B van der Pol, V Anik Sahni, Steven C Eberhardt, Aytekin Oto, Oguz Akin, Lauren F Alexander, Brian C Allen, Fergus V Coakley, Adam T Froemming, Pat F Fulgham, Keyanoosh Hosseinzadeh, Jodi K Maranchie, Rekha N Mody, Nicola Schieda, David M Schuster, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Carolyn L Wang, Mark E Lockhart
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has a tendency toward urothelial multifocality and is at risk for local and distant spread, most commonly to the lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, and peritoneum. Pretreatment staging of MIBC should include imaging of the urothelial upper tract for synchronous lesions; imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis for metastases; and MRI pelvis for local staging. CT abdomen and pelvis without and with contrast (CT urogram) is recommended to assess the urothelium and abdominopelvic organs...
May 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706289/urinary-antimicrobial-peptides-potential-novel-biomarkers-of-obstructive-uropathy
#5
S Gupta, A R Jackson, D G DaJusta, D J McLeod, S A Alpert, V R Jayanthi, K McHugh, A R Schwaderer, B Becknell, C B Ching
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have historically been evaluated for their role in protecting against uropathogens. However, there is mounting evidence to support their expression in noninfectious injury, with unclear meaning as to their function. It is possible that AMPs represent urothelial injury. Urinary tract obstruction is known to alter the urothelium; however, AMPs have not been evaluated for expression in this noninfectious injury. OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to compare urinary AMP expression in children undergoing surgical intervention for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with nonobstructed controls...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688881/withdrawn-surveillance-guidelines-based-on-recurrence-patterns-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#6
Jennifer A Locke, Reza Hamidizadeh, Wassim Kassouf, R Ricardo Rendon, David Bell, Jonathan Izawa, J Joseph Chin, Anil Kapoor, Bobby Shayegen, Jean-Baptiste Lattouf, Fred Saad, Louis Lacombe, Yves Fradet, Adrien Fairey, Niels-Eric Jacobson, Darrel Drachenberg, Ilias Cagiannos, Alan So, Peter C Black
Ahead of print article withdrawn bu publisher.
April 12, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681802/expression-and-function-of-chemokines-cxcl9-11-in-micturition-pathways-in-cyclophosphamide-cyp-induced-cystitis-and-somatic-sensitivity-in-mice
#7
Michael Guo, Phat Chang, Eric Hauke, Beatrice M Girard, Katharine Tooke, Jacqueline Ojala, Susan M Malley, Harrison Hsiang, Margaret A Vizzard
Changes in urinary bladder function and somatic sensation may be mediated, in part, by inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder including the expression of chemokines. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP; 75 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce bladder inflammation (4 h, 48 h, chronic). We characterized the expression of CXC chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) in the urinary bladder and determined the effects of blockade of their common receptor, CXCR3, at the level urinary bladder on bladder function and somatic (hindpaw and pelvic) sensation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674622/il-33-st2-axis-mediates-hyperplasia-of-intrarenal-urothelium-in-obstructive-renal-injury
#8
Wei-Yu Chen, Jenq-Lin Yang, Yi-Hsiu Wu, Lung-Chih Li, Ru-Fang Li, Ya-Ting Chang, Lo-Hsin Dai, Wan-Chen Wang, Ya-Jen Chang
The monolayered intrarenal urothelium covers the renal papilla and ureteropelvic junction (UPJ). In response to increased renal pressure during obstruction or ischemic injuries, intrarenal urothelial cells begin to proliferate and form a multilayered urothelium. Little is known regarding the mechanism and pathophysiological role of urothelium hyperplasia during renal obstruction. In this study, we investigated the expression of interleukin (IL)-33, an IL-1 family cytokine, in kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced obstructive injury...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671672/pathophysiological-effect-of-bladder-outlet-obstruction-on-the-urothelium
#9
Grzegorz Niemczyk, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Piotr Radziszewski, Paweł Włodarski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms are major urological issues that significantly affect patient's quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence of both is increasing each year, raising the burden to health system. Therefore, casual and symptomatic treatment should be of great importance. However, management of symptoms is often difficult as their pathophysiology is multifactorial and not well elucidated. Recently urothelium has gathered much attention as one of the potential causal agents...
April 19, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643467/potential-orphan-drug-therapy-of-intravesical-liposomal-onabotulinumtoxin-a-for-ketamine-induced-cystitis-by-mucosal-protection-and-anti-inflammation-in-a-rat-model
#10
Wei-Chia Lee, Chia-Hao Su, You-Lin Tain, Cheng-Nan Tsai, Chun-Chieh Yu, Yao-Chi Chuang
Ketamine abusers may develop ulcerative cystitis and severe lower urinary tract symptoms, which is a medical dilemma. Recently, researchers have found the endemic of ketamine-induced cystitis worldwide. The intravesical administration of liposome-encapsulated onabotulinumtoxinA (Lipotoxin) might facilitate the healing of the damaged urothelium from liposomes, and reduce the urinary symptoms by onabotulinumtoxinA-induced chemo-denervation. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the effects of Lipotoxin on ketamine-induced cystitis...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599449/implications-of-tert-promoter-mutations-and-telomerase-activity-in-urothelial-carcinogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Cagatay Günes, Felix Wezel, Jennifer Southgate, Christian Bolenz
Telomerase activity imparts eukaryotic cells with unlimited proliferation capacity, one of the cancer hallmarks. Over 90% of human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumours are positive for telomerase activity. Telomerase activation can occur through several mechanisms. Mutations in the core promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) cause telomerase reactivation in 60-80% of UCBs, whereas the prevalence of these mutations is lower in urothelial cancers of other origins...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599345/significance-of-perioperative-chemotherapy-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-upper-and-lower-urinary-tract
#12
Tomoyuki Makino, Kouji Izumi, Ariunbold Natsagdorj, Hiroaki Iwamoto, Suguru Kadomoto, Renato Naito, Yoshifumi Kadono, Atsushi Mizokami
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary tract (UT) urothelium, and investigate the utility of perioperative chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients diagnosed with SCC in renal pelvis, ureter and bladder at the Kanazawa University between 2007 and 2017 were included in this retrospective study. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates according to cancer stage and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were determined...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584618/role-of-prongf-p75-signaling-in-bladder-dysfunction-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Jae Cheon Ryu, Katharine Tooke, Susan E Malley, Anastasia Soulas, Tirzah Weiss, Nisha Ganesh, Nabila Saidi, Stephanie Daugherty, Uri Saragovi, Youko Ikeda, Irina Zabbarova, Anthony J Kanai, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, H Francis Farhadi, William C de Groat, Margaret A Vizzard, Sung Ok Yoon
Loss of bladder control is a challenging outcome facing patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We report that systemic blocking of pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) signaling through p75 with a CNS-penetrating small-molecule p75 inhibitor resulted in significant improvement in bladder function after SCI in rodents. The usual hyperreflexia was attenuated with normal bladder pressure, and automatic micturition was acquired weeks earlier than in the controls. The improvement was associated with increased excitatory input to the spinal cord, in particular onto the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers in the dorsal commissure...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582112/role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-local-communication-in-the-visceral-mucosa
#14
REVIEW
Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann
Intense research has focused on the involvement of the nervous system in regard to cellular mechanisms underlying neurogenic inflammation in the pelvic viscera. Evidence supports the neural release of inflammatory factors, trophic factors, and neuropeptides in the initiation of inflammation. However, more recently, non-neuronal cells including epithelia, endothelial, mast cells, and paraneurons are likely important participants in nervous system functions. For example, the urinary bladder urothelial cells are emerging as key elements in the detection and transmission of both physiological and nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract...
March 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576423/iatrogenic-pathology-of-the-urinary-bladder
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi, Maria R Raspollini, Liang Cheng, George J Netto
Intravesical immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy are among the most frequent therapeutic procedures to treat malignancies of the urinary bladder. These treatment modalities produce reactive morphologic changes in the urothelium that can mimic urothelial carcinoma in situ, urothelial dysplasia or true invasive urothelial neoplasia. Mitomycin C used after transurethral resection of bladder tumor to reduce recurrences, BCG intravesical immunotherapy to treat high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and urothelial carcinoma in situ, and platinum-based systemic chemotherapy to improve post-cystectomy disease-specific survival some of the causes of therapy related atypia in urinary bladder...
March 14, 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572181/urinary-bladder-organ-hypertrophy-is-partially-regulated-by-akt1-mediated-protein-synthesis-pathway
#16
Li-Ya Qiao, Chunmei Xia, Shanwei Shen, Seong Ho Lee, Paul H Ratz, Matthew O Fraser, Amy Miner, John E Speich, Jeffrey J Lysiak, William D Steers
AIMS: The present study aims to investigate the role of Akt in the regulation of urinary bladder organ hypertrophy caused by partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO). MAIN METHODS: Male rats were surgically induced for pBOO. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to examine the levels of mRNA and protein. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit the activity of endogenous Akt. KEY FINDINGS: The urinary bladder developed hypertrophy at 2 weeks of pBOO...
March 20, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566267/tadalafil-attenuates-hypotonicity-induced-ca-2-influx-via-trpv2-and-trpv4-in-primary-rat-bladder-urothelial-cell-cultures
#17
Xiao Dong, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Tatsuya Miyamoto, Tatsuya Ihara, Satoru Kira, Norifumi Sawada, Takahiko Mitsui, Masayuki Takeda
AIMS: To investigate the localization of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil in signal transduction in the bladder urothelium. METHODS: PDE5 expression in rat bladder tissues and cultured primary rat bladder urothelial cells was evaluated using immunochemistry and western blot assays. Ca2+ influx in cells exposed to isotonic solution, hypotonic solution, a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel agonist (cannabidiol), a selective TRPV4 channel agonist (GSK1016790A), a TRP cation channel melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel agonist (PIP2), or a purinergic receptor agonist (ATP) in the presence or absence of 10 µM tadalafil was evaluated using calcium imaging techniques...
March 22, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562816/family-history-of-cancer-as-surrogate-predictor-for-immunotherapy-with-anti-pd1-pd-l1-agents-preliminary-report-of-the-fami-l1-study
#18
Alessio Cortellini, Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti, Elisabetta Gambale, Francesco Atzori, Federica Zoratto, Alessandro Parisi, Davide Brocco, Annagrazia Pireddu, Katia Cannita, Daniela Iacono, Maria R Migliorino, Teresa Gamucci, Michele De Tursi, Tina Sidoni, Maria Tiseo, Maria Michiara, Anselmo Papa, Gesuino Angius, Silverio Tomao, Maria C Fargnoli, Clara Natoli, Corrado Ficorella
AIM: Tumors related to hereditary susceptibility seem to have an immunosensitive phenotype. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study, to investigate if family history of cancer, multiple neoplasms and early onset of cancer could be related to clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Activity and efficacy data of 211 advanced cancer patients (kidney, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelium, colorectal and HeN), treated at seven Italian centers with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, were analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549984/corrigendum-to-cytological-and-histological-changes-in-the-urothelium-produced-by-electromotive-drug-administration-emda-and-by-the-combination-of-intravescical-hyperthermia-and-chemotherapy-thermochemotherapy-pathol-res-pract-213-2017-1078-1081
#19
Francesco Pierconti, Patrizia Straccia, Sacco Emilio, Pier Francesco Bassi, Ivana De Pascalis, Rita C Marques, Metka Volavsek, Luigi M Larocca, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549670/non-histone-nuclear-protein-hmgn2-differently-regulates-the-urothelium-barrier-function-by-altering-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-tight-junction-protein-genes-in-upec-j96-infected-bladder-epithelial-cell-monolayer
#20
Hanwen Tian, Junming Miao, Fumei Zhang, Feng Xiong, Feimei Zhu, Jinyu Li, Xiaoying Wang, Shanzhe Chen, Junli Chen, Ning Huang, Yi Wang
The urinary tract is vulnerable to frequent challenges from environmental microflora. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) makes a major contribution to urinary tract infection (UTI). Previous studies have characterized positive roles of non-histone nuclear protein HMGN2 in lung epithelial innate immune response. In the study presented here, we found HMGN2 expression was up-regulated in UPEC J96-infected urothelium. Surprisingly, over-expression of HMGN2 promoted disruption of BECs 5637 cells' intercellular junctions by down-regulating tight junction (TJs) components' expression and physical structure under J96 infection...
March 17, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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