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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776641/cortisol-awakening-response-is-decreased-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-increased-in-healthy-controls-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-abuse
#1
Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti, Patricia Zunszain, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Carmine M Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 169 FEP patients and 133 controls with different degrees of childhood physical and sexual abuse (i.e. no abuse exposure, non-severe abuse exposure, and severe abuse exposure)...
May 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776550/hydrophilic-probe-in-mesoporous-pore-for-selective-enrichment-of-endogenous-glycopeptides-in-biological-samples
#2
Yilin Li, Chunhui Deng, Nianrong Sun
As one of the most important post-translational modifications (PTMs) of peptidome, glycopeptidome is closely related to serious disease, especially to cancer. In order to specifically discover and analyze glycopeptidome biomarkers for clinical diagnosis of cancer on early-stage, it is crucial to develop efficient technique to analyze low-abundance of endogenous glycopeptides in biological samples. In this report, a hydrophilic probe in mesoporous pore (denoted as Fe3 O4 @mSiO2 @G6P) was designed and prepared...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776416/rapid-urease-test-rut-for-evaluation-of-urease-activity-in-oral-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-supragingival-dental-plaque-ex-vivo
#3
Gunnar Dahlén, Haidar Hassan, Susanne Blomqvist, Anette Carlén
BACKGROUND: Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. METHODS: The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6...
May 18, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#4
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775922/acid-phosphatase-test-on-phadebas-%C3%A2-sheets-an-optimized-method-for-presumptive-saliva-and-semen-detection
#5
Yael Herman, Ilan Feine, Ron Gafny
The precise and efficient detection of semen and saliva in sexual assault case-work items is a critical step in the forensic pipeline. The outcome of this stage may have a profound impact on identifying perpetrators as well as on the investigation process and the final outcome in court. Semen detection is usually based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), an enzyme found in high concentration in the seminal plasma. Amylase, an enzyme catalyzing starch hydrolysis is found in high concentrations in saliva and therefore is a useful target for its detection...
April 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#6
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775877/communication-and-social-interaction-anxiety-enhance-interleukin-1-beta-and-cortisol-reactivity-during-high-stakes-public-speaking
#7
Brandon J Auer, Jessica L Calvi, Nicolas M Jordan, David Schrader, Jennifer Byrd-Craven
BACKGROUND: Worry or fear related to speaking in front of others, or more broadly, communicating and interacting with others, is common. At elevated levels, however, it may contribute to heightened stress reactivity during acute speaking challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-system physiological stress reactivity in the context of high-stakes public speaking while considering the impact of hypothesized individual difference risk factors. METHODS: University student participants (n = 95) delivering speeches as a heavily-weighted component of their final grade had saliva samples collected immediately prior to speaking, immediately after, and 20 min after speech completion...
May 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774468/salivary-anti-coxsackievirus-b4-neutralizing-activity-and-pattern-of-immune-parameters-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#8
Magloire Pandoua Nekoua, Akadiri Yessoufou, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Francis Badia-Boungou, Kabirou Moutairou, Famara Sane, Didier Hober
AIMS: Enteroviruses, especially coxsackieviruses B (CV-B), have been associated with the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). An anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity in saliva of T1D patients was previously reported. Our aim was to study the association between the saliva anti-CV-B4 neutralizing activity and immune parameters in T1D patients in comparison with non-diabetic individuals. METHODS: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 15 T1D patients and 8 controls...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772817/computational-convolution-of-seldi-data-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Destiny E O Anyaiwe, Gautam B Singh, George D Wilson, Timothy J Geddes
Alzheimer's disease is rapidly becoming an endemic for people over the age of 65. A vital path towards reversing this ominous trend is the building of reliable diagnostic devices for definite and early diagnoses in lieu of the longitudinal, usually inconclusive and non-generalize-able methods currently in use. In this article, we present a survey of methods for mining pools of mass spectrometer saliva data in relation to diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. The computational methods provides new approaches for appropriately gleaning latent information from mass spectra data...
May 17, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772600/an-accurate-bacterial-dna-quantification-assay-for-hts-library-preparation-of-human-biological-samples
#10
Sarah Seashols-Williams, Raquel Green, Denise Wohlfahrt, Angela Brand, Antonio Limjuco Tan-Torres, Francy Nogales, J Paul Brooks, Baneshwar Singh
Sequencing and classification of microbial taxa within forensically relevant biological fluids has the potential for applications in the forensic science and biomedical fields. The quantity of bacterial DNA from human samples is currently estimated based on quantity of total DNA isolated. This method can miscalculate bacterial DNA quantity due to the mixed nature of the sample, and consequently library preparation is often unreliable. We developed an assay that can accurately and specifically quantify bacterial DNA within a mixed sample for reliable 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) library preparation and high throughput sequencing (HTS)...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772467/yawning-and-cortisol-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-new-diagnostic-tool
#11
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771921/mosquito-saliva-alone-has-profound-effects-on-the-human-immune-system
#12
Megan B Vogt, Anismrita Lahon, Ravi P Arya, Alexander R Kneubehl, Jennifer L Spencer Clinton, Silke Paust, Rebecca Rico-Hesse
Mosquito saliva is a very complex concoction of >100 proteins, many of which have unknown functions. The effects of mosquito saliva proteins injected into our skin during blood feeding have been studied mainly in mouse models of injection or biting, with many of these systems producing results that may not be relevant to human disease. Here, we describe the numerous effects that mosquito bites have on human immune cells in mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We used flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine bead array assays, with detailed statistical analyses, to detect small but significant variations in immune cell functions after 4 mosquitoes fed on humanized mice footpads...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771234/an-observational-clinical-case-of-zika-virus-associated-neurological-disease-is-associated-with-primary-igg-response-and-enhanced-tnf-levels
#13
Edson Delatorre, Milene Miranda, Diogo A Tschoeke, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, Simone Alves Sampaio, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Luciana Leomil, Fernando A Bozza, José Cerbino-Neto, Patricia T Bozza, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Patrícia Brasil, Fabiano L Thompson, Ana M B de Filippis, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Descriptive clinical data help to reveal factors that may provoke Zika virus (ZIKV) neuropathology. The case of a 24-year-old female with a ZIKV-associated severe acute neurological disorder was studied. The levels of ZIKV in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were 50 times higher than the levels in other compartments. An acute anti-flavivirus IgG, together with enhanced TNF-alpha levels, may have contributed to ZIKV invasion in the CSF, whereas the unbiased genome sequencing [obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS)] of the CSF revealed that no virus mutations were associated with the anatomic compartments (CSF, serum, saliva and urine)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769430/oral-lactobacilli-and-salivary-acidic-proline-rich-proteins-aprp-1-2-in-dental-caries
#14
A K Szkaradkiewicz-Karpinska, A Zeidler, O Goslinska-Kuzniarek, K Uram, A Szkaradkiewicz
A previous study shows that levels of acidic salivary proline-rich phosphoproteins-1/2 (APRP-1/2) increase with caries severity. The aim of this study was to examine whether this relationship also depends on the presence of H2 O2 -producing strains of Lactobacillus spp. Adults with severe caries (decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) > 13.9, n = 28) were compared with similarly aged adults who had minimal caries (DMFT < 5, n = 20). A total of 48 samples of whole unstimulated saliva were collected in the morning and centrifuged...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769002/defense-mechanisms-against-acid-exposure-by-dental-enamel-formation-saliva-and-pancreatic-juice-production
#15
Robert Racz, Akos Nagy, Zoltan Rakonczay, Erika Katalin Dunavari, Gabor Gerber, Gabor Varga
The pancreas, the salivary glands and the dental enamel producing ameloblasts have marked developmental, structural and functional similarities. One of the most striking similarities is their bicarbonate-rich secretory product serving acid neutralization. An important difference between them is that while pancreatic juice and saliva are delivered into a lumen where they can be collected and analyzed, ameloblasts produce locally precipitating hydroxyapatite which cannot be easily studied. Interestingly, the ion and protein secretion by the pancreas, the salivary glands, and maturation ameloblasts are all two-step processes, of course with significant differences too...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768525/effects-of-a-food-enriched-with-probiotics-on-streptococcus-mutans-and-lactobacillus-spp-salivary-counts-in-preschool-children-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#16
Judy Villavicencio, Lina Maria Villegas, Maria Cristina Arango, Susana Arias, Francia Triana
Probiotics have provided benefits to general health, but they are still insufficient to dental health. This study aimed to evaluate milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and standard milk, measured by levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus spp., in 3-4-year-old children after 9 months of intervention. The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The sample was composed of 363 preschoolers attending five child development centers in Cali, Colombia. They were randomized to two groups: children in the intervention group drank 200 mL of milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 5x106 and Bifidobacteruim longum 3x106, and children in the control group drank 200 mL of standard milk...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768522/tif4-varnish-protects-the-retention-of-brackets-to-enamel-after-in-vitro-mild-erosive-challenge
#17
Maria Isabel Dantas de Medeiros, Hugo Lemes Carlo, Rogério Lacerda Dos Santos, Frederico Barbosa Sousa, Ricardo Dias de Castro, Renata Cristina Sobreira França, Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho
The effect of fluoride agents on the retention of orthodontic brackets to enamel under erosive challenge is little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) agents on the shear bond strength of brackets to enamel and on the enamel microhardness around brackets under erosive challenge. Brackets were bonded to bovine incisors. Five groups were formed according to fluoride application (n=10): TiF4 varnish, TiF4 solution, NaF varnish, NaF solution and control (without application)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768249/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-saliva-from-infants-undergoing-sepsis-evaluation-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-the-virion-c-study
#18
Andrea Ronchi, Christopher P Ouellette, Asuncion Mejías, Douglas Salamon, Amy Leber, Lorenza Pugni, Fabio Mosca, Pablo J Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among infants evaluated for late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study. RESULTS: During the 13-month study, 84 infants underwent 116 sepsis evaluations, and CMV DNA was detected in saliva in three (4%) infants (median: gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 950 g), representing 5% (n=6) of all sepsis evaluations...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767947/application-of-calcium-binding-motif-of-e-cadherin-for-electrochemical-detection-of-pb-ii
#19
Hamid R Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Rebecca Y Lai
We report, for the first time, the use of a 13-amino-acid peptide sequence derived from the calcium-binding site of E-cadherin in the fabrication of an electrochemical peptide-based (E-PB) Pb(II) sensor. The sensing mechanism is analogous to that of previously developed E-PB sensors. Binding of Pb(II) rigidifies the surface-immobilized and methylene blue (MB)-modified peptide probe, thereby limiting the accessibility of the tethered MB to the electrode surface. This change in probe flexibility results in a reduction in the MB current that is dependent on the target concentration...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766650/social-communication-in-bats
#20
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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