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M Pruessner, L Bechard-Evans, S Pira, R Joober, D L Collins, J C Pruessner, A K Malla
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Sterre S H Simons, Antonius H N Cillessen, Carolina de Weerth
The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Katsuhiko Fukai, Tatsuya Nishi, Nobuaki Shimada, Kazuki Morioka, Manabu Yamada, Kazuo Yoshida, Kenichi Sakamoto, Rie Kitano, Reiko Yamazoe, Makoto Yamakawa
The effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. Cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 epidemic in Japan...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Y F Zhang, D Y Li, J X Yu, H T He
OBJECTIVE: To determine the thickness and nanomechanical properties of salivary pellicle formed on tooth enamel. METHODS: In vitro adsorption experiments were conducted by immersing enamel samples in centrifuged saliva for 1min, and then the nanomechanical properties of the salivary pellicle/tooth enamel system were measured firstly using nanoindentation based on a continuous stiffness measurement technique. Finally, a model was proposed to obtain the thickness and the intrinsic nanohardness of this biofilm...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Victor Monteon, Enrique Quen-Rámirez, Veronica Macedo-Reyes, Ruth Lopez, Karla Acosta-Viana, Pamela Pennigton, Angel Ramos-Ligonio
Under natural conditions, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is transmitted to mammals when faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes gain access through skin lesions, mucosa or bite wounds. Natural infection of bugs with T. cruzi can vary greatly from less than 1% up to 70%, depending on triatomine species: in the case of Triatoma dimidiata, the percentage of infection is around 30%. In this work uses biological fluids (saliva and faeces) from Triatoma dimidiata to inoculate experimental animals once or multiple times, before inoculation with faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes discrete type unit Ia (TcI)...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Vania Polesello, Luisa Zupin, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Gabriele Pozzato, Giulia Ottaviani, Margherita Gobbo, Sergio Crovella, Ludovica Segat
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. DESIGN: We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
N Rostami, R C Shields, S A Yassin, A R Hawkins, L Bowen, T L Luo, A H Rickard, R Holliday, P M Preshaw, N S Jakubovics
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been identified in the matrix of many different monospecies biofilms in vitro, including some of those produced by oral bacteria. In many cases, eDNA stabilizes the structure of monospecies biofilms. Here, the authors aimed to determine whether eDNA is an important component of natural, mixed-species oral biofilms, such as plaque on natural teeth or dental implants. To visualize eDNA in oral biofilms, approaches for fluorescently stained eDNA with either anti-DNA antibodies or an ultrasensitive cell-impermeant dye, YOYO-1, were first developed using Enterococcus faecalis, an organism that has previously been shown to produce extensive eDNA structures within biofilms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Guoqin Yu, Steve Phillips, Mitchell H Gail, James J Goedert, Michael Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Yanfang Ren, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is postulated to affect cancer risk, but collecting microbiota specimens with prospective follow-up for diseases will take time. Buccal cell samples have been obtained from mouthwash for the study of human genomic DNA in many cohort studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using buccal cell samples to examine associations of human microbiota and disease risk. METHODS: We obtained buccal cells from mouthwash in 41 healthy participants using a protocol that is widely employed to obtain buccal cells for the study of human DNA...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Bilal Demir, Tulay Yilmaz, Emine Guler, Z Pinar Gumus, Huseyin Akbulut, Ebru Aldemir, Hakan Coskunol, Demet Goen Colak, Ioan Cianga, Shuhei Yamada, Suna Timur, Takeshi Endo, Yusuf Yagci
Affinity-type sensors have emerged as outstanding platforms in the detection of diagnostic protein markers, nucleic acids and drugs. Thus, these novel platforms containing antibodies could be integrated into the monitoring systems for abused drugs. Herein, we established a novel detection platform for the analysis of a common illicit drug; methamphetamine (METH). Initially, a fluorescent-labeled polypeptide (EDOT-BTDA-Pala), derived from L-alanine N-carboxyanhydride (L-Ala-NCA) via ring-opening polymerization using 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5,6-diamine (EDOT-NH2-BTDA) as initiator, was employed as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covering host, in order to immobilize the METH-selective antibody...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jiamian Wang, Jie Song, Xiuyun Wang, Shuo Wu, Yanqiu Zhao, Pinchen Luo, Changgong Meng
A label-free ratiometric fluorescence aptasensor has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of cocaine in complex biofluids. The fluorescent aptasensor is composed of a non-labeled GC-38 cocaine aptamer which serves as a basic sensing unit and two fluorophores, 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and SYBR Green I (SGI) which serves as a signal reporter and a build-in reference, respectively. The detection principle is based on a specific cocaine mediated ATMND displacement reaction and the corresponding change in the fluorescence ratio of ATMND to SGI...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Prabha H Andraweera, Gustaaf A Dekker, Shalem Leemaqz, Lesley McCowan, Claire T Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is a risk factor for obesity and vascular diseases, is also associated with pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, small for gestational age pregnancy (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). METHODS: A case-control study of 1,741 nulliparous Caucasian women, their partners, and infants was conducted. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood or saliva from parents and cord blood from infants and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY system...
October 21, 2016: Obesity
Jose Enrique de la Rubia Ortí, Sandra Sancho Castillo, Maria Benlloch, Mariano Juliáa Rochina, Silvia Corchón Arreche, María Pilar García Pardo
The understanding of how the immune system works, as well as its relationship with the stress level, seems to be important at the start of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). To analyze this, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and cortisol in saliva were measured using ELISA in patients with mild AD and healthy volunteers, and the production of both biomarkers was compared and correlated. In participants without AD, IgA was higher when cortisol was lower, and the opposite happened in participants with AD, with the quantification in saliva being a suitable method to determine it...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Priyanka G Bhosale, Manishkumar Pandey, Rajiv S Desai, Asawari Patil, Shubhada Kane, Kumar Prabhash, Manoj B Mahimkar
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed the prevalence of transcriptionally active human papilloma virus (HPV) in tissue samples of Indian patients with leukoplakia, predominantly hyperplastic lesions and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, saliva samples from patients with HNSCC were screened for HPV detection. STUDY DESIGN: P16 overexpression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Tissue samples of leukoplakia (n = 121) and HNSCC (n = 427) and saliva from patients with HNSCC (n = 215) were tested for HPV using nested polymerase chain reaction...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Y Sun, Y X Wang, J Zhang, X W Yu, S S Ge, H Wang, J Dong, X H Guo, W Wang
Objective: To analyze and compare the gender specific structure profiles of immunoglobulin G(IgG) N-glycans and provide evidence to understand the distribution of the structure of IgG N-glycans in general population. Methods: A cluster sampling was conducted to randomly select 669 participants from Beijing Xuanwu Hospital during January-June 2012. Venous blood sample (5 ml) was collected from each participant with vacuum negative pressure tube containing EDTA. Plasma IgG N-glycome was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) on Waters BEH Glycan chromatography column and mass spectrometry after the separation, purification and labeling...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Ying Zhang, Xi Wang, Dan Cui, Jun Zhu
The human whole saliva is a vital body fluid to study the physiology and pathology of oral cavity. As a powerful technique for biomarker discovery, mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy has been introduced to saliva analysis and identified hundreds of proteins and N-glycosylation sites. However, there still lacks of quantitative analysis, which is necessary for biomarker screening and biological researches. In this study, we established an integrated workflow by the combination of stable isotope dimethyl labeling, HILIC enrichment and high resolution mass spectrometry for both quantification of global proteome and N-glycoproteome of human saliva from oral ulcer patients...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics
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