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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214543/theoretical-structural-characterization-of-lymphoguanylin-a-potential-candidate-for-the-development-of-drugs-to-treat-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
Állan S Pires, William F Porto, Pryscilla O Castro, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar
Guanylin peptides (GPs) are small cysteine-rich peptide hormones involved in salt absorption, regulation of fluids and electrolyte homeostasis. This family presents four members: guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin (LGN) and renoguanylin (RGN). GPs have been used as templates for the development of drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Currently, LGN is the only GP with just one disulfide bridge, making it a remarkable member of this family and a potential drug template; however, there is no structural information about this peptide...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214087/targeting-the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Rajiv Kumar, Dearbhaile Collins, Saoirse Dolly, Fiona McDonald, Mary E R O'Brien, Timothy A Yap
The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the discovery and development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer medicine, particularly drugs targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The proven antitumor efficacy coupled with low rates of drug-related toxicities observed, albeit idiosyncratic, with these novel immunotherapeutics have led to the registration of multiple PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, in second-line advanced NSCLC, whereas durvalumab and avelumab are in late-phase clinical testing...
December 23, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212929/structural-analysis-of-a-homogeneous-polysaccharide-from-achatina-fulica
#3
Jie Liu, Feineng Shang, Zengming Yang, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC)...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212290/defining-clinical-response-criteria-and-early-response-criteria-for-precision-oncology-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#4
Vivek Subbiah, Hubert H Chuang, Dhiraj Gambhire, Kalevi Kairemo
In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016...
February 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212271/carbon-nanotubes-as-an-effective-opportunity-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Alessandro Sanginario, Beatrice Miccoli, Danilo Demarchi
Despite the current progresses of modern medicine, the resistance of malignant tumors to present medical treatments points to the necessity of developing new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, numerous studies have focused their attention on the promising use of nanomaterials, like iron oxide nanowires, zinc oxide or mesoporous silica nanoparticles, for cancer and metastasis treatment with the advantage of operating directly at the bio-molecular scale. Among them, carbon nanotubes emerged as valid candidates not only for drug delivery, but also as a valuable tool in cancer imaging and physical ablation...
February 15, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208755/micrornas-new-insight-in-modulating-follicular-atresia-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Tesfaye Worku, Zia Ur Rehman, Hira Sajjad Talpur, Dinesh Bhattarai, Farman Ullah, Ngabu Malobi, Tesfaye Kebede, Liguo Yang
Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191452/circulating-tumor-cells-in-genitourinary-malignancies-an-evolving-path-to-precision-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Cory M Hugen, Daniel E Zainfeld, Amir Goldkorn
Precision medicine with molecularly directed therapeutics is rapidly expanding in all subspecialties of oncology. Molecular analysis and treatment monitoring require tumor tissue, but resections or biopsies are not always feasible due to tumor location, patient safety, and cost. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer a safe, low-cost, and repeatable tissue source as an alternative to invasive biopsies. "Liquid biopsies" can be collected from a peripheral blood draw and analyzed to isolate, enumerate, and molecularly characterize CTCs...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175964/painting-a-new-picture-of-personalised-medicine-for-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Mark I McCarthy
The current focus on delivery of personalised (or precision) medicine reflects the expectation that developments in genomics, imaging and other domains will extend our diagnostic and prognostic capabilities, and enable more effective targeting of current and future preventative and therapeutic options. The clinical benefits of this approach are already being realised in rare diseases and cancer but the impact on management of complex diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, remains limited. This may reflect reliance on inappropriate models of disease architecture, based around rare, high-impact genetic and environmental exposures that are poorly suited to our emerging understanding of type 2 diabetes...
February 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173801/cryptococcus-gattii-molecular-type-vgii-infection-associated-with-lung-disease-in-a-goat
#9
Evelin Catarine da Silva, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Luciana Neves Torres, Alessandra Maria Dias Lacerda, Raquel Gonçalves Gomes, Danilo Marin Rodrigues, Rodrigo Albergaria Réssio, Priscilla Anne Melville, Camila Cecilia Martin, Fernando José Benesi, Lílian Rose Marques de Sá, Bruno Cogliati
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals with worldwide distribution and public health importance due to its significant morbidity and mortality rate. The present study aimed to report a case of pulmonary infection by C. gattii molecular type VGII in State of São Paulo, Brazil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old goat showing intermittent dry cough, ruminal tympany, anorexia, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea was presented for necropsy at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil...
February 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163379/medical-applications-of-non-thermal-atmospheric-pressure-plasma
#10
REVIEW
Hiromasa Tanaka, Masaru Hori
An innovative approach for producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma. The technique has been applied in a wide variety of fields ranging from the micro-fabrication of electric devices to the treatment of disease. Although non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been shown to be clinically beneficial for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this review, we describe the current progress in plasma medicine, with a particular emphasis on plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is a solution that is irradiated with a plasma and has broadened the applications of plasmas in medicine...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162776/the-future-of-psychiatry-brain-devices
#11
Jorge Alberto Costa E Silva, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen
Recent advances in deep brain stimulators and brain-machine interfaces have greatly expanded the possibilities of neuroprosthetics and neuromodulation. Together with advances in neuroengineering, nanotechnology, molecular biology and material sciences, it is now possible to address fundamental questions in neuroscience in new, more powerful ways. It is now possible to apply these new technologies in ways that range from augmenting and restoring function to neuromodulation modalities that treat neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161621/evolution-of-cancer-suppression-as-revealed-by-mammalian-comparative-genomics
#12
REVIEW
Marc Tollis, Joshua D Schiffman, Amy M Boddy
Cancer suppression is an important feature in the evolution of large and long-lived animals. While some tumor suppression pathways are conserved among all multicellular organisms, others mechanisms of cancer resistance are uniquely lineage specific. Comparative genomics has become a powerful tool to discover these unique and shared molecular adaptations in respect to cancer suppression. These findings may one day be translated to human patients through evolutionary medicine. Here, we will review theory and methods of comparative cancer genomics and highlight major findings of cancer suppression across mammals...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159862/temozolomide-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Anish Thomas, Mamoru Tanaka, Jane Trepel, William C Reinhold, Vinodh N Rajapakse, Yves Pommier
In the January 1, 2017, issue of Cancer Research, Nagel and colleagues demonstrate the value of assays that determine the DNA repair capacity of cancers in predicting response to temozolomide. Using a fluorescence-based multiplex flow cytometric host cell reactivation assay that provides simultaneous readout of DNA repair capacity across multiple pathways, they show that the multivariate drug response models derived from cell line data were applicable to patient-derived xenograft models of glioblastoma. In this commentary, we first outline the mechanism of activity and current clinical application of temozolomide, which, until now, has been largely limited to glioblastoma...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157586/the-current-state-of-clinical-interpretation-of-sequence-variants
#14
REVIEW
Derick C Hoskinson, Adrian M Dubuc, Heather Mason-Suares
Accurate and consistent variant classification is required for Precision Medicine. But clinical variant classification remains in its infancy. While recent guidelines put forth jointly by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) for the classification of Mendelian variants has advanced the field, the degree of subjectivity allowed by these guidelines can still lead to inconsistent classification across clinical molecular genetic laboratories. In addition, there are currently no such guidelines for somatic cancer variants, only published institutional practices...
January 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157404/whole-slide-imaging-for-analytical-anatomic-pathology-and-telepathology-practical-applications-today-promises-and-perils
#15
Alton Brad Farris, Cynthia Cohen, Thomas E Rogers, Geoffrey H Smith
Whole slide imaging (WSI) offers a convenient, tractable platform for measuring features of routine and special-stain histology or in immunohistochemistry staining by using digital image analysis (IA). We now routinely use IA for quantitative and qualitative analysis of theranostic markers such as human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2/neu), estrogen and progesterone receptors, and Ki-67. Quantitative IA requires extensive validation, however, and may not always be the best approach, with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being one example in which a semiautomated approach may be preferable for patient care...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154920/high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-the-clone-wars
#16
REVIEW
Aleksander Salomon-Perzyński, Magdalena Salomon-Perzyńska, Bogdan Michalski, Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta
BACKGROUND: The last 5 years' studies using next-generation sequencing provided evidences that many types of solid tumors present spatial and temporal genetic heterogeneity and are composed of multiple populations of genetically distinct subclones that evolve over time following a pattern of branched evolution. The evolutionary nature of cancer has been proposed as the major contributor to drug resistance and treatment failure. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge about the clonal evolution of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and discuss the challenge that clonal evolution poses for efforts to achieve an optimal cancer control...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149031/thoughts-on-the-current-management-of-acute-aluminum-phosphide-toxicity-and-proposals-for-therapy-an-evidence-based-review
#17
REVIEW
Maryam Vasheghani Farahani, Davood Soroosh, Sayed Mahdi Marashi
The majority of aluminum phosphide (ALP) toxicity cases are suicidal attempts. Despite advances in critical care medicine, the mortality rate of ALP remains very high. Unfortunately, knowledge on the toxicokinetics of ALP is very low. An obsolete idea was proposed that inhibition of complex IV of cytochrome C oxidase is responsible for multiorgan dysfunction. However, based on human studies, this effect might be insignificant. Thus, a novel idea proposes that the main mechanism might be vascular wall integrity disruption...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144727/-non-vitamin-k-dependent-oral-anticoagulants-what-is-important-in-intensive-care-medicine
#18
D C Gulba, L Broscaru
Since first used in 2009, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have gained world-wide acceptance. Two groups of NOAC are currently used: the direct thrombin antagonist dabigatran and three direct factor  Xa antagonists apixaban, edoxaban, and ricaroxaban. With their increasing use for prevention of thromboembolism, the probability increases that NOAC-pretreated patients are admitted to emergency departments or intensive care units.The clinical challenge in NOAC preanticoagulated patients is to adequately cope with the given anticoagulated status of such patients...
January 31, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144610/pediatric-hepatocellular-carcinoma-challenges-and-solutions
#19
REVIEW
Irene Schmid, Dietrich von Schweinitz
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare entity in children, making it nearly impossible to orchestrate Phase II/III studies even as multinational cooperative trials. In contrast to adults, nearly 50% of the children have a response (α-fetoprotein decline and/or tumor shrinkage) to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and doxorubicin (PLADO), demonstrating that HCC in childhood can be chemotherapy sensitive. As a result, the main treatment options in pediatric HCC focus on systemic drug therapies and resection as the central therapy...
2017: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134827/natural-products-as-new-treatment-options-for-trichomoniasis-a-molecular-docking-investigation
#20
Mary Snow Setzer, Kendall G Byler, Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe, William N Setzer
Trichomoniasis, caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually-transmitted disease, and there can be severe complications from trichomoniasis. Antibiotic resistance in T. vaginalis is increasing, but there are currently no alternatives treatment options. There is a need to discover and develop new chemotherapeutic alternatives. Plant-derived natural products have long served as sources for new medicinal agents, as well as new leads for drug discovery and development...
January 27, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
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