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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924064/toward-the-use-of-precision-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Wang Gong, Yandi Xiao, Zihao Wei, Yao Yuan, Min Qiu, Chongkui Sun, Xin Zeng, Xinhua Liang, Mingye Feng, Qianming Chen
Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of "big data", such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine...
December 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922482/evolution-of-quality-assurance-for-clinical-immunohistochemistry-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-part-1-fit-for-purpose-approach-to-classification-of-clinical-immunohistochemistry-biomarkers
#2
Carol C Cheung, Corrado D'Arrigo, Manfred Dietel, Glenn D Francis, C Blake Gilks, Jacqueline A Hall, Jason L Hornick, Merdol Ibrahim, Antonio Marchetti, Keith Miller, J Han van Krieken, Soren Nielsen, Paul E Swanson, Clive R Taylor, Mogens Vyberg, Xiaoge Zhou, Emina E Torlakovic
Technical progress in immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as the increased utility of IHC for biomarker testing in precision medicine avails us of the opportunity to reassess clinical IHC as a laboratory test and its proper characterization as a special type of immunoassay. IHC, as used in current clinical applications, is a descriptive, qualitative, cell-based, usually nonlinear, in situ protein immunoassay, for which the readout of the results is principally performed by pathologists rather than by the instruments on which the immunoassay is performed...
January 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918162/-mutations-in-genes-affecting-fertility-of-men-current-routine-laboratory-genetic-diagnostics-and-searching-for-more-dna-segments-and-genes-influencing-spermatogenesis
#4
I Hrdlička, B Chylíková, K Veselá, M Danková, M Janků, K Řežábek, R Mihalová, F Liška
OBJECTIVE: To present the results of molecular genetics analysis in men with reproductive disorders focusing on the DNA segments and genes which affect spermatogenesis. DESIGN: Original article. SETTING: Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics of the First Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital, Prague. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three patients identified with a fertility disorder were screened for mutations of the CFTR gene...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910030/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
Edmond S K Ma
Characteristic chromosomal translocations are found to be associated with subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), for example t(8;14)(q24;q32) and Burkitt lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and follicular lymphoma, and t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma. Only few recurrent cytogenetic aberrations have been identified in the T-cell NHL and the best known is the ALK gene translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Since lymph node or other tissue is seldom submitted for conventional cytogenetics study, alternative approaches for translocation detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902406/mlvf-as-a-method-for-rapid-and-cost-effective-typing-of-animal-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-from-lineages-other-than-st398
#6
Maja Kosecka-Strojek, Weronika M Ilczyszyn, Aneta Buda, Klaudia Polakowska, Krzysztof Murzyn, Tomasz Panz, Anna Bialecka, Andrzej Kasprowicz, Antoni Jakubczak, Jaroslaw Krol, Alina Wieliczko, Benedykt Wladyka, Jacek Miedzobrodzki
In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a range of mild to severe infections. The high density of livestock in intensive farming systems increases the risk of disease spread and hampers its control and measures of prevention, making S. aureus one of the most important animal pathogens. Multiple-locus VNTR fingerprinting (MLVF) has been successfully applied to the characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 but not to the characterization of a wide range of other animal isolates...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896485/biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-bladder-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Takahiro Kojima, Koji Kawai, Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
Bladder cancer (BC) is classified as non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) or muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). Because the recurrence and mortality rates of BC are high, suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses are needed. Urinary markers simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors, especially in NMIBC. Various markers have been identified at DNA, RNA, and protein levels with different sensitivities and specificities. Several biomarkers show a higher sensitivity than urinary cytology, but they are not accurate enough to replace it...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892737/progress-in-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-lyme-disease
#8
Eva Ružić-Sabljić, Tjaša Cerar
Current laboratory testing of Lyme borreliosis mostly relies on serological methods with known limitations. Diagnostic modalities enabling direct detection of pathogen at the onset of the clinical signs could overcome some of the limitations. Molecular methods detecting borrelial DNA seem to be the ideal solution, although there are some aspects that need to be considered. Areas covered: This review represent summary and discussion of the published data obtained from literature searches from PubMed and The National Library of Medicine (USA) together with our own experience on molecular diagnosis of Lyme disease...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890729/maturation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-hesc-cms-in-3d-collagen-matrix-effects-of-niche-cell-supplementation-and-mechanical-stimulation
#9
W Zhang, C W Kong, M H Tong, W H Chooi, N Huang, R A Li, B P Chan
: Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) are regarded as a promising source for regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. Nevertheless, cardiomyocytes are immature in terms of their contractile structure, metabolism and electrophysiological properties. Here, we fabricate cardiac muscle strips by encapsulating hESC-CMs in collagen-based biomaterials. Supplementation of niche cells at 3% to the number of hESC-CMs enhance the maturation of the hESC-CMs in 3D tissue matrix...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888133/network-pharmacology-based-study-on-the-mechanism-of-action-for-herbal-medicines-in-alzheimer-treatment
#10
Jiansong Fang, Ling Wang, Tian Wu, Cong Yang, Li Gao, Haobin Cai, Junhui Liu, Shuhuan Fang, Yunbo Chen, Wen Tan, Qi Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alzheimer's disease (AD), as the most common type of dementia, has brought a heavy economic burden to healthcare system around the world. However, currently there is still lack of effective treatment for AD patients. Herbal medicines, featured as multiple herbs, ingredients and targets, have accumulated a great deal of valuable experience in treating AD although the exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this investigation, we proposed a network pharmacology-based method, which combined large-scale text-mining, drug-likeness filtering, target prediction and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action for the most widely studied medicinal herbs in AD treatment...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884974/from-leeches-to-personalized-medicine-evolving-concepts-in-the-management-of-polycythemia-vera
#11
Alessandro Maria Vannucchi
Polycythemia vera (PV), a clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that manifests with prevalent expansion of red cell mass, is the most frequent among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2 exon 14 , or less common mutations in exon 12, in virtually all cases. The landmark discovery of autonomously activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway paved the way for the clinical development of the first target drug, the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, that is now approved for patients with resistance or intolerance to hydroxyurea...
November 24, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879323/issues-and-challenges-in-diagnostic-sequencing-for-inherited-cardiac-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Roddy Walsh, Stuart A Cook
BACKGROUND: Inherited cardiac conditions are a relatively common group of Mendelian diseases associated with ill health and death, often in the young. Research into the genetic causes of these conditions has enabled confirmatory and predictive diagnostic sequencing to become an integral part of the clinical management of inherited cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, aortopathies, and dyslipidemias. CONTENT: Currently, the principle benefit of clinical genetic testing is the cascade screening of family members of patients with a pathogenic variant, enabling targeted follow up of presymptomatic genotype-positive individuals and discharge of genotype-negative individuals to health...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873264/current-trends-and-alternative-scenarios-in-ebv-research
#13
Janos Minarovits, Hans Helmut Niller
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several distinct hematological and epithelial malignancies, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and others. The association with several malignant tumors of local and worldwide distribution makes EBV one of the most important tumor viruses. Furthermore, because EBV can cause posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, transplant medicine has to deal with EBV as a major pathogenic virus second only to cytomegalovirus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870685/the-importance-of-biopsy-in-the-era-of-molecular-medicine
#14
Etay Ziv, Jeremy C Durack, Stephen B Solomon
Recent advances in the molecular characterization of cancers have triggered interest in developing a new taxonomy of disease in oncology with the goal of using the molecular profile of a patient's tumor to predict response to treatment. Image-guided needle biopsy is central to this "precision medicine" effort. In this review, we first discuss the current role of biopsy in relation to clinical examples of molecular medicine. We then outline important bottlenecks to the advancement of precision medicine and highlight the potential role of image-guided biopsy to address these challenges...
November 2016: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866729/molecular-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-disorders
#15
REVIEW
L Koric, E Guedj, M O Habert, F Semah, P Branger, P Payoux, F Le Jeune
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its related disorders rely on clinical criteria. There is, however, a large clinical overlap between the different neurodegenerative diseases affecting cognition and, frequently, there are diagnostic uncertainties with atypical clinical presentations. Current clinical practices can now regularly use positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging to help resolve such uncertainties...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866095/continuing-egfr-inhibition-beyond-progression-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Timothy A Yap, Aislinn Macklin-Doherty, Sanjay Popat
The majority of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but nearly all inevitably acquire resistance and develop disease progression. Conventional practice would be to switch treatments to second-line therapy. However, continuing TKIs beyond progression is becoming increasingly commonplace in patients with indolent, small volume asymptomatic growth, who may potentially continue to derive ongoing clinical benefit and to avoid a 'withdrawal tumour flare'...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863567/advancing-precision-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-for-lymphoma
#17
REVIEW
Chadwick L Wright, Joseph J Maly, Jun Zhang, Michael V Knopp
PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of (18)F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology...
January 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860461/heterologous-expression-of-the-plant-cysteine-protease-bromelain-and-its-inhibitor-in-pichia-pastoris
#18
Nora Luniak, Peter Meiser, Sonja Burkart, Rolf Müller
Expression of proteases in heterologous hosts remains an ambitious challenge due to severe problems associated with digestion of host proteins. On the other hand, proteases are broadly used in industrial applications and resemble promising drug candidates. Bromelain is an herbal drug that is medicinally used for treatment of oedematous swellings and inflammatory conditions and consists in large part of proteolytic enzymes. Even though various experiments underline the requirement of active cysteine proteases for biological activity, so far no investigation succeeded to clearly clarify the pharmacological mode of action of bromelain...
November 14, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858363/orthotopic-model-of-ovarian-cancer
#19
Alessandra Decio, Raffaella Giavazzi
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth commonest cancer-related cause of female death in the developed world. In spite of current surgical and chemotherapeutic options the vast majority of patients have widely metastatic disease and the survival rate has not much changed over the last years. The anti-angiogenic drugs are driving the field of agents targeting the tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Preclinical models that accurately reproduce the molecular and biological features of ovarian cancer patients are a valuable means of producing reliable data on personalized medicine and predicting the therapeutic response in clinical trials...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855627/recent-advances-in-obesity-the-role-of-turmeric-tuber-and-its-metabolites-in-the-prophylaxis-and-therapeutical-strategies
#20
Agata Jarząb, Wirginia Kukula-Koch
This contribution reviews current literature on the application of turmeric tuber - a commonly used spice - as an anti-obesity agent. Following an introduction about the biochemical significance of obesity and characteristics of various groups of natural products applied in the therapy of overweight patients, the authors focus on Curcuma secondary metabolites, their pharmacological applications and present a detailed study on the regulatory properties of turmeric towards various biochemical mechanisms of obesity...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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