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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437559/chromosomal-evolution-in-large-pelagic-oceanic-apex-predators-the-barracudas-sphyraenidae-percomorpha
#1
R X Soares, M B Cioffi, L A C Bertollo, A T Borges, G W W F Costa, W F Molina
Sphyraena (barracudas) represents the only genus of the Sphyraenidae family and includes 27 species distributed into the tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. These pelagic predators can reach large sizes and, thus, attracting significant interest from commercial and sport fishing. Evolutionary data for this fish group, as well its chromosomal patterns, are very incipient. In the present study, the species Sphyraena guachancho, S. barracuda, and S. picudilla were analyzed under conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding, and Ag-NOR) and molecular (CMA3 banding, and in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and telomeric probes) cytogenetic methods...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430794/experimental-demonstration-of-a-trophic-cascade-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-rocky-subtidal-effects-of-consumer-identity-and-behavior
#2
Jon D Witman, Franz Smith, Mark Novak
In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426423/the-discovery-of-acanthocephalans-parasitizing-chaetognaths
#3
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas
A comprehensive literature review shows that 12 types of pathogens, micropredators and parasites are reported to interact with chaetognaths, mostly digenean trematodes, cestodes and nematodes larval stages. Through analysis of 78,152 chaetognaths from a monthly zooplankton time series (Jan 1996-Dec 1998) collected in the Mexican Central Pacific twelve acanthocephalan larvae parasitizing chaetognaths were discovered. This is the first record of an acanthocephalan parasitizing chaetognaths, raising to 13 the types of symbionts known to interact with them (excluding predators)...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408764/fossil-climbing-perch-and-associated-plant-megafossils-indicate-a-warm-and-wet-central-tibet-during-the-late-oligocene
#4
Feixiang Wu, Desui Miao, Mee-Mann Chang, Gongle Shi, Ning Wang
Understanding the Tibetan Plateau's palaeogeography and palaeoenvironment is critical for reconstructing Asia's climatic history; however, aspects of the plateau's uplift history remain unclear. Here, we report a fossil biota that sheds new light on these issues. It comprises a fossil climbing perch (Anabantidae) and a diverse subtropical fossil flora from the Chattian (late Oligocene) of central Tibet. The fish, Eoanabas thibetana gen. et sp. nov., is inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from tropical lowlands in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405231/secondary-metabolome-and-its-defensive-role-in-the-aeolidoidean-phyllodesmium-longicirrum-gastropoda-heterobranchia-nudibranchia
#5
Alexander Bogdanov, Cora Hertzer, Stefan Kehraus, Samuel Nietzer, Sven Rohde, Peter J Schupp, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König
Phyllodesmium longicirrum is the largest aeolidoidean species known to date, and extremely rich in terpenoid chemistry. Herein we report the isolation of a total of 19 secondary metabolites from a single specimen of this species, i.e., steroids 1-4, cembranoid diterpenes 5-13, complex biscembranoids 14 and 15, and the chatancin-type diterpenes 16-19. These compounds resemble those from soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton, of which to date, however, only S. trocheliophorum is described as a food source for P...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388875/sex-specific-differences-in-transcriptome-profiles-of-brain-and-muscle-tissue-of-the-tropical-gar
#6
Kayla M Cribbin, Corey R Quackenbush, Kyle Taylor, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Joanna L Kelley
BACKGROUND: The tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) is the southernmost species of the seven extant species of gar fishes in the world. In Mexico and Central America, the species is an important food source due to its nutritional quality and low price. Despite its regional importance and increasing concerns about overexploitation and habitat degradation, basic genetic information on the tropical gar is lacking. Determining genetic information on the tropical gar is important for the sustainable management of wild populations, implementation of best practices in aquaculture settings, evolutionary studies of ancient lineages, and an understanding of sex-specific gene expression...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372566/the-cross-cutting-contribution-of-the-end-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-to-the-sustainable-development-goals
#7
REVIEW
Mathieu Bangert, David H Molyneux, Steve W Lindsay, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Dirk Engels
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for an integrated response, the kind that has defined Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) efforts in the past decade.NTD interventions have the greatest relevance for SDG3, the health goal, where the focus on equity, and its commitment to reaching people in need of health services, wherever they may live and whatever their circumstances, is fundamentally aligned with the target of Universal Health Coverage. NTD interventions, however, also affect and are affected by many of the other development areas covered under the 2030 Agenda...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355269/use-of-a-counterfactual-approach-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-area-closures-on-fishing-location-in-a-tropical-tuna-fishery
#8
Tim K Davies, Chris C Mees, E J Milner-Gulland
Spatial closures are widely used in marine conservation and fisheries management and it is important to understand their contribution to achieving management objectives. Many previous evaluations of closed area effects have used before-after comparisons, which, without controlling for a full range of factors, cannot ascribe changes in fleet behaviour to area closures per se. In this study we used a counterfactual approach to disentangle the effect of two closed areas on fishing location from other competing effects on the behaviour of the Indian Ocean tuna purse seine fishery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331606/responses-of-coral-reef-fishes-to-past-climate-changes-are-related-to-life-history-traits
#9
Eduardo Ottimofiore, Camille Albouy, Fabien Leprieur, Patrice Descombes, Michel Kulbicki, David Mouillot, Valeriano Parravicini, Loïc Pellissier
Coral reefs and their associated fauna are largely impacted by ongoing climate change. Unravelling species responses to past climatic variations might provide clues on the consequence of ongoing changes. Here, we tested the relationship between changes in sea surface temperature and sea levels during the Quaternary and present-day distributions of coral reef fish species. We investigated whether species-specific responses are associated with life-history traits. We collected a database of coral reef fish distribution together with life-history traits for the Indo-Pacific Ocean...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331585/phylogenetics-and-biogeography-of-the-two-wing-flyingfish-exocoetidae-exocoetus
#10
Eric A Lewallen, Andrew J Bohonak, Carolina A Bonin, Andre J van Wijnen, Robert L Pitman, Nathan R Lovejoy
Two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetus spp.) are widely distributed, epipelagic, mid-trophic organisms that feed on zooplankton and are preyed upon by numerous predators (e.g., tunas, dolphinfish, tropical seabirds), yet an understanding of their speciation and systematics is lacking. As a model of epipelagic fish speciation and to investigate mechanisms that increase biodiversity, we studied the phylogeny and biogeography of Exocoetus, a highly abundant holoepipelagic fish taxon of the tropical open ocean. Morphological and molecular data were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and biogeographic patterns of the five putative Exocoetus species...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331392/marine-biodiversity-baseline-for-%C3%A3-rea-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-costa-rica-published-records
#11
REVIEW
Jorge Cortés
The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930's by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990's, except for the marine turtles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322846/did-biogeographical-processes-shape-the-monogenean-community-of-butterflyfishes-in-the-tropical-indo-west-pacific-region
#12
M Reverter, T H Cribb, S C Cutmore, R A Bray, V Parravicini, P Sasal
Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n=560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62millionkm(2)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#13
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300282/stable-nitrogen-and-carbon-isotopes-in-sediments-and-biota-from-three-tropical-marine-food-webs-application-to-chemical-bioaccumulation-assessment
#14
Hui Zhang, Yun Teng, Tra Thi Thanh Doan, Yun Wei Yat, Sheot Harn Chan, Barry C Kelly
Studies of trophodynamics and contaminant bioaccumulation in tropical marine ecosystems are limited. The present study employed stable isotope and trace contaminant analysis to assess sources of primary productivity, trophic interactions, and chemical bioaccumulation behavior in 2 mangrove food webs and 1 offshore coastal marine food web in Singapore. Samples of sediment, phytoplankton, mangrove leaves, clams, snails, crabs, worms, prawns, and fishes were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values, as well as concentrations of persistent organic pollutants...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300113/global-warming-and-recurrent-mass-bleaching-of-corals
#15
Terry P Hughes, James T Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Jorge G Álvarez-Romero, Kristen D Anderson, Andrew H Baird, Russell C Babcock, Maria Beger, David R Bellwood, Ray Berkelmans, Tom C Bridge, Ian R Butler, Maria Byrne, Neal E Cantin, Steeve Comeau, Sean R Connolly, Graeme S Cumming, Steven J Dalton, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, C Mark Eakin, Will F Figueira, James P Gilmour, Hugo B Harrison, Scott F Heron, Andrew S Hoey, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Mia O Hoogenboom, Emma V Kennedy, Chao-Yang Kuo, Janice M Lough, Ryan J Lowe, Gang Liu, Malcolm T McCulloch, Hamish A Malcolm, Michael J McWilliam, John M Pandolfi, Rachel J Pears, Morgan S Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Tristan Simpson, William J Skirving, Brigitte Sommer, Gergely Torda, David R Wachenfeld, Bette L Willis, Shaun K Wilson
During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291600/evidence-of-multiple-species-of-chilodonella-protozoa-ciliophora-infecting-australian-farmed-freshwater-fishes
#16
Giana Bastos Gomes, Terrence L Miller, David B Vaughan, Dean R Jerry, Christina McCowan, Tracey L Bradley, Kate S Hutson
Parasitic Chilodonella species, Chilodonella piscicola and Chilodonella hexasticha, cause considerable economic losses globally to freshwater farmed fish production. Some genetic studies of Chilodonella spp. have indicated that many species within the genus may form cryptic species complexes. To understand the diversity of Chilodonella spp. infecting Australian freshwater farmed fish, specimens were isolated from infected barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) from fish farms in tropical north Queensland (QLD), temperate Victoria (Vic) and New South Wales (NSW) for genetic and morphological analysis...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289806/estrogenic-effects-in-feral-male-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-from-laguna-de-bay-philippines
#17
Michelle Grace V Paraso, Justinne Kaye C Morales, Angelo A Clavecillas, Ma Suzanneth Epifania G Lola
This study was conducted to measure 17β-estradiol (E2) levels in Laguna de Bay, Philippines and to examine feral male common carp for evidence of exposure to estrogenic pollutants. Analysis of water samples revealed E2 concentrations of 630 and 550 ng/L from the east and west bay of the lake, respectively. Plasma vitellogenin (VTG) in captured fish ranged from 506 to 4083 ng/mL. In comparison to the reference and west bay groups, fish from the east bay had higher plasma VTG concentrations and reduced gonadosomatic index (GSI)...
March 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280563/body-size-trophic-position-relationships-among-fishes-of-the-lower-mekong-basin
#18
Chouly Ou, Carmen G Montaña, Kirk O Winemiller
Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ(15)N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262632/pufferfish-mortality-associated-with-novel-polar-marine-toxins-in-hawaii
#19
Thierry M Work, Peter D R Moeller, Kevin R Beauchesne, Julie Dagenais, Renee Breeden, Robert Rameyer, William J Walsh, Melanie Abecassis, Donald R Kobayashi, Carla Conway, James Winton
Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254628/mitochondrial-genomic-comparison-of-clonorchis-sinensis-from-south-korea-with-other-isolates-of-this-species
#20
Daxi Wang, Neil D Young, Anson V Koehler, Patrick Tan, Woon-Mok Sohn, Pasi K Korhonen, Robin B Gasser
Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite...
February 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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