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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802443/controlling-robots-in-the-home-factors-that-affect-the-performance-of-novice-robot-operators
#1
Conor McGinn, Aran Sena, Kevin Kelly
For robots to successfully integrate into everyday life, it is important that they can be effectively controlled by laypeople. However, the task of manually controlling mobile robots can be challenging due to demanding cognitive and sensorimotor requirements. This research explores the effect that the built environment has on the manual control of domestic service robots. In this study, a virtual reality simulation of a domestic robot control scenario was developed. The performance of fifty novice users was evaluated, and their subjective experiences recorded through questionnaires...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792955/a-robotic-system-for-researching-social-integration-in-honeybees
#2
Karlo Griparić, Tomislav Haus, Damjan Miklić, Marsela Polić, Stjepan Bogdan
In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780312/losing-ground-frontostriatal-atrophy-disrupts-language-embodiment-in-parkinson-s-and-huntington-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Giselle Kozono, Agustina Legaz, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Within the language domain, movement disorders triggered by frontostriatal damage are characterized by deficits in action verbs, motor-language coupling, and syntax. However, these impairments have not been jointly interpreted under a unifying rationale or integratively assessed in terms of possible clinical implications. To bridge these gaps, here we introduce the "disrupted motor grounding hypothesis", a new framework to conceive such impairments as disturbances of embodied mechanisms (high-order domains based on the recycling of functionally germane sensorimotor circuits)...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772104/the-role-of-the-lateral-intraparietal-area-in-the-study-of-decision-making
#4
Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz, Jacob L Yates
Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764837/supportive-treatments-for-patients-with-cancer
#5
Karin Jordan, Petra Feyer, Ulrike Höller, Hartmut Link, Bernhard Wörmann, Franziska Jahn
BACKGROUND: For the treatment of patients with cancer to be successful and well-tolerated, the complications and side effects of the disease and its treatment must be treated and limited as far as possible. Summarized recommendations based on the constantly increasing evidence in the area of supportive care must be defined, standardized, and communicated. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature on the topics of anemia, neutropenia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, oral mucositis, skin toxicity, and peripheral neurotoxicity induced by cancer treatment, as well as osseous complications, extravasation, and side effects of radiotherapy...
July 10, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760698/assessment-of-behavioural-deficits-following-ischaemic-stroke-in-the-marmoset
#6
REVIEW
Rozenn Le Gal, Myriam Bernaudin, Jérôme Toutain, Omar Touzani
Stroke is a common and devastating disease worldwide. Over the last two decades, many therapeutic approaches to ameliorate ischaemic stroke have been promising in animal studies but failed when transferred to the clinical situation. One of the possible explanations for these failures is the widespread use of animal models of cerebral ischemia that do not mimic the pathology encountered in the clinic. Accordingly, many expert committees recommended the integration of higher order species such as non-human primates in pre-clinical stroke studies...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758998/functional-dissection-of-signal-and-noise-in-mt-and-lip-during-decision-making
#7
Jacob L Yates, Il Memming Park, Leor N Katz, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
During perceptual decision-making, responses in the middle temporal (MT) and lateral intraparietal (LIP) areas appear to map onto theoretically defined quantities, with MT representing instantaneous motion evidence and LIP reflecting the accumulated evidence. However, several aspects of the transformation between the two areas have not been empirically tested. We therefore performed multistage systems identification analyses of the simultaneous activity of MT and LIP during individual decisions. We found that monkeys based their choices on evidence presented in early epochs of the motion stimulus and that substantial early weighting of motion was present in MT responses...
July 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#8
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747870/neural-entrainment-and-sensorimotor-synchronization-to-the-beat-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-eeg-study
#9
Lincoln J Colling, Hannah L Noble, Usha Goswami
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#10
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e. in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737256/insula-based-networks-in-professional-musicians-evidence-for-increased-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state-fmri
#11
Anna M Zamorano, Ignacio Cifre, Pedro Montoya, Inmaculada Riquelme, Boris Kleber
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732483/effects-of-dual-task-and-walking-speed-on-gait-variability-in-people-with-chronic-ankle-instability-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Shmuel Springer, Uri Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that impaired central sensorimotor integration may contribute to deficits in movement control experienced by people with chronic ankle instability (CAI). This study compared the effects of dual-task and walking speed on gait variability in individuals with and without CAI. METHODS: Sixteen subjects with CAI and 16 age- and gender-matched, able-bodied controls participated in this study. Stride time variability and stride length variability were measured on a treadmill under four different conditions: self-paced walking, self-paced walking with dual-task, fast walking, and fast walking with dual-task...
July 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729058/impacts-of-sensation-perception-and-motor-abilities-of-the-ipsilesional-upper-limb-on-hand-functions-in-unilateral-stroke-quantifications-from-biomechanical-and-functional-perspectives
#13
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Chia-Wen Ke, Ta-Shen Kuan, Hsiu-Ching Yang, Ching-Liang Tsai, Li-Chieh Kuo
BACKGROUND: The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke affects the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when developing a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT)...
July 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727719/intercostal-neuralgia-occurring-as-a-complication-of-splanchnic-nerve-radiofrequency-ablation-in-a-patient-with-chronic-pancreatitis
#14
Saipriya Tewari, Anil Agarwal, Sujeet K Gautam, Rajashree Madabushi
Our intent is to report a case of intercostal neuralgia occuring as a complication of splanchnic radiofreqency ablation (RFA), due to a breach in the integrity of the insulating sheath of the RFA needle.A 48-year-old man presented to our pain clinic with upper abdominal pain due to chronic pancreatitis, recalcitrant to medical management. We decided to perform bilateral splanchnic nerve RFA in this patient. After confirmation of bilateral correct needle placement under fluoroscopic guidance and sensorimotor testing, RFA was performed on the right side uneventfully...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713189/the-animal-sensorimotor-organization-a-challenge-for-the-environmental-complexity-thesis
#15
Fred Keijzer, Argyris Arnellos
Godfrey-Smith's environmental complexity thesis (ECT) is most often applied to multicellular animals and the complexity of their macroscopic environments to explain how cognition evolved. We think that the ECT may be less suited to explain the origins of the animal bodily organization, including this organization's potentiality for dealing with complex macroscopic environments. We argue that acquiring the fundamental sensorimotor features of the animal body may be better explained as a consequence of dealing with internal bodily-rather than environmental complexity...
2017: Biology & Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712570/electron-microscopic-reconstruction-of-functionally-identified-cells-in-a-neural-integrator
#16
Ashwin Vishwanathan, Kayvon Daie, Alexandro D Ramirez, Jeff W Lichtman, Emre R F Aksay, H Sebastian Seung
Neural integrators are involved in a variety of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviors. The oculomotor system contains a simple example, a hindbrain neural circuit that takes velocity signals as inputs and temporally integrates them to control eye position. Here we investigated the structural underpinnings of temporal integration in the larval zebrafish by first identifying integrator neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and then reconstructing the same neurons through serial electron microscopic analysis...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703919/cingulate-and-cerebellar-beta-oscillations-are-engaged-in-the-acquisition-of-auditory-motor-sequences
#17
María Herrojo Ruiz, Burkhard Maess, Eckart Altenmüller, Gabriel Curio, Vadim V Nikulin
Singing, music performance, and speech rely on the retrieval of complex sounds, which are generated by the corresponding actions and are organized into sequences. It is crucial in these forms of behavior that the serial organization (i.e., order) of both the actions and associated sounds be monitored and learned. To investigate the neural processes involved in the monitoring of serial order during the initial learning of sensorimotor sequences, we performed magnetoencephalographic recordings while participants explicitly learned short piano sequences under the effect of occasional alterations of auditory feedback (AAF)...
July 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694153/caffeinated-energy-drink-intake-modulates-motor-circuits-at-rest-before-and-after-a-movement
#18
Carmen Concerto, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Metwaly, Hesam Naenifard, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
Energy drinks are thought to improve certain aspects of athletic and cognitive performances. Moreover, less is understood about physiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sugar-free energy drink (SFED) ingestion on corticomotor excitability and plasticity. Fourteen college students consumed a commercially available SFED or a "dummy" drink. By using Transcranial magnetic Stimulation (TMS) we investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689758/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-cognitive-training-induced-improvements-in-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#19
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Melissa Fisher, Pratik Mukherjee, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive improvements induced by 70h (~16weeks) of cognitive training. We measured anatomical connectivity in 48 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 28 healthy control participants (HC) at baseline, and then examined the relationship between anatomical connectivity at baseline and training-induced cognitive gains in 30 SZ who performed diffusion imaging after completing 70h of training...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689295/inhibitory-rtms-applied-on-somatosensory-cortex-in-wilson-s-disease-patients-with-hand-dystonia
#20
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Elodie Meppiel, Sana Masmoudi, Thierry Peron Magnan, Eric Vicaut, Emmanuel Houdart, Jean-Pierre Guichard, Jean-Marc Trocello, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Hand dystonia is a common complication of Wilson's disease (WD), responsible for handwriting difficulties and disability. Alteration of sensorimotor integration and overactivity of the somatosensory cortex have been demonstrated in dystonia. This study investigated the immediate after effect of an inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the somatosensory cortex on the writing function in WD patients with hand dystonia. We performed a pilot prospective randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover rTMS study...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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