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Sensorimotor integration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346747/sensorimotor-integration-for-decision-making-how-the-worm-steers
#1
Harris S Kaplan, Manuel Zimmer
Animals' movements actively shape their perception and subsequent decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2018) show how C. elegans nematodes steer toward an odorant: a dedicated interneuron class integrates oscillatory olfactory signals, generated by head swings, with corollary discharge motor signals.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341797/visual-dependence-affects-postural-sway-responses-to-continuous-visual-field-motion-in-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
Yawen Yu, Richard T Lauer, Carole A Tucker, Elizabeth D Thompson, Emily A Keshner
The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down...
January 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341331/the-relationship-between-thalamic-gaba-content-and-resting-cortical-rhythm-in-neuropathic-pain
#3
Flavia Di Pietro, Paul M Macey, Caroline D Rae, Zeynab Alshelh, Vaughan G Macefield, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Recurrent thalamocortical connections are integral to the generation of brain rhythms and it is thought that the inhibitory action of the thalamic reticular nucleus is critical in setting these rhythms. Our work and others' has suggested that chronic pain that develops following nerve injury, that is, neuropathic pain, results from altered thalamocortical rhythm, although whether this dysrhythmia is associated with thalamic inhibitory function remains unknown. In this investigation, we used electroencephalography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate cortical power and thalamic GABAergic concentration in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 20 pain-free controls...
January 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340715/postural-control-and-the-relation-with-cervical-sensorimotor-control-in-patients-with-idiopathic-adult-onset-cervical-dystonia
#4
J De Pauw, R Mercelis, A Hallemans, G Van Gils, S Truijen, P Cras, W De Hertogh
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to an abnormal head posture or movements of the neck. Dysfunctions in somatosensory integration are present and previous data showed enlarged postural sway in stance. Postural control during quiet sitting and the correlation with cervical sensorimotor control were investigated. Postural control during quiet sitting was measured via body sway parameters in 23 patients with CD, regularly receiving botulinum toxin treatment and compared with 36 healthy controls...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#5
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326293/physiological-effects-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-cervical-dystonia
#6
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Jill L Ostrem, David E Vaillancourt, Robert Chen, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia. METHODS: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321712/sensorimotor-integration-during-motor-learning-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#7
REVIEW
Zeliha Matur, A Emre Öge
The effect of sensory signals coming from skin and muscle afferents on the sensorimotor cortical networks is entitled as sensory-motor integration (SMI). SMI can be studied electrophysiologically by the motor cortex excitability changes in response to peripheral sensory stimulation. These changes include the periods of short afferent inhibition (SAI), afferent facilitation (AF), and late afferent inhibition (LAI). During the early period of motor skill acquisition, motor cortex excitability increases and changes occur in the area covered by the relevant zone of the motor cortex...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#8
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316490/local-and-long-range-circuit-elements-for-cerebellar-function
#9
REVIEW
Le Xiao, Peter Scheiffele
The view of cerebellar functions has been extended from controlling sensorimotor processes to processing 'contextual' information and generating predictions for a diverse range of behaviors. These functions rely on the computation of the local cerebellar microcircuits and long-range connectivity that relays cerebellar output to various brain areas. In this review, we discuss recent work on two of the circuit elements, which are thought to be fundamental for a wide range of non-sensorimotor behaviors: The role for cerebellar granule cells in multimodal integration in the cerebellar cortex and the long-range connectivity between the deep cerebellar nuclei and the basal ganglia...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314415/differentially-categorized-structural-brain-hubs-are-involved-in-different-microstructural-functional-and-cognitive-characteristics-and-contribute-to-individual-identification
#10
Xindi Wang, Qixiang Lin, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Very little is known regarding whether structural hubs of human brain networks that enable efficient information communication may be classified into different categories. Using three multimodal neuroimaging data sets, we construct individual structural brain networks and further identify hub regions based on eight widely used graph-nodal metrics, followed by comprehensive characteristics and reproducibility analyses. We show the three categories of structural hubs in the brain network, namely, aggregated, distributed, and connector hubs...
January 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#11
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304417/spectral-and-temporal-electroencephalography-measures-reveal-distinct-neural-networks-for-the-acquisition-consolidation-and-interlimb-transfer-of-motor-skills-in-healthy-young-adults
#12
M P Veldman, N M Maurits, M A M Nijland, N E Wolters, J C Mizelle, T Hortobágyi
OBJECTIVE: Plasticity of the central nervous system likely underlies motor learning. It is however unclear, whether plasticity in cortical motor networks is motor learning stage-, activity-, or connectivity-dependent. METHODS: From electroencephalography (EEG) data, we quantified effective connectivity by the phase slope index (PSI), neuronal activity by event-related desynchronization, and sensorimotor integration by N30 during the stages of visuomotor skill acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299391/the-auditory-comprehension-changes-over-time-after-sport-related-concussion-can-indicate-multisensory-processing-dysfunctions
#13
Anita Białuńska, Anthony P Salvatore
Background: Although science findings and treatment approaches of a concussion have changed in recent years, there continue to be challenges in understanding the nature of the post-concussion behavior. There is growing a body of evidence that some deficits can be related to an impaired auditory processing. Purpose: To assess auditory comprehension changes over time following sport-related concussion (SRC) in young athletes. Methods: A prospective, repeated measures mixed-design was used...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297156/deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-microstructural-integrity-and-dual-task-walking-in-older-people
#14
Tabassom Ghanavati, Myriam Sillevis Smitt, Stephen R Lord, Perminder Sachdev, Wei Wen, Nicole A Kochan, Henry Brodaty, Kim Delbaere
To examine neural, physiological and cognitive influences on gait speed under single and dual-task conditions. Sixty-two community-dwelling older people (aged 80.0 ± 4.2 years) participated in our study. Gait speed was assessed with a timed 20-meter walk under single and dual-task (reciting alternate letters of the alphabet) conditions. Participants also underwent tests to estimate physiological fall risk based on five measures of sensorimotor function, cognitive function across five domains, brain white matter (WM) hyperintensities and WM microstructural integrity by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA)...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297154/altered-topological-patterns-of-brain-functional-networks-in-crohn-s-disease
#15
Peng Liu, Ru Li, Chunhui Bao, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Huangan Wu, Wei Qin
Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to relate with the functional and structural alterations in several local brain regions. However, it remains unknown whether the possible abnormalities of information transmission and integration between brain regions are associated with CD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topological alterations of brain functional networks and the potential relationships between the neuroimaging findings and CD clinical characteristics. 43 remissive CD patients and 37 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited to obtain their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#16
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284747/motor-dexterity-and-strength-depend-upon-integrity-of-the-attention-control-system
#17
Paul Rinne, Mursyida Hassan, Cristina Fernandes, Erika Han, Emma Hennessy, Adam Waldman, Pankaj Sharma, David Soto, Robert Leech, Paresh A Malhotra, Paul Bentley
Attention control (or executive control) is a higher cognitive function involved in response selection and inhibition, through close interactions with the motor system. Here, we tested whether influences of attention control are also seen on lower level motor functions of dexterity and strength-by examining relationships between attention control and motor performance in healthy-aged and hemiparetic-stroke subjects (n = 93 and 167, respectively). Subjects undertook simple-tracking, precision-hold, and maximum force-generation tasks, with each hand...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277908/mental-rotation-and-the-human-body-children-s-inflexible-use-of-embodiment-mirrors-that-of-adults
#18
Markus Krüger, Mirjam Ebersbach
Adults' mental rotation performance with body-like stimuli is enhanced if these stimuli are anatomically compatible with a human body, but decreased by anatomically incompatible stimuli. In this study, we investigated these effects for kindergartners and first-graders: When asked to mentally rotate cube configurations attached with human body parts in an anatomically compatible way, allowing for the projection of a human body, children performed better than with pure cube combinations. By contrast, when body parts were attached in an anatomically incompatible way, disallowing the projection of a human body, children performed worse than with pure combinations...
December 25, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274869/neuromodulators-for-functional-gi-disorders-disorders-of-gut-brain-interaction-a-rome-foundation-working-team-report
#19
REVIEW
Douglas A Drossman, Jan Tack, Alexander C Ford, Eva Szigethy, Hans Törnblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics and other CNS targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional GI disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome Foundation Working Team report, a multidisciplinary team summarized available research evidence and clinical experience to provide guidance and treatment recommendations...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259022/intersubject-synchronisation-analysis-of-brain-activity-associated-with-the-instant-effects-of-acupuncture-an-fmri-study
#20
Lingmin Jin, Jinbo Sun, Ziliang Xu, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, Wei Qin
OBJECTIVE: To use a promising analytical method, namely intersubject synchronisation (ISS), to evaluate the brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture and compare the findings with traditional general linear model (GLM) methods. METHODS: 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Block-designed manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at SP6, and de qi sensations were measured after acupuncture stimulation. All subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning during the acupuncture stimuli...
December 19, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
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