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Sensorimotor integration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#1
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192488/does-dystonic-muscle-activity-affect-sense-of-effort-in-cervical-dystonia
#2
Loïc Carment, Marc A Maier, Sophie Sangla, Vincent Guiraud, Serge Mesure, Marie Vidailhet, Påvel G Lindberg, Jean-Pierre Bleton
BACKGROUND: Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues. METHODS: Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186656/phenotype-and-genotype-specific-structural-alterations-in-spasmodic-dysphonia
#3
Serena Bianchi, Giovanni Battistella, Hailey Huddleston, Rebecca Scharf, Lazar Fleysher, Anna F Rumbach, Steven J Frucht, Andrew Blitzer, Laurie J Ozelius, Kristina Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles that occur selectively during speaking. Although hereditary trends have been reported in up to 16% of patients, the causative etiology of spasmodic dysphonia is unclear, and the influences of various phenotypes and genotypes on disorder pathophysiology are poorly understood. In this study, we examined structural alterations in cortical gray matter and white matter integrity in relationship to different phenotypes and putative genotypes of spasmodic dysphonia to elucidate the structural component of its complex pathophysiology...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179478/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-current-hand-amputees-reveals-evidence-for-neuronal-level-changes-in-former-sensorimotor-cortex
#4
Carmen M Cirstea, In-Young Choi, Phil Lee, Huiling Peng, Christina L Kaufman, Scott H Frey
Deafferentation is accompanied by large-scale functional reorganization of maps in the primary sensory and motor areas of the hemisphere contralateral to injury. Animal models of deafferentation suggest a variety of cellular-level structural changes including depression of neuronal metabolism and even neuronal death. Whether similar neuronal changes contribute to patterns of reorganization within the contralateral sensorimotor cortex of chronic human amputees is uncertain. We used a functional MRI-guided proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to test the hypothesis that unilateral deafferentation is associated with lower absolute levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal integrity) in the sensorimotor hand territory located contralateral to the missing hand in chronic amputees (N=19) as compared to the analogous hand territory of age/sex-matched healthy controls (N=28)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176449/mario-becomes-cognitive
#5
Fabian Schrodt, Jan Kneissler, Stephan Ehrenfeld, Martin V Butz
In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner...
February 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174527/spatial-navigation-and-the-central-complex-sensory-acquisition-orientation-and-motor-control
#6
REVIEW
Adrienn G Varga, Nicholas D Kathman, Joshua P Martin, Peiyuan Guo, Roy E Ritzmann
Cockroaches are scavengers that forage through dark, maze-like environments. Like other foraging animals, for instance rats, they must continually asses their situation to keep track of targets and negotiate barriers. While navigating a complex environment, all animals need to integrate sensory information in order to produce appropriate motor commands. The integrated sensory cues can be used to provide the animal with an environmental and contextual reference frame for the behavior. To successfully reach a goal location, navigational cues continuously derived from sensory inputs have to be utilized in the spatial guidance of motor commands...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164736/strength-of-20-hz-rebound-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Eeva Parkkonen, Kristina Laaksonen, Harri Piitulainen, Johanna Pekkola, Lauri Parkkonen, Turgut Tatlisumak, Nina Forss
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide, and effective rehabilitation is crucial to regain skills for independent living. Recently, novel therapeutic approaches manipulating the excitatory-inhibitory balance of the motor cortex have been introduced to boost recovery after stroke. However, stroke-induced neurophysiological changes of the motor cortex may vary despite of similar clinical symptoms. Therefore, better understanding of excitability changes after stroke is essential when developing and targeting novel therapeutic approaches...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#8
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157620/dynamic-head-neck-stabilization-in-cervical-dystonia
#9
Patrick A Forbes, Edo de Bruijn, Sebastiaan W R Nijmeijer, Johannes H T M Koelman, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten, Marina A J Tijssen, Riender Happee
BACKGROUND: Effective sensorimotor integration is essential to modulate (adapt) neck stabilization strategies in response to varying tasks and disturbances. This study evaluates the hypothesis that relative to healthy controls cervical dystonia patients have an impaired ability to modulate afferent feedback for neck stabilization with changes in the frequency content of mechanical perturbations. METHODS: We applied anterior-posterior displacement perturbations (110s) on the torso of seated subjects, while recording head-neck kinematics and muscular activity...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150100/spontaneous-brain-activity-in-the-sensorimotor-cortex-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-can-be-negatively-regulated-by-corticospinal-fiber-integrity
#10
Wataru Sako, Takashi Abe, Yuishin Izumi, Hiroki Yamazaki, Naoko Matsui, Masafumi Harada, Ryuji Kaji
Previous studies failed to detect reduced value of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the primary motor cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) though primary motor cortex was mainly affected with ALS. We aimed to investigate the cause of masking the abnormality in the primary motor cortex in ALS and usefulness of ALFF for differential diagnosis among diseases showing muscle weakness. We enrolled ten patients with ALS and eleven disease controls showing muscle weakness...
February 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138265/optimal-control-of-reaching-is-disturbed-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-single-case-study
#11
Michihiro Osumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Shin-Ichiro Kumagaya, Shu Morioka
OBJECTIVE: Disturbance of goal-directed motor control may cause or exacerbate pathological pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We conducted a single-case study about motor control involved in reaching with a patient with CRPS in an upper limb. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional measurement system, we recorded reaching movement trajectories of the intact and affected hand before and after pain alleviation by therapeutic nerve blockade. We assessed degrees of tremor in the acceleration phase (from start until maximum peak velocity) and the deceleration phase (from maximum peak velocity until goal)...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131894/gaba-and-glutamate-levels-correlate-with-mtr-and-clinical-disability-insights-from-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Julia C Nantes, Sébastien Proulx, Jidan Zhong, Scott A Holmes, Sridar Narayanan, Robert A Brown, Richard D Hoge, Lisa Koski
Converging areas of research have implicated glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as key players in neuronal signalling and other central functions. Further research is needed, however, to identify microstructural and behavioral links to regional variability in levels of these neurometabolites, particularly in the presence of demyelinating disease. Thus, we sought to investigate the extent to which regional glutamate and GABA levels are related to a neuroimaging marker of microstructural damage and to motor and cognitive performance...
January 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131013/abnormal-vocal-behavior-predicts-executive-and-memory-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Jeevit S Gill, Hardik Kothare, Alexander J Beagle, Danielle Mizuiri, Susanne M Honma, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L Miller, Keith A Vossel, Srikantan S Nagarajan, John F Houde
Speakers respond automatically and rapidly to compensate for brief perturbations of pitch in their auditory feedback. The specific adjustments in vocal output require integration of brain regions involved in speech-motor-control in order to detect the sensory-feedback error and implement the motor correction. Cortical regions involved in the pitch reflex phenomenon are highly vulnerable targets of network disruption in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the pitch reflex in AD patients (n = 19) compared to an age-matched control group (n = 16)...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130172/brain-specific-knockin-of-the-pathogenic-tubb5-e401k-allele-causes-defects-in-motor-coordination-and-prepulse-inhibition
#14
Martin W Breuss, Andi H Hansen, Lukas Landler, David A Keays
The generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons requires the functional integrity of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Mutations in the tubulin gene family are known to cause various neurological diseases including lissencephaly, ocular motor disorders, polymicrogyria and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We have previously reported that mutations in TUBB5 cause microcephaly that is accompanied by severe intellectual impairment and motor delay. Here we present the characterization of a Tubb5 mouse model that allows for the conditional expression of the pathogenic E401K mutation...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129323/target-uncertainty-mediates-sensorimotor-error-correction
#15
Luigi Acerbi, Sethu Vijayakumar, Daniel M Wolpert
Human movements are prone to errors that arise from inaccuracies in both our perceptual processing and execution of motor commands. We can reduce such errors by both improving our estimates of the state of the world and through online error correction of the ongoing action. Two prominent frameworks that explain how humans solve these problems are Bayesian estimation and stochastic optimal feedback control. Here we examine the interaction between estimation and control by asking if uncertainty in estimates affects how subjects correct for errors that may arise during the movement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126550/mapping-how-local-perturbations-influence-systems-level-brain-dynamics
#16
Leonardo L Gollo, James A Roberts, Luca Cocchi
The human brain exhibits a distinct spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then systematically analyze a model of large-scale brain dynamics, assessing how localized changes in brain activity at the different sites affect whole-brain dynamics...
January 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123020/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-visuomotor-related-functional-connectivity-networks
#17
Andrea Brovelli, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesca Bonini, Fabrice Bartolomei, Olivier Coulon, Guillaume Auzias
: Cognitive functions arise from the coordination of large-scale brain networks. However, the principles governing interareal functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) remain elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human executive functions arise from the dynamic interplay of multiple networks. To do so, we investigated FCD mediating a key executing function, known as arbitrary visuomotor mapping, using brain connectivity analyses of high-gamma activity recorded using MEG and intracranial EEG...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119342/elevated-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-increased-integration-and-reduced-cohesion-of-sensory-driven-and-internally-guided-resting-state-functional-brain-networks
#18
Gaelle E Doucet, Natalie Rasgon, Bruce S McEwen, Nadia Micali, Sophia Frangou
Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased multi-morbidity and mortality. The investigation of the relationship between BMI and brain organization has the potential to provide new insights relevant to clinical and policy strategies for weight control. Here, we quantified the association between increasing BMI and the functional organization of resting-state brain networks in a sample of 496 healthy individuals that were studied as part of the Human Connectome Project. We demonstrated that higher BMI was associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), sensorimotor network (SMN), visual network (VN), and their constituent modules...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116447/localized-n20-component-of-somatosensory-evoked-magnetic-fields-in-frontoparietal-brain-tumor-patients-using-noise-normalized-approaches
#19
Nor Safira Elaina, Aamir Saeed Malik, Wafaa Khazaal Shams, Nasreen Badruddin, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Mohammad Faruque Reza
PURPOSE: To localize sensorimotor cortical activation in 10 patients with frontoparietal tumors using quantitative magnetoencephalography (MEG) with noise-normalized approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were elicited in 10 patients with somatosensory tumors and in 10 control participants using electrical stimulation of the median nerve via the right and left wrists. We localized the N20m component of the SEFs using dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) combined with 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 23, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116232/changes-in-functional-organization-and-white-matter-integrity-in-the-connectome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Sule Tinaz, Peter M Lauro, Pritha Ghosh, Codrin Lungu, Silvina G Horovitz
Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to dysfunction in multiple cortico-striatal circuits. The neurodegeneration has also been associated with impaired white matter integrity. This structural and functional "disconnection" in PD needs further characterization. We investigated the structural and functional organization of the PD whole brain connectome consisting of 200 nodes using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI, respectively. Data from 20 non-demented PD patients on dopaminergic medication and 20 matched controls were analyzed using graph theory-based methods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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