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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655477/cardiovascular-drugs-in-avian-small-mammal-and-reptile-medicine
#1
Brenna Colleen Fitzgerald, Sara Dias, Jaume Martorell
Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655471/group-treatment-strategies-for-animals-in-a-zoologic-setting
#2
REVIEW
Katie W Delk, Christine M Molter
Providing care for groups of animals is a major part of practicing zoologic medicine. Herd health is key to the mindset of a zoo clinician no matter the species encountered. Group treatment of amphibians and birds is common, but it is uncommon in reptiles and most mammals. The main reason groups of mammals are treated is for gastrointestinal parasitism. In addition to the classic examples of group treatment involving chemotherapeutics, zoo clinicians also practice herd health by preventing disease from entering the collection...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655466/the-educated-guess-determining-drug-doses-in-exotic-animals-using-evidence-based-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643813/skull-development-ossification-pattern-and-adult-shape-in-the-emerging-lizard-model-organism-pogona-vitticeps-a-comparative-analysis-with-other-squamates
#4
Joni Ollonen, Filipe O Da Silva, Kristin Mahlow, Nicolas Di-Poï
The rise of the Evo-Devo field and the development of multidisciplinary research tools at various levels of biological organization have led to a growing interest in researching for new non-model organisms. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are particularly important for understanding fundamental questions about the evolution of vertebrates because of their high diversity and evolutionary innovations and adaptations that portrait a striking body plan change that reached its extreme in snakes. Yet, little is known about the intricate connection between phenotype and genotype in squamates, partly due to limited developmental knowledge and incomplete characterization of embryonic development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642954/haemaphysalis-cretacea-a-nymph-of-a-new-species-of-hard-tick-in-burmese-amber
#5
Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Timo Pfeffer, Jason A Dunlop
The first fossil potentially assignable to the extant hard tick genus Haemaphysalis CL Koch (1844) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is described from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar. Haemaphysalis (Alloceraea) cretacea sp. nov. is the oldest and only fossil representative of this genus; living members of which predominantly feed on mammals. Their typical hosts are known since at least the Jurassic and the discovery of a mid-Cretaceous parasite, which might have fed on mammals raises again the question of to what extent ticks are coupled to their (modern) host groups...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627338/a-comparative-review-on-estrogen-receptors-in-the-reproductive-male-tract-of-non-mammalian-vertebrates
#6
REVIEW
Mariailaria Verderame, Rosaria Scudiero
Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in mammals. They are expressed primarily in the reproductive tract of all vertebrates females, thus indicating important and conserved functions in female reproductive success. ERs are also present in physiological different tissues as bone, brain, liver, skin and adipose tissues, in both females and males. In the latter, ERs have been found also in the genital tract, supporting the findings of a complex role for estrogen in spermatogenesis and, more generally, in male reproduction...
April 5, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623471/chronic-captopril-treatment-reveals-the-role-of-ang-ii-in-cardiovascular-function-of-embryonic-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#7
Casey A Mueller, John Eme, Kevin B Tate, Dane A Crossley
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a powerful vasoconstrictor of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation in adult and developing vertebrates. Knowledge of ANG II's contribution to developmental cardiovascular function comes from studies in fetal mammals and embryonic chickens. This is the first study to examine the role of ANG II in cardiovascular control in an embryonic reptile, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Using chronic low (~ 5-mg kg embryo-1 ), or high doses (~ 450-mg kg embryo-1 ) of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, we disrupted the RAS and examined the influence of ANG II in cardiovascular function at 90% of embryonic development...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622089/gross-anatomy-and-ultrastructure-of-moorish-gecko-tarentola-mauritanica-skin
#8
Bice Avallone, Monica Tizzano, Raimondo Cerciello, Maria Buglione, Domenico Fulgione
The epidermis of Tarentola mauritanica in the skin regions of back, flank and belly has been described using light and electron microscopy. This animal model was useful to give an insight of the functional pattern involved in pigmentation, cryptism and photosensitivity. Skin from back and flanks, in electron microscopy, shows a high concentration of chromatophores, among those melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores have been reported. Interestingly, in the flank-back transition region electron microscopy reveals the presence of nerve endings...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621689/analyzing-nature-s-protective-design-the-glyptodont-body-armor
#9
Anton du Plessis, Chris Broeckhoven, Igor Yadroitsev, Ina Yadroitsava, Stephan Gerhard le Roux
Many animal species evolved some form of body armor, such as scales of fish and bony plates or osteoderms of reptiles. Although a protective function is often taken for granted, recent studies show that body armor might comprise multiple functionalities and is shaped by trade-offs among these functionalities. Hence, despite the fact that natural body armor might serve as bio-inspiration for the development of artificial protective materials, focussing on model systems in which body armor serves a solely protective function might be pivotal...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621566/william-hunter-and-lymphatics
#10
Stuart W McDonald, David Russell
William Hunter along with his brother, John, and their colleagues William Hewson, William Cruikshank and John Sheldon made a large contribution to understanding of lymphatic vessels. Hewson, Cruikshank and Sheldon all carried out mercury injections and made much progress in mapping the distribution of lymphatics in the human body. William Hunter appreciated that lymphatics absorbed fluid from the tissues of the body and that lacteals of the intestine and lymphatics are similar structures. John Hunter carried out an elegant series of experiments that proved that lacteals absorb products of digestion...
April 2, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618816/the-evolutionary-history-of-vertebrate-rna-viruses
#11
Mang Shi, Xian-Dan Lin, Xiao Chen, Jun-Hua Tian, Liang-Jun Chen, Kun Li, Wen Wang, John-Sebastian Eden, Jin-Jin Shen, Li Liu, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Our understanding of the diversity and evolution of vertebrate RNA viruses is largely limited to those found in mammalian and avian hosts and associated with overt disease. Here, using a large-scale meta-transcriptomic approach, we discover 214 vertebrate-associated viruses in reptiles, amphibians, lungfish, ray-finned fish, cartilaginous fish and jawless fish. The newly discovered viruses appear in every family or genus of RNA virus associated with vertebrate infection, including those containing human pathogens such as influenza virus, the Arenaviridae and Filoviridae families, and have branching orders that broadly reflected the phylogenetic history of their hosts...
April 4, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617771/real-time-dna-barcoding-in-a-rainforest-using-nanopore-sequencing-opportunities-for-rapid-biodiversity-assessments-and-local-capacity-building
#12
Aaron Pomerantz, Nicolás Peñafiel, Alejandro Arteaga, Lucas Bustamante, Frank Pichardo, Luis A Coloma, César L Barrio-Amorós, David Salazar-Valenzuela, Stefan Prost
Background: Advancements in portable scientific instruments provide promising avenues to expedite field work in order to understand the diverse array of organisms that inhabit our planet. Here, we tested the feasibility for in situ molecular analyses of endemic fauna using a portable laboratory fitting within a single backpack, in one of the world's most imperiled biodiversity hotspots: the Ecuadorian Chocó rainforest. We utilized portable equipment, including the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the miniPCR (miniPCR), to perform DNA extraction, PCR amplification and real-time DNA barcoding of reptile specimens in the field...
April 2, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615521/contribution-of-active-atrial-contraction-to-cardiac-output-in-anesthetized-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#13
William Joyce, Janna Crossley, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Ventricular filling may occur directly from the venous circulation during early diastole or via atrial contraction in late diastole. The contribution of atrial contraction to ventricular filling is typically small in mammals (10-40%), but has been suggested to predominate in reptiles. We investigated the importance of atrial contraction in filling of the ventricle in American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) by bypassing both atria (with the use of ligatures to prevent atrial filling) and measuring the resultant effects on cardiac output in anesthetized animals...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609628/reconsideration-of-the-nomadic-condition-of-the-southernmost-guachichiles-based-on-the-relationship-with-their-environment
#14
Eric Mellink, Mónica E Riojas-López, José Antonio Rivera-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The Guachichiles were a group of Chichimeca people that inhabited the southern and central parts of the Mexican Plateau. In the southern area of their distribution, they occupied and used the tunales, extensive forests of arborescent nopales (Opuntia spp.). Their pre-Columbian distribution was dissected by the Royal Silver Road established by the Spaniards, and this lead to them being main protagonists in the so-called Chichimeca War, during the sixteenth century. With very little first-hand documentation, the Guachichiles were described as savage, warring, primitive, hunting nomads, but little efforts have been done to understand their daily life habits...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609473/nutrition-and-husbandry-conditions-of-palearctic-tortoises-testudo-spp-in-captivity
#15
Thomas Bauer, Sven Reese, Petra Koelle
Mediterranean and Russian tortoises (Testudo spp.) are popular companion animals (pets), despite ongoing controversy concerning privately keeping reptiles. The arguments used during these controversial discussions have often been based on outdated facts. Therefore, a survey was developed to evaluate the current population structure, husbandry conditions, diet regime, and health status of Testudo species in captivity. More than 75% of the 1075 respondents housed their tortoises in an outdoor enclosure containing a greenhouse or cold frame, which is considered the most species-appropriate way of husbandry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609027/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-mavs-in-pelodiscus-sinensis-after-challenge-with-poly-i-c
#16
Haisheng Xu, Jing Zhao, Yiyi Zou, Binjie Lu, Hanxiang Chen, Wanrong Zhang, Yue Wu, Jinjin Yang
Pelodiscus sinensis, which is one of the important reptile species in the aquaculture industry in China, frequently suffers from serious infectious diseases caused by viruses. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about its antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized the open reading frame (ORF) of PsMAVS cDNA in P. sinensis. It consisted of 2691 nucleotides encoding a protein of 896 amino acid residues, which were composed of an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal TM domain...
March 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608720/homologous-recombination-between-genetically-divergent-campylobacter-fetus-lineages-supports-host-associated-speciation
#17
Maarten J Gilbert, Birgitta Duim, Linda van der Graaf-van Bloois, Jaap A Wagenaar, Aldert L Zomer
Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602213/expression-of-the-sox9-foxl2-vasa-and-trpv4-genes-in-the-ovaries-and-testes-of-the-morelet-s-crocodile-crocodylus-moreletii
#18
Adriana Martínez-Juárez, Marco A López-Luna, Tania J Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
The Sox9 gene is important for determining sex in vertebrates, as well as for maintaining testis morphology and fertility during adult life. In the same way, Vasa is an important gene for the maintenance of the germinal lineage and has been highly conserved throughout evolution, as it is expressed in germ cells of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the particular case of crocodiles, the expression of Sox9 during gonadal morphogenesis and in the testes of 3-month-old Alligator mississippiensis has been studied...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590117/a-terrestrial-vertebrate-palaeontological-review-of-aldabra-atoll-aldabra-group-seychelles
#19
Julian P Hume, David Martill, Richard Hing
The Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage of Aldabra Atoll has been comparatively well studied. Three Upper Pleistocene fossil localities have been described yielding birds, reptiles and terrestrial molluscs. Those of Bassin Cabri and Bassin Lebine on Ile Picard are undated but must be in excess of 136,000 YBP, whereas Point Hodoul on Malabar Island is circa 100,000 YBP. Aldabra was seemingly completely submerged between deposition of the Ile Picard and Point Hodoul deposits, resulting in local faunal extinctions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577654/flea-market-finds-and-global-exports-four-multistate-outbreaks-of-human-salmonella-infections-linked-to-small-turtles-united-states-2015
#20
K Gambino-Shirley, L Stevenson, J Concepción-Acevedo, E Trees, D Wagner, L Whitlock, J Roberts, N Garrett, S Van Duyne, G McAllister, B Schick, L Schlater, V Peralta, R Reporter, L Li, H Waechter, T Gomez, J Fernández Ordenes, S Ulloa, C Ragimbeau, J Mossong, M Nichols
Zoonotic transmission of Salmonella infections causes an estimated 11% of salmonellosis annually in the United States. This report describes the epidemiologic, traceback and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to small turtles. Salmonella isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strains were isolated from a total of 143 ill people in the United States, pet turtles, and pond water samples collected from turtle farm A, as well as ill people from Chile and Luxembourg...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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