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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345630/identification-and-comparative-analysis-of-the-epidermal-differentiation-complex-in-snakes
#1
Karin Brigit Holthaus, Veronika Mlitz, Bettina Strasser, Erwin Tschachler, Lorenzo Alibardi, Leopold Eckhart
The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#2
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340886/diagnostic-imaging-of-reproductive-tract-disorders-in-reptiles
#3
REVIEW
Michaela Gumpenberger
Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive tract in reptiles is used for gender determination, evaluation of breeding status, detection of pathologic changes, and supervising treatment. Whole-body radiographs provide an overview and support detection of mineralized egg shells. Sonography is used to evaluate follicles, nonmineralized eggs, and the salpinx in all reptiles. Computed tomography is able to overcome imaging limitations in chelonian species. This article provides detailed information about the performance of different imaging techniques...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333368/morphological-specializations-of-the-yolk-sac-for-yolk-processing-in-embryonic-corn-snakes-pantherophis-guttatus-colubridae
#4
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325492/the-turtle-carapace-as-an-optimized-multi-scale-biological-composite-armor-a-review
#5
Ben Achrai, H Daniel Wagner
The turtle carapace, the top dorsal part of the shell, is a remarkable multi-scale dermal armor that has evolved to withstand various types of high-stress events encountered in nature. This keratin-covered boney exoskeleton exhibits a number of structural motifs, including alternating rigid and flexible components, layering and functionally graded elements, designed to protect the reptile during predatory attacks, and smashing events. Here we review the multi-scale structural hierarchy of the turtle carapace and its corresponding mechanical properties...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#6
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#7
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#8
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314219/supplemental-description-of-nyctotheroides-pyriformis-n-comb-macrocytopharynxa-pyriformis-nie-1932-li-et-al-2002-from-frog-hosts-with-consideration-of-the-validity-of-the-genus-macrocytopharynxa-armophorea-clevelandellida
#9
Ming Li, Can Li, J Norman Grim, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
The morphological revisions of Macrocytopharynxa pyriformis (Nie, 1932) Li et al., 2002; collected from the rectum of Fejervarya limnocharis (=Rana limnocharis), are presented in this paper: (1) two surfaces of the organism are not identical - left side narrower and convex, right broader and flat or slightly concave; (2) infundibulum is large and well-developed with no "fold" or "plicature" present in the middle or posterior portion; (3) micronucleus is tiny and ovoid shaped and always embedded in the middle concavity of macronucleus, which can be well revealed by ammoniacal silver staining...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306338/the-epidemiology-of-childhood-salmonella-infections-in-alberta-canada
#10
Kate E Faulder, Kimberley Simmonds, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe the incidence, demographics, laboratory findings, and suspected sources of childhood Salmonella infections in Alberta, Canada, with a focus on preventable cases. METHODS: Data from Notifiable Disease Reports for children with nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS) or typhoid/paratyphoid fever from 2007 through 2015 were analyzed. RESULTS: NTS was detected from 2285 children. Bacteremia was documented in 55 cases (2...
March 17, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302770/genome-sequence-of-hypervirulent-aeromonas-hydrophila-strain-hzauah
#11
Lin Teng, Limei Deng, Xingxing Dong, Shun Wei, Jinquan Li, Ningqiu Li, Yang Zhou
Aeromonas hydrophila, a zoonotic bacterium found in an expansive range of aquatic ecosystems, has been reported to cause severe diseases in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including humans. Herein, we report the draft genome of the hypervirulent A. hydrophila strain HZAUAH isolated from a crucian in China.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300200/evidence-and-mapping-of-extinction-debts-for-global-forest-dwelling-reptiles-amphibians-and-mammals
#12
Youhua Chen, Shushi Peng
Evidence of extinction debts for the global distributions of forest-dwelling reptiles, mammals and amphibians was tested and the debt magnitude was estimated and mapped. By using different correlation tests and variable importance analysis, the results showed that spatial richness patterns for the three forest-dwelling terrestrial vertebrate groups had significant and stronger correlations with past forest cover area and other variables in the 1500 s, implying the evidence for extinction debts. Moreover, it was likely that the extinction debts have been partially paid, given that their global richness patterns were also significantly correlated with contemporary forest variables in the 2000 s (but the absolute magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were usually smaller than those calculated for historical forest variables)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300027/cystic-calculus-in-a-laboratory-housed-green-anole-anolis-carolinensis
#13
Leslie L Birke Ann M Cespedes Emma R Schachner And Simon P Lailvaux
An adult, male, wild-caught, laboratory-housed green anole (Anolis carolinensis) on a locomotor performance study was presented for anorexia. The anole exhibited a 26% weight loss and a thin body condition but was otherwise alert and active. Despitesupportive care, the anole's clinical condition deteriorated, necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed a 4.5 mm × 2.5-mm cystic calculus, which consisted entirely of sodium urate. Here we describe the clinical findings and locomotor consequences of this disease in a green anole...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299878/igy-a-key-isotype-in-antibody-evolution
#14
Xiaoying Zhang, Rosaleen A Calvert, Brian J Sutton, Katy A Doré
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is central to our understanding of immunoglobulin evolution. It has links to antibodies from the ancestral IgM to the mucosal IgX and IgA, as well as to mammalian serum IgG and IgE. IgY is found in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and as their most abundant serum antibody, is orthologous to mammalian IgG. However, IgY has the same domain architecture as IgM and IgE, lacking a hinge region and comprising four heavy-chain constant domains. The relationship between IgY and the mucosal antibodies IgX and IgA is discussed herein, in particular the question of how IgA could have contributed to the emergence of IgY...
March 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298595/incubation-under-climate-warming-affects-learning-ability-and-survival-in-hatchling-lizards
#15
Buddhi Dayananda, Jonathan K Webb
Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296138/the-regulation-of-uterine-proinflammatory-gene-expression-during-pregnancy-in-the-live-bearing-lizard-pseudemoia-entrecasteauxii
#16
Kevin Hendrawan, Camilla M Whittington, Matthew C Brandley, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson
The evolutionary transition from egg-laying to live-bearing in amniote vertebrates (reptiles and mammals) requires the development of a closer association between the maternal and embryonic tissue to facilitate gas and nutrient exchange with the embryo. Because the embryo is an allograft to the father and mother, it could be considered foreign by the maternal immune system and thus be immunologically rejected during pregnancy. In eutherian ("placental") mammals, the proinflammatory genes interleukin 1B (IL1B), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) are tightly regulated in the pregnant uterus to prevent embryonic rejection...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294452/phylogenetic-relationships-and-divergence-dates-of-softshell-turtles-testudines-trionychidae-inferred-from-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#17
Haifeng Li, Juanjuan Liu, Lei Xiong, Huanhuan Zhang, Huaxing Zhou, Huazong Yin, Wanxing Jing, Jun Li, Qiong Shi, Yuqin Wang, Jianjun Liu, Liuwang Nie
The softshell turtles (Trionychidae) are one of the most widely distributed reptile groups in the world, and fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. The phylogenetic relationships among members of this group have been previously studied; however, there are disagreements regarding its taxonomy, its phylogeography and divergence times are still poorly understood as well. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of softshell turtles. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 10 softshell turtles, in addition to the GenBank sequence of Dogania subplana, Lissemys punctata, Trionyx triunguis, which cover all extant genera within Trionychidae except for Cyclanorbis and Cycloderma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291601/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-southern-pantanal-brazil-with-implications-in-the-transmission-route
#18
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Marina Pugnaghi Fernandes, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, João Bosco Campos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Barros Battesti, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289429/hematological-and-plasma-biochemical-parameters-in-a-wild-population-of-naja-naja-linnaeus-1758-in-sri-lanka
#19
Duminda S B Dissanayake, Lasanthika D Thewarage, Rathnayake M P Manel Rathnayake, Senanayake A M Kularatne, Jamburagoda G Shirani Ranasinghe, Rajapakse P V Jayantha Rajapakse
BACKGROUND: Hematological studies of any animal species comprise an important diagnostic method in veterinary medicine and an essential tool for the conservation of species. In Sri Lanka, this essential technique has been ignored in studies of many species including reptiles. The aim of the present work was to establish a reference range of hematological values and morphological characterization of wild spectacled cobras (Naja naja) in Sri Lanka in order to provide a diagnostic tool in the assessment of health condition in reptiles and to diagnose diseases in wild populations...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286733/premammalian-origin-of-the-sperm-specific-slo3-channel
#20
Alberto Vicens, Karla Andrade-López, Diego Cortez, Rosa María Gutiérrez, Claudia L Treviño
Slo3 is a sperm-specific potassium (K(+)) channel essential for male fertility. Slo3 channels have so far been considered to be specific to mammals. Through exploratory genomics, we identified the Slo3 gene in the genome of terrestrial (birds and reptiles) and aquatic (fish) vertebrates. In the case of fish, Slo3 has undergone several episodes of gene loss. Transcriptomic analysis showed that vertebrate Slo3 transcript orthologues are predominantly expressed in testis, in concordance with the mammalian Slo3...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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