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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#1
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539517/vocal-plasticity-in-a-reptile
#2
Henrik Brumm, Sue Anne Zollinger
Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535859/uses-and-doses-of-local-anesthetics-in-fish-amphibians-and-reptiles
#3
Frederic Chatigny, Collins Kamunde, Catherine M Creighton, E Don Stevens
Local anesthetics are an integral part of routine pain management in mammals, yet their use is relatively limited in fish, amphibians and reptiles. These animals frequently undergo potentially painful surgical procedures and therefore could possibly benefit from those drugs. Some recommendations are currently available in the literature concerning analgesic use in these animals. However the pharmacological properties, safety and often efficacy of local anesthetic drugs have not been investigated yet in fish, amphibians, or reptiles...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533452/fluorescence-as-a-means-of-colour-signal-enhancement
#4
REVIEW
Justin Marshall, Sonke Johnsen
Fluorescence is a physico-chemical energy exchange where shorter-wavelength photons are absorbed by a molecule and are re-emitted as longer-wavelength photons. It has been suggested a means of communication in several taxa including flowers, pitcher plants, corals, algae, worms, squid, spiders, stomatopods, fish, reptiles, parrots and humans. The surface or object that the pigment molecule is part of appears to glow due to its setting rather than an actual production of light, and this may enhance both signals and, in some cases, camouflage...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528534/a-case-of-diprosopiasis-in-trachemys-scripta-scripta
#5
Giovanni Lanteri, Francesco Macri, Annamaria Passantino, Vincenzo Monteverde, Fabio Marino, Giuseppe Mazzullo
This short communication describes a case of diprosopiasis in Trachemys scripta scripta imported from Florida (USA) and farmed for about 4 months by a private owner in Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The water turtle showed the morphological and radiological features characterizing such deformity. This communication aims to advance the knowledge of the reptile's congenital anomalies and suggests the need for more detailed investigations to better understand its pathogenesis.
April 5, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516735/assessment-of-trophic-ecomorphology-in-non-alligatoroid-crocodylians-and-its-adaptive-and-taxonomic-implications
#6
Masaya Iijima
Although the establishment of trophic ecomorphology in living crocodylians can contribute to estimating feeding habits of extinct large aquatic reptiles, assessment of ecomorphological traits other than the snout shape has scarcely been conducted in crocodylians. Here, I tested the validity of the proposed trophic ecomorphological traits in crocodylians by examining the correlation between those traits and the snout shape (an established trophic ecomorphology), using 10 non-alligatoroid crocodylian species with a wide range of snout shape...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515439/the-biomechanics-behind-extreme-osteophagy-in-tyrannosaurus-rex
#7
Paul M Gignac, Gregory M Erickson
Most carnivorous mammals can pulverize skeletal elements by generating tooth pressures between occluding teeth that exceed cortical bone shear strength, thereby permitting access to marrow and phosphatic salts. Conversely, carnivorous reptiles have non-occluding dentitions that engender negligible bone damage during feeding. As a result, most reptilian predators can only consume bones in their entirety. Nevertheless, North American tyrannosaurids, including the giant (13 metres [m]) theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex stand out for habitually biting deeply into bones, pulverizing and digesting them...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515201/pre-versus-post-mass-extinction-divergence-of-mesozoic-marine-reptiles-dictated-by-time-scale-dependence-of-evolutionary-rates
#8
Ryosuke Motani, Da-Yong Jiang, Andrea Tintori, Cheng Ji, Jian-Dong Huang
The fossil record of a major clade often starts after a mass extinction even though evolutionary rates, molecular or morphological, suggest its pre-extinction emergence (e.g. squamates, placentals and teleosts). The discrepancy is larger for older clades, and the presence of a time-scale-dependent methodological bias has been suggested, yet it has been difficult to avoid the bias using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. This paradox raises the question of whether ecological vacancies, such as those after mass extinctions, prompt the radiations...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515008/localization-and-distribution-of-gonadal-proteins-in-the-oviparous-lizard-sceloporus-aeneus-squamata-phrynosomatidae
#9
Antonio-Rubio Nivia Rocio, Villagrán-SantaCruz Maricela, Moreno-Mendoza Norma
Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce...
May 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509658/haemosporidian-parasites-of-reptiles-and-birds-from-gabon-central-africa
#10
Larson Boundenga, Susan L Perkins, Benjamin Ollomo, Virginie Rougeron, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle
Haemosporidian parasites are protozoans that infect many different vertebrates hosts. Re-examination of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites, using molecular tools, has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting two genera of vertebrates living in the forests of Gabon, by analyzing a collection of 128 samples of reptiles and birds. We found that samples from two tortoise species (Pelusios castaneus and Kinixys erosa) and three bird species (Turtur afer, Ceratogymna atrata and Agelastes niger) were infected by Haemocystidium spp...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508199/selective-specificity-of-calcium-binding-proteins-calbindin-and-calretinin-expression-in-the-magnocellular-neurosecretory-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-tortoises-and-turtles
#11
M G Belekhova, N B Kenigfest, E V Chernigovskaya, N P Veselkin
We have studied the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the magnocellular neurosecretory nuclei of nonapeptidergic neurosecretory nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex in a tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi) and a pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) using immunohistochemistry. We have found that different types of cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei predominantly express calbindin and, to a lesser extent, calretinin, but not parvalbumin. The selective calbindin/calretinin control of the neurohormone secretion in these hypothalamic nuclei is an evolutionary conservative feature typical of reptiles and mammals...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505802/embryonic-metabolism-of-the-ornithischian-dinosaurs-protoceratops-andrewsi-and-hypacrosaurus-stebingeri-and-implications-for-calculations-of-dinosaur-egg-incubation-times
#12
Scott A Lee
The embryonic metabolisms of the ornithischian dinosaurs Protoceratops andrewsi and Hypacrosaurus stebingeri have been determined and are in the range observed in extant reptiles. The average value of the measured embryonic metabolic rates for P. andrewsi and H. stebingeri are then used to calculate the incubation times for 21 dinosaurs from both Sauischia and Ornithischia using a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. The calculated incubation times vary from about 70 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 180 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504478/reduced-egg-shell-permeability-affects-embryonic-development-and-hatchling-traits-in-dinodon-rufozonatum-and-pelodiscus-sinensis
#13
Wen-Qi Tang, Bo Zhao, Ye Chen, Wei-Guo Du
The response of embryos to unpredictable hypoxia is critical for successful embryonic development, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of such responses in reptiles with different types of eggshell. We experimentally generated external regional hypoxia by sealing either the upper- or bottom-half of the surface area of eggs in two species of reptiles [snake (Dinodon rufozonatum) with parchment eggshell and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) with rigid eggshell], then monitored growth pattern of the opaque white patch in turtle eggs, embryonic heart rate, developmental rate, and hatchling traits in turtle and snake eggs in response to external regional hypoxia...
May 15, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500350/formants-provide-honest-acoustic-cues-to-body-size-in-american-alligators
#14
Stephan A Reber, Judith Janisch, Kevin Torregrosa, Jim Darlington, Kent A Vliet, W Tecumseh Fitch
In many vertebrates, acoustic cues to body size are encoded in resonance frequencies of the vocal tract ("formants"), rather than in the rate of tissue vibration in the sound source ("pitch"). Anatomical constraints on the vocal tract's size render formants honest cues to size in many bird and mammal species, but it is not clear whether this correlation evolved convergently in these two clades, or whether it is widespread among amniotes (mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles). We investigated the potential for honest acoustic cues in the bellows of adult American alligators and found that formant spacing provided highly reliable cues to body size, while presumed correlates of the source signal did not...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495871/embryonic-hypoxia-programmes-postprandial-cardiovascular-function-in-adult-common-snapping-turtles-chelydra-serpentina
#15
Oliver H Wearing, Justin Conner, Derek Nelson, Janna Crossley, Dane A Crossley
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos (10% O2, H10) exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared to control turtles (21% O2, N21). In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494399/comparative-toxic-responses-of-male-and-female-lizards-eremias-argus-exposed-to-s-metolachlor-contaminated-soil
#16
Li Chen, Dezhen Wang, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Fang Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jinling Diao
Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491275/outflow-tract-septation-and-the-aortic-arch-system-in-reptiles-lessons-for-understanding-the-mammalian-heart
#17
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. RESULTS: We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490966/survey-of-the-reptilian-fauna-of-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-vi-the-snake-fauna-of-turaif-region
#18
Mohammed K Al-Sadoon, Bilal Ahmad Paray, Hamad Al-Otaibi
A collection of snakes in Turaif region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an area that has been poorly documented for reptiles, consists of 28 specimens representing 11 species belonging to 4 families (Colubridae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Atractaspididae). This study presents the first comprehensive inventory of the herpetofauna of the Turaif province of Saudi Arabia. Co-ordinates: Latitude, longitude and altitude, of the collected specimens were mapped using GPS. Three of the snake species Lytorhynchus diadema, Pseudocerastes fieldi and Walterinnesia morgani reported by the authors in the present survey proved to be new records for Turaif region of Saudi Arabia...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484372/potential-involvement-of-snail-members-in-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytic-migration-during-the-gecko-spinal-cord-regeneration
#19
Tingting Shen, Yingjie Wang, Qing Zhang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Ying Yuan, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484364/energy-homeostasis-in-monotremes
#20
REVIEW
Stewart C Nicol
In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between "higher mammals" and "lower vertebrates." Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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