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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923134/evolution-enhanced-footing-for-snake-limb-development
#1
Maria M Kaltcheva, Mark Lewandoski
Two groups have studied the loss of limbs in snake evolution by focusing on a long-distance cis-acting enhancer of Sonic Hedgehog. They find a progressive degeneration of binding sites for key transcription factors, mirroring the progressive limblessness occurring in these reptiles.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922058/edge-enhancement-improves-disruptive-camouflage-by-emphasising-false-edges-and-creating-pictorial-relief
#2
John Egan, Rebecca J Sharman, Kenneth C Scott-Brown, Paul George Lovell
Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921302/the-role-of-embryo-movement-in-the-development-of-the-furcula
#3
A S Pollard, S Boyd, I M McGonnell, A A Pitsillides
The pectoral girdle is a complex structure which varies in its morphology between species. A major component in birds is the furcula, which can be considered equivalent to a fusion of the paired clavicles found in many mammals, and the single interclavicle found in many reptiles. These elements are a remnant of the dermal skeleton and the only intramembranous bones in the trunk. Postnatally, the furcula plays important mechanical roles by stabilising the shoulder joint and acting as a mechanical spring during flight...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920949/development-of-olfactory-epithelium-and-associated-structures-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#4
Olga Sapoznikov, Petr Cizek, Frantisek Tichy
The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917935/the-effects-of-light-exposure-during-incubation-on-embryonic-development-and-hatchling-traits-in-lizards
#5
Yong-Pu Zhang, Shu-Ran Li, Jun Ping, Shi-Wen Li, Hua-Bin Zhou, Bao-Jun Sun, Wei-Guo Du
Light is an environmental factor that is known to profoundly affect embryonic development in some oviparous vertebrates, but such effects are unstudied in reptiles. We investigated the light sensitivity of lizard embryos by examining the thickness and light transmittance of eggshells as well as the effect of light on embryonic development and hatchling traits in four lizard species, the Chinese skink (Plestiodon chinensis), the northern grass lizard (Takydromus septentrionalis), the oriental leaf-toed gecko (Hemidactylus bowringii) and the Japanese gecko (Gekko japonicus)...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#6
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907071/ontogenetic-change-in-the-temporal-region-of-the-early-permian-parareptile-delorhynchus-cifellii-and-the-implications-for-closure-of-the-temporal-fenestra-in-amniotes
#7
Yara Haridy, Mark J Macdougall, Diane Scott, Robert R Reisz
A juvenile specimen of Delorhynchus cifellii, collected from the Early Permian fissure-fill deposits of Richards Spur, Oklahoma, permits the first detailed study of cranial ontogeny in this parareptile. The specimen, consisting of a partially articulated skull and mandible, exhibits several features that identify it as juvenile. The dermal tuberosities that ornament the dorsal side and lateral edges of the largest skull of D. cifellii specimens, are less prominent in the intermediate sized holotype, and are absent in the new specimen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905432/palaeontology-ancient-reptile-had-a-diaphragm
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904020/is-the-ultimobranchial-body-a-reality-or-myth-a-study-using-serial-sections-of-human-embryos
#9
Yohei Honkura, Masahito Yamamoto, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Jose Francisco Rodriguez-Vazquez, Gen Murakami, Yukio Katori, Shin-Ichi Abe
Reported morphologies of the ultimobranchial body had varied between researchers: a cluster of mitotic cells, a duct-like structure and a rosette-like cell mass. To clarify the true morphology, we studied tilted horizontal sections of 20 human embryos (crown-rump length 5-18 mm; 4-6 weeks). The sections displayed a ladder-like arrangement of the second to fourth endodermal pouches and, in 5 early embryos we found the fifth pouch attached to the fifth ectodermal groove near the fourth pharyngeal arch artery...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890294/oncology-of-reptiles-diseases-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Jane Christman, Michael Devau, Heather Wilson-Robles, Sharman Hoppes, Raquel Rech, Karen E Russell, J Jill Heatley
Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890292/principles-and-applications-of-radiation-therapy-in-exotic-animals
#11
REVIEW
Michael S Kent
Radiation therapy is a treatment modality for cancer that is widely used in veterinary medicine, although its use in exotic animal practice has remained limited. However, there are case reports and case series of treating birds, small mammals, and reptiles for a variety of cancers with radiotherapy with varied outcomes. In this article the basic principles of radiation therapy are reviewed and the literature regarding its use in exotic animal practice is summarized. Side effects of radiotherapy are also discussed...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890265/review-of-rebuttal-to-published-article-a-review-of-ghost-gear-entanglement-amongst-marine-mammals-reptiles-and-elasmobranchs-by-m-stelfox-j-hudgins-and-m-sweet
#12
REVIEW
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886262/coastal-leatherback-turtles-reveal-conservation-hotspot
#13
Nathan J Robinson, Stephen J Morreale, Ronel Nel, Frank V Paladino
Previous studies have shown that the world's largest reptile - the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea - conducts flexible foraging migrations that can cover thousands of kilometres between nesting sites and distant foraging areas. The vast distances that may be travelled by migrating leatherback turtles have greatly complicated conservation efforts for this species worldwide. However, we demonstrate, using a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis, that approximately half of the nesting leatherbacks from an important rookery in South Africa do not migrate to distant foraging areas, but rather, forage in the coastal waters of the nearby Mozambique Channel...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881087/intraspecific-rearrangement-of-mitochondrial-genome-suggests-the-prevalence-of-the-tandem-duplication-random-loss-tdlr-mechanism-in-quasipaa-boulengeri
#14
Yun Xia, Yuchi Zheng, Robert W Murphy, Xiaomao Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tandem duplication followed by random loss (TDRL) is the most frequently invoked model to explain the diversity of gene rearrangements in metazoan mitogenomes. The initial stages of gene rearrangement are difficult to observe in nature, which limits our understanding of incipient duplication events and the subsequent process of random loss. Intraspecific gene reorganizations may represent intermediate states, and if so they potentially shed light on the evolutionary dynamics of TDRL...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880775/how-many-kinds-of-birds-are-there-and-why-does-it-matter
#15
George F Barrowclough, Joel Cracraft, John Klicka, Robert M Zink
Estimates of global species diversity have varied widely, primarily based on variation in the numbers derived from different inventory methods of arthropods and other small invertebrates. Within vertebrates, current diversity metrics for fishes, amphibians, and reptiles are known to be poor estimators, whereas those for birds and mammals are often assumed to be relatively well established. We show that avian evolutionary diversity is significantly underestimated due to a taxonomic tradition not found in most other taxonomic groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879442/salmonella-enterica-serovar-pomona-infection-in-farmed-juvenile-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#16
K Sakaguchi, J G Nevarez, F Del Piero
A fatal epizootic of salmonellosis occurred in farmed juvenile American alligators in Louisiana. Six animals were examined. Gross lesions included severe fibrinonecrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing splenitis, coelomic effusion, and perivisceral and pulmonary edema. Microscopic examination revealed severe necrotizing enterocolitis and splenitis with intralesional bacteria and pneumocyte necrosis with fibrin thrombi. Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona was isolated from intestine and lung. Clinical salmonellosis is a rare finding in reptiles and salmonellosis caused by S...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870110/the-hematology-of-captive-bobtail-lizards-tiliqua-rugosa-blood-counts-light-microscopy-cytochemistry-and-ultrastructure
#17
Cheryl A Moller, Tibor Gaál, Jennifer N Mills
INTRODUCTION: Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. METHODS: Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870008/phenotypic-plasticity-of-nest-timing-in-a-post-glacial-landscape-how-do-reptiles-adapt-to-seasonal-time-constraints
#18
Christopher Edge, Njal Rollinson, Ronald Brooks, Justin Congdon, John Iverson, Fred Janzen, Jacqueline Litzgus
Life-histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter. We used data collected over several decades to compare air temperature - nest date plasticity in populations of painted turtles and snapping turtles from a relatively warm environment (southeastern Michigan) near the southern extent of the last glacial maximum, to a relatively cool environment (central Ontario) near the northern extent of post-glacial recolonization...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867047/assessing-the-intra-species-genetic-variability-in-the-clonal-pathogen-campylobacter-fetus-crisprs-are-highly-polymorphic-dna-markers
#19
Lucía Calleros, Laura Betancor, Gregorio Iraola, Alejandra Méndez, Claudia Morsella, Fernando Paolicchi, Silvia Silveyra, Alejandra Velilla, Ruben Pérez
Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862531/gut-microbial-ecology-of-lizards-insights-into-diversity-in-the-wild-effects-of-captivity-variation-across-gut-regions-and-transmission
#20
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Melisa Magallanes, Joshua Brinkerhoff, Alejandro Laspiur, Juan Carlos Acosta, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, Seth R Bordenstein
Animals maintain complex associations with a diverse microbiota living in their guts. Our understanding of the ecology of these associations is extremely limited in reptiles. Here, we report an in-depth study into the microbial ecology of gut communities in three syntopic and viviparous lizard species (two omnivores: Liolaemus parvus and L. ruibali, and an herbivore: Phymaturus williamsi). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to inventory various bacterial communities, we elucidate four major findings: (i) closely-related lizard species harbor distinct gut bacterial microbiota that remain distinguishable in captivity; a considerable portion of gut bacterial diversity (39...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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