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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773806/sensory-representation-of-an-auditory-cued-tactile-stimulus-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-of-the-mouse
#1
Hemanth Mohan, Yasir Gallero-Salas, Stefano Carta, João Sacramento, Balazs Laurenczy, Lazar T Sumanovski, Christiaan P J de Kock, Fritjof Helmchen, Shankar Sachidhanandam
Sensory association cortices receive diverse inputs with their role in representing and integrating multi-sensory content remaining unclear. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of an auditory-tactile stimulus sequence in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) using 2-photon calcium imaging in awake mice. We find that neuronal subpopulations in layer 2/3 of PPC reliably represent texture-touch events, in addition to auditory cues that presage the incoming tactile stimulus. Notably, altering the flow of sensory events through omission of the cued texture touch elicited large responses in a subset of neurons hardly responsive to or even inhibited by the tactile stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760390/olfactory-bulb-acetylcholine-release-dishabituates-odor-responses-and-reinstates-odor-investigation
#2
M Cameron Ogg, Jordan M Ross, Mounir Bendahmane, Max L Fletcher
Habituation and dishabituation modulate the neural resources and behavioral significance allocated to incoming stimuli across the sensory systems. We characterize these processes in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) and uncover a role for OB acetylcholine (ACh) in physiological and behavioral olfactory dishabituation. We use calcium imaging in both awake and anesthetized mice to determine the time course and magnitude of OB glomerular habituation during a prolonged odor presentation. In addition, we develop a novel behavioral investigation paradigm to determine how prolonged odor input affects odor salience...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#3
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755315/does-post-task-declarative-learning-have-an-influence-on-early-motor-memory-consolidation-over-day-an-fmri-study
#4
Inken Rothkirch, Stephan Wolff, Nils G Margraf, Anya Pedersen, Karsten Witt
Previous studies demonstrated the influence of the post-learning period on procedural motor memory consolidation. In an early period after the acquisition, motor skills are vulnerable to modifications during wakefulness. Indeed, specific interventions such as world-list learning within this early phase of motor memory consolidation seem to enhance motor performance as an indicator for successful consolidation. This finding highlights the idea that manipulations of procedural and declarative memory systems during the early phase of memory consolidation over wakefulness may influence off-line consolidation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738554/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-can-cause-acute-neurologic-impairment-without-overt-structural-damage-in-juvenile-rats
#5
Alicia Meconi, Ryan C Wortman, David K Wright, Katie J Neale, Melissa Clarkson, Sandy R Shultz, Brian R Christie
Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI) model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP) score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733410/perioperative-multimodal-evaluation-and-surgical-tactics-of-tumor-related-epilepsy-2-dimensional-operative-video
#6
Chengxin Ma, Rui Feng, N U Farrukh Hameed, Jie Zhang, Dongxiao Zhuang, Jinsong Wu
Treatment of tumor-related epilepsy (TRE), especially for tumors near critical areas, requires surgeons to strike a balance between the epileptic benefit and functional outcome after surgery. Here, we present a case in which multimodal evaluation facilitated the achievement of such surgical balance. Informed patient consent was obtained. A 17-yr-old female presented with seizure attacks for 2 yr. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right parietal mass lesion with hypointense signal on T1W imaging, hyperintense signal on T2W imaging, and homogeneous enhancement...
May 4, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731710/neuropathic-pain-causes-pyramidal-neuronal-hyperactivity-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Ruohe Zhao, Hang Zhou, Lianyan Huang, Zhongcong Xie, Jing Wang, Wen-Biao Gan, Guang Yang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is thought to be important for acute pain perception as well as the development of chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Nevertheless, how ACC neurons respond to sensory stimulation under chronic pain states is not well understood. Here, we used an in vivo two-photon imaging technique to monitor the activity of individual neurons in the ACC of awake, head restrained mice. Calcium imaging in the dorsal ACC revealed robust somatic activity in layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in response to peripheral noxious stimuli, and the degree of evoked activity was correlated with the intensity of noxious stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718755/complement-cascade-on-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-at-the-chronic-unconscious-stage-implication-for-pathogenesis
#8
Wangxiao Bao, Fangping He, Lihua Yu, Jian Gao, Fanxia Meng, Yahui Ding, Hai Zou, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Patients who awake from severely traumatic brain injury (TBI) may remain unconscious for many years. Although behavioral assessment and functional imaging are currently used as diagnostic tools, the molecular basis underlying chronic condition has yet to be explored. METHOD: Plasma samples were obtained at 3 time points (1, 3 and 6 months) from 18 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness who survived severe TBI, and 6 healthy volunteers. A coupled isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was used to screen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between patients and controls...
May 2, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718200/dynamic-patterns-of-spontaneous-ongoing-activity-in-the-visual-cortex-of-anesthetized-and-awake-monkeys-are-different
#9
David B Omer, Tomer Fekete, Yigal Ulchin, Rina Hildesheim, Amiram Grinvald
Ongoing internal cortical activity plays a major role in perception and behavior both in animals and humans. Previously we have shown that spontaneous patterns resembling orientation-maps appear over large cortical areas in the primary visual-cortex of anesthetized cats. However, it remains unknown 1) whether spontaneous-activity in the primate also displays similar patterns and 2) whether a significant difference exists between cortical ongoing-activity in the anesthetized and awake primate. We explored these questions by combining voltage-sensitive-dye imaging with multiunit and local-field-potential recordings...
April 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713266/the-effect-of-single-pyramidal-neuron-firing-within-layer-2-3-and-layer-4-in-mouse-v1
#10
Jochen F Meyer, Peyman Golshani, Stelios M Smirnakis
The influence of cortical cell spiking activity on nearby cells has been studied extensively in vitro . Less is known, however, about the impact of single cell firing on local cortical networks in vivo . In a pioneering study, Kwan and Dan (Kwan and Dan, 2012) reported that in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3), under anesthesia , stimulating a single pyramidal cell recruits ~2.1% of neighboring units. Here we employ two-photon calcium imaging in layer 2/3 of mouse V1, in conjunction with single-cell patch clamp stimulation in layer 2/3 or layer 4, to probe, in both the awake and lightly anesthetized states , how (i) activating single L2/3 pyramidal neurons recruits neighboring units within L2/3 and from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3, and whether (ii) activating single pyramidal neurons changes population activity in local circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709569/the-effect-of-sleep-deprivation-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-participants-reporting-depressive-symptoms
#11
Marcus O Harrington, Karen M Nedberge, Simon J Durrant
Sleep has been shown to play a crucial role in the consolidation of emotionally salient memories. However, the influence of sleep, and Sleep Deprivation (SD), on emotional memory consolidation in depressive individuals remains elusive. For this experiment we recruited two groups of healthy students, one reporting mild-to-severe depressive symptoms, and another reporting minimal/no depressive symptoms (assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II). We measured recognition performance for positive, neutral and negative images before and after a 12 h overnight retention interval, during which participants either remained awake in the laboratory or returned home to sleep normally...
April 27, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706581/cortical-circuit-activity-evokes-rapid-astrocyte-calcium-signals-on-a-similar-timescale-to-neurons
#12
Jillian L Stobart, Kim David Ferrari, Matthew J P Barrett, Chaim Glück, Michael J Stobart, Marc Zuend, Bruno Weber
Sensory stimulation evokes intracellular calcium signals in astrocytes; however, the timing of these signals is disputed. Here, we used novel combinations of genetically encoded calcium indicators for concurrent two-photon imaging of cortical astrocytes and neurons in awake mice during whisker deflection. We identified calcium responses in both astrocyte processes and endfeet that rapidly followed neuronal events (∼120 ms after). These fast astrocyte responses were largely independent of IP3 R2-mediated signaling and known neuromodulator activity (acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine), suggesting that they are evoked by local synaptic activity...
April 20, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697371/large-scale-two-photon-imaging-revealed-super-sparse-population-codes-in-v1-superficial-layer-of-awake-monkeys
#13
Shiming Tang, Yimeng Zhang, Zhihao Li, Ming Li, Fang Liu, Hongfei Jiang, Tai Sing Lee
One general principle of sensory information processing is that the brain must optimize efficiency by reducing the number of neurons processing the same information. The sparseness of the sensory representations in a population of neurons reflects the efficiency of the neural code. Here we employ large-scale two-photon calcium imaging to examine the responses of a large population of neurons with single-cell resolution, within the superficial layers of area V1, while simultaneously presenting a large set of natural visual stimuli, to provide the first direct measure of the population sparseness in awake primates...
April 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694883/adrenergic-modulation-regulates-the-dendritic-excitability-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-vivo
#14
Christina Labarrera, Yair Deitcher, Amir Dudai, Benjamin Weiner, Adi Kaduri Amichai, Neta Zylbermann, Michael London
The excitability of the apical tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons is thought to play a crucial role in behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity. We show that the excitability of the apical tuft is sensitive to adrenergic neuromodulation. Using two-photon dendritic Ca2+ imaging and in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings in awake mice, we show that application of the α2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine increases the probability of dendritic Ca2+ events in the tuft and lowers the threshold for dendritic Ca2+ spikes...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691465/longitudinal-two-photon-imaging-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-behaving-mice-reveals-dendritic-spine-formation-enhancement-by-subchronic-administration-of-low-dose-ketamine
#15
Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Ekaterina Mugantseva, Plinio Casarotto, Julia Kolikova, Senem Merve Fred, Dmytro Toptunov, Ramil Afzalov, Pirta Hotulainen, Vootele Voikar, Ryan Terry-Lorenzo, Sharon Engel, Sergei Kirov, Eero Castren, Leonard Khiroug
Ketamine, a well-known anesthetic, has recently attracted renewed attention as a fast-acting antidepressant. A single dose of ketamine induces rapid synaptogenesis, which may underlie its antidepressant effect. To test whether repeated exposure to ketamine triggers sustained synaptogenesis, we administered a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg i.p.) once-daily for 5 days, and repeatedly imaged dendritic spines of the YFP-expressing pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake female mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682074/language-mapping-in-awake-surgery-report-of-two-cases-with-review-of-language-networks
#16
Liang Hooi Lim, Zamzuri Idris, Faruque Reza, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Laila Abd Mukmin, Jafri Malin Abdullah
The role of language in communication plays a crucial role in human development and function. In patients who have a surgical lesion at the functional language areas, surgery should be intricately planned to avoid incurring further morbidity. This normally requires extensive functional and anatomical mappings of the brain to identify regions that are involved in language processing and production. In our case report, regions of the brain that are important for language functions were studied before surgery by employing (a) extraoperative methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, transmagnetic stimulation, and magnetoencephalography; (b) during the surgery by utilizing intraoperative awake surgical methods such as an intraoperative electrical stimulation; and (c) a two-stage surgery, in which electrical stimulation and first mapping are made thoroughly in the ward before second remapping during surgery...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682064/awake-craniotomy-with-noninvasive-brain-mapping-by-3-tesla-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-excision-of-low-grade-glioma-a-case-of-a-young-patient-from-pakistan
#17
Atta Ul Aleem Bhatti, Nasir Khan Jakhrani, Maria Adnan Parekh
The past few years have seen increasing support for gross total resection in the management of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), with a greater extent of resection correlated with better overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to malignant transformation. There is consistent evidence in literature supporting extent of safe resection as a good prognostic indicator as well as positively affecting seizure control, symptomatic relief in pressure symptoms, and longer progression-free and total survival. The operative goal in most LGG cases is to maximize the extent of resection for these benefits while avoiding postoperative neurologic deficits...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669746/learning-dependent-and-independent-enhancement-of-mitral-tufted-cell-glomerular-odor-responses-following-olfactory-fear-conditioning-in-awake-mice
#18
Jordan M Ross, Max L Fletcher
Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659626/influence-of-respiratory-mechanics-and-drive-on-genioglossus-movement-under-ultrasound-imaging
#19
Benjamin C H Kwan, Rachel A McBain, Billy L Luu, Jane E Butler, Lynne E Bilston, Simon C Gandevia
METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (10 males, age 28±5 years [mean ± SD]) lay supine, awake, with the head in a neutral position. Ventilation was monitored with inductance bands. Real-time B-mode ultrasound movies were analysed. We measured genioglossus motion (i) during spontaneous breathing, voluntary targeted breathing (normal tidal volume Vt), and voluntary hyperpnoea (at 1.5Vt and 2 Vt); (ii) during inspiratory flow resistive loading; (iii) with changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627630/awake-intradural-spinal-tumour-resection
#20
Anan Shtaya, Chan Bao Luong, Erlick Pereira
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is a common slow growing spinal tumour with a predilection for intradural occurrence. Patients usually present with pain followed by ataxia and sensory and sphincter problems. The gold standard treatment in these cases is gross total microsurgical resection under general anaesthesia. However, there exist high anaesthetic risk patients unsuitable for general anaesthesia. Performing spinal surgeries under local anaesthesia and sedation has been reported albeit rarely for mostly minimally invasive procedures but not for open intradural pathologies...
April 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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