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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634149/a-non-invasive-restraining-system-for-awake-mouse-imaging
#1
Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Chathura Kumaragamage, Lauren Reynolds, Jamie Near, Cecilia Flores, M Natasha Rajah
BACKGROUND: Preclinical neuroimaging allows for the assessment of brain anatomy, connectivity and function in laboratory animals, such as mice and rats. Most of these studies are performed under anesthesia to avoid movement during the scanning sessions. METHOD: Due to the limitations associated with anesthetized imaging, recent efforts have been made to conduct rodent imaging studies in awake animals, habituated to the restraint systems used in these instances. As of now, only one such system is commercially available for mouse scanning (Animal Imaging Research, Boston, MA, USA) integrating the radiofrequency coil electronics with the restraining element, an approach which, although effective in reducing head motion during awake imaging, has some limitations...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615151/parkinson-s-disease-patient-preference-and-experience-with-various-methods-of-dbs-lead-placement
#2
Sara C LaHue, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Nathan Ziman, Sarah Wang, Caroline A Racine, Philip A Starr, Paul S Larson, Maya Katz
INTRODUCTION: Physiology-guided deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery requires patients to be awake during a portion of the procedure, which may be poorly tolerated. Interventional MRI-guided (iMRI) DBS surgery was developed to use real-time image guidance, obviating the need for patients to be awake during lead placement. METHODS: All English-speaking adults with PD who underwent iMRI DBS between 2010 and 2014 at our Center were invited to participate. Subjects completed a structured interview that explored perioperative preferences and experiences...
April 17, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589967/in-vivo-fiber-photometry-reveals-signature-of-future-stress-susceptibility-in-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Jessie Muir, Zachary S Lorsch, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Erin S Calipari, Rosemary C Bagot
Recognizing why chronic stress causes only a subset of individuals to become depressed is critical to understanding depression on a basic level and, also to developing treatments that increase resilience. Stress-induced alterations in the activity of reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are linked to the pathophysiology of depression. However, it has been difficult to determine if differences in stress susceptibility are pre-existing or merely an effect of chronic stress. The NAc consists largely of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), distinguished by their predominant expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589753/evaluating-the-gray-and-white-matter-energy-budgets-of-human-brain-function
#4
Yuguo Yu, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Divyansh Agarwal, Fahmeed Hyder
The insatiable appetite for energy to support human brain function is mainly supplied by glucose oxidation (CMRglc(ox)). But how much energy is consumed for signaling and nonsignaling processes in gray/white matter is highly debated. We examined this issue by combining metabolic measurements of gray/white matter and a theoretical calculation of bottom-up energy budget using biophysical properties of neuronal/glial cells in conjunction with species-exclusive electrophysiological and morphological data. We calculated a CMRglc(ox)-derived budget and confirmed it with experimental results measured by PET, autoradiography, (13)C-MRS, and electrophysiology...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573156/study-of-single-and-multidigit-activation-in-monkey-somatosensory-cortex-using-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging
#5
Anna Wang Roe, Jeremy E Winberry, Robert M Friedman
Toward the goal of understanding cutaneous sensory integration during manual behavior, we used voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to study the organization and dynamics of anesthetized monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in response to single and multidigit tactile stimulation. We find that in both macaque and squirrel monkey SI, VSD reveals clear focal digit topography consistent with previous electrophysiological and intrinsic signal imaging studies. VSD also reveals interactions in SI in response to multidigit stimulation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552601/habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-differentially-modulate-predator-odor-induced-innate-fear-behavior-in-rats
#6
Daniel Vincenz, Kerstin E A Wernecke, Markus Fendt, Jürgen Goldschmidt
Fear is an important behavioral system helping humans and animals to survive potentially dangerous situations. Fear can be innate or learned. Whereas the neural circuits underlying learned fear are already well investigated, the knowledge about the circuits mediating innate fear is still limited. We here used a novel, unbiased approach to image in vivo the spatial patterns of neural activity in odor-induced innate fear behavior in rats. We intravenously injected awake unrestrained rats with a 99m-technetium labeled blood flow tracer (99mTc-HMPAO) during ongoing exposure to fox urine or water as control, and mapped the brain distribution of the trapped tracer using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
May 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552515/the-rabbit-as-a-behavioral-model-system-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Craig Weiss, Daniel Procissi, John M Power, John F Disterhoft
BACKGROUND: fMRI requires that subjects not move during image acquisition. This has been achieved by instructing people not to move, or by anesthetizing experimental animal subjects to induce immobility. We have demonstrated that a surgically implanted headbolt onto the skull of a rabbit allows their brain to be imaged comfortably while the animal is awake. This article provides a detailed method for the preparation. NEW METHOD: We took advantage of the rabbit's tolerance for restraint to image the brain while holding the head at the standard stereotaxic angle...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550404/development-of-an-imaging-system-for-in-vivo-real-time-monitoring-of-neuronal-activity-in-deep-brain-of-free-moving-rats
#8
Norio Iijima, Shinji Miyamoto, Keisuke Matsumoto, Ken Takumi, Yoichi Ueta, Hitoshi Ozawa
We have newly developed a system that allows monitoring of the intensity of fluorescent signals from deep brains of rats transgenically modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) via an optical fiber. One terminal of the optical fiber was connected to a blue semiconductor laser oscillator/green fluorescence detector. The other terminal was inserted into the vicinity of the eGFP-expressing neurons. Since the optical fiber was vulnerable to twisting stresses caused by animal movement, we also developed a cage in which the floor automatically turns, in response to the turning of the rat's head...
May 26, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546077/systemic-administration-of-l-kynurenine-sulfate-induces-cerebral-hypoperfusion-transients-in-adult-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Dániel Péter Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Tamás Puskás, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas, Zsolt Kis, László Vécsei, József Toldi, Levente Gellért
The kynurenine pathway is a cascade of enzymatic steps generating biologically active compounds. l-kynurenine (l-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation. In the mammalian brain, l-KYN is partly converted to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which exerts multiple effects on neurotransmission. Recently, l-KYN or one of its derivatives were attributed a direct role in the regulation of the systemic circulation. l-KYN dilates arterial blood vessels during sepsis in rats, while it increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in awake rabbits...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#10
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540132/more-risks-and-complications-for-elective-spine-surgery-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#11
REVIEW
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of studies emphasize the greater morbidity/mortality for elective spine surgery in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: This review focuses on the increased morbidity/mortality of performing elective spinal operations in morbidly obese patients. There are two definitions of morbid obesity; a body mass index (BMI) of equal to or greater than 35 plus two major comorbid factors (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, etc.) or a BMI (morbidly obese III) of =≥40 kg/m(2)...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#12
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#13
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3-7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#14
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506488/perioperative-functional-neuroimaging-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-brain-areas
#15
C Mellerio, S Charron, S Lion, P Roca, G Kuchcinski, L Legrand, M Edjlali, O Naggara, J-F Meder, J Pallud, C Oppenheim
Surgical resection of gliomas involving eloquent brain areas must be maximal in order to improve patients' survival, and safe to prevent postoperative impairments. Therefore, the precise spatial relationship between the lesion and eloquent brain areas needs to be established. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are robust methods with increasing indications in neurosurgery for past decade. The aim of this review article is not only to pinpoint the major limitations of these methods in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, but also to detail practical aspects associated with the main paradigms routinely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to discuss recent validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging results with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499922/critical-analysis-of-the-lever-test-for-diagnosis-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-insufficiency
#16
Patrick A Massey, Joshua D Harris, Leland A Winston, David M Lintner, Domenica A Delgado, Patrick C McCulloch
PURPOSE: To critically analyze the "lever test" in detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to compare its accuracy with the Lachman, anterior drawer (AD), and pivot shift tests. METHODS: From June 2014 to June 2015, 91 subjects were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were subjects aged 16 to 60 years, presenting after a knee injury with subjective swelling, or an objective effusion and an uninjured normal contralateral knee for comparison. Exclusion criteria included previous knee ligamentous reconstruction, fracture of the distal femur or proximal tibia, bilateral knee injuries, or known cruciate ligament tear...
May 9, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491905/genetically-expressed-voltage-sensor-arclight-for-imaging-large-scale-cortical-activity-in-the-anesthetized-and-awake-mouse
#17
Peter Y Borden, Alex D Ortiz, Christian Waiblinger, Audrey J Sederberg, Arthur E Morrissette, Craig R Forest, Dieter Jaeger, Garrett B Stanley
With the recent breakthrough in genetically expressed voltage indicators (GEVIs), there has been a tremendous demand to determine the capabilities of these sensors in vivo. Novel voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins allow for direct measurement of neuron membrane potential changes through changes in fluorescence. Here, we utilized ArcLight, a recently developed GEVI, and examined the functional characteristics in the widely used mouse somatosensory whisker pathway. We measured the resulting evoked fluorescence using a wide-field microscope and a CCD camera at 200 Hz, which enabled voltage recordings over the entire cortical region with high temporal resolution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491313/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-a-case-of-e200k-mutation-related-spongiform-encephalopathy-with-non-diagnostic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-testing
#18
Pravin George, Christopher R Newey, Karin P Mente, Erik P Pioro
OBJECTIVE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy. The E200K mutation is found in a majority of genetically transmitted Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. METHODS: We describe the case and associated neuroimaging of an E200K-129M gene-mutation-related fatal spongiform encephalopathy with resultant clinical insomnia and thalamic changes. RESULTS: A 46-year-old Caucasian male presented with, who was well until 2 months prior to admission, a rapidly progressive dementia followed by a change in personality with auditory and visual hallucinations...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484546/postoperative-hematoma-involving-brainstem-peduncles-cerebellum-deep-subcortical-white-matter-cerebral-hemispheres-following-chronic-subdural-hematoma-evacuation
#19
Mohana Rao Patibandla, Amit K Thotakura, Dinesh Shukla, Anirudh K Purohit, Gokul Chowdary Addagada, Manisha Nukavarapu
Among the intracranial hematomas, chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are the most benign with a mortality rate of 0.5-4.0%. The elderly and alcoholics are commonly affected by CSDH. Even though high percentage of CSDH patients improves after the evacuation, there are some unexpected potential complications altering the postoperative course with neurological deterioration. Poor outcome in postoperative period is due to complications like failure of brain to re-expand, recurrence of hematoma and tension pneumocephalus...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476311/transcranial-functional-ultrasound-imaging-in-freely-moving-awake-mice-and-anesthetized-young-rats-without-contrast-agent
#20
Elodie Tiran, Jérémy Ferrier, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Sophie Pezet, Zsolt Lenkei, Mickaël Tanter
Functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging by ultrasensitive Doppler detection of blood volume was previously reported to measure adult rat brain activation and functional connectivity with unmatched spatiotemporal sampling (100 μm, 1 ms), but skull-induced attenuation of ultrasonic waves imposed skull surgery or contrast agent use. Also, fUS feasibility remains to be validated in mice, a major pre-clinical model organism. In the study described here, we performed full-depth ultrasensitive Doppler imaging and 3-D Doppler tomography of the entire mouse brain under anesthesia, non-invasively through the intact skull and skin, without contrast agents...
May 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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