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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213947/select-noxious-stimuli-induce-changes-on-corneal-nerve-morphology
#1
Deborah M Hegarty, Sam M Hermes, Katherine Yang, Sue A Aicher
The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology and function...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210922/resting-cerebral-blood-flow-alteration-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-an-arterial-spin-labelling-perfusion-fmri-study
#2
Si Nie, De-Chang Peng, Hong-Han Gong, Hai-Jun Li, Li-Ting Chen, Cheng-Long Ye
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in awake people with untreated severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAs) compared with good sleepers (GSs). DESIGN: Arterial spin labelling perfusion imaging was used to quantify cerebral perfusion based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SETTING: Lying supine in a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner in the night was done...
February 16, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207390/fast-and-accurate-rat-head-motion-tracking-with-point-sources-for-awake-brain-pet
#3
Alan Miranda, Steven Staelens, Sigrid Stroobants, Jeroen Verhaeghe
To avoid the confounding effects of anesthesia and immobilization stress in rat brain positron emission tomography (PET), motion tracking based unrestrained awake rat brain imaging is being developed. In this work we propose a fast and accurate rat head motion tracking method based on small PET point sources. PET point sources (3-4) attached to the rat's head are tracked in image space using 15-32 ms time frames. Our point source tracking (PST) method was validated using a manually moved microDerenzo phantom that was simultaneously tracked with an optical tracker (OT) for comparison...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188545/a-review-of-mallet-finger-and-jersey-finger-injuries-in-the-athlete
#4
REVIEW
Abdo Bachoura, Alex J Ferikes, John D Lubahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review are to discuss the diagnosis and management of mallet and jersey finger injuries in athletes and to highlight how treatment impacts return to play. RECENT FINDINGS: Mallet finger: although numerous non-operative and operative techniques have been described, there continues to be little consensus regarding the optimal procedure. Jersey finger: ultrasound appears to be a cost-effective imaging modality that may be useful for preoperative planning...
February 10, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185647/supratotal-resection-of-diffuse-gliomas%C3%A2-%C3%A2-an-overview-of-its-multifaceted-implications
#5
REVIEW
Y N Yordanova, H Duffau
Successful management of diffuse low-grade and high-grade gliomas in adults is a challenge for neuro-oncologists. Indeed, due to their highly infiltrative feature, these diseases remain incurable despite therapeutic advances. Nevertheless, the elaboration of individualized therapeutic strategies has led to an improvement of both overall survival and quality of life. In particular, the impact of surgical resection on diffuse glioma survival has been extensively demonstrated. However, this impact is significant only when the resection is total (i...
February 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162162/-application-of-ultrasound-guidance-for-fascia-iliaca-compartment-block-in-pediatric-femoral-surgery
#6
Y Nan, Q Q Yang, X W Li, T Li, J Li
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guidance for fascia iliaca compartment block in pediatric femoral surgery. Methods: This study was a prospective study, thirty children who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) statusⅠ with 5-10 years old scheduled for femoral surgery were selected in orthopedics department in Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from May to December in 2014. After induction of general anesthesia, all the children were inserted the laryngeal mask...
January 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160463/mapping-cortical-mesoscopic-networks-of-single-spiking-cortical-or-sub-cortical-neurons
#7
Dongsheng Xiao, Matthieu P Vanni, Catalin C Mitelut, Allen W Chan, Jeff M LeDue, Yicheng Xie, Andrew Cn Chen, Nicholas V Swindale, Timothy H Murphy
Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity...
February 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137973/a-critical-role-for-astrocytes-in-hypercapnic-vasodilation-in-brain
#8
C Howarth, B A Sutherland, H B Choi, C Martin, B L Lind, L Khennouf, J M LeDue, J M P Pakan, R W Ko, G C R Ellis-Davies, M J Lauritzen, N R Sibson, A M Buchan, B A MacVicar
: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is controlled by arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2, arterial O2, and brain activity and is largely constant in the awake state. Although small changes in arterial CO2 are particularly potent to change CBF (1 mmHg variation in arterial CO2 changes CBF by 3-4%), the coupling mechanism is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) plays a key role for cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and that preserved synthesis of glutathione is essential for the full development of this response...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135213/brain-activity-for-tactile-allodynia-a-longitudinal-awake-rat-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-tracking-emergence-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
Pei-Ching Chang, Maria Virginia Centeno, Daniel Procissi, Alex Baria, A Vania Apkarian
Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132825/in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-dentate-gyrus-mossy-cells-in-behaving-mice
#10
Nathan B Danielson, Gergely F Turi, Max Ladow, Spyridon Chavlis, Panagiotis C Petrantonakis, Panayiota Poirazi, Attila Losonczy
Mossy cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus constitute a major excitatory principal cell type in the mammalian hippocampus; however, it remains unknown how these cells behave in vivo. Here, we have used two-photon Ca(2+) imaging to monitor the activity of mossy cells in awake, behaving mice. We find that mossy cells are significantly more active than dentate granule cells in vivo, exhibit spatial tuning during head-fixed spatial navigation, and undergo robust remapping of their spatial representations in response to contextual manipulation...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120089/awake-craniotomy-for-tumor-resection-further-optimizing-therapy-of-brain-tumors
#11
H Maximilian Mehdorn, Felix Schwartz, Juliane Becker
In recent years more and more data have emerged linking the most radical resection to prolonged survival in patients harboring brain tumors. Since total tumor resection could increase postoperative morbidity, many methods have been suggested to reduce the risk of postoperative neurological deficits: awake craniotomy with the possibility of continuous patient-surgeon communication is one of the possibilities of finding out how radical a tumor resection can possibly be without causing permanent harm to the patient...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112735/nicotine-reverses-hypofrontality-in-animal-models-of-addiction-and-schizophrenia
#12
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Dimitrios Tziotis, Kurt A Sailor, Heidi C O'Neill, Josien Levenga, Mirko Witte, Michael Nilges, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Charles A Hoeffer, Jerry A Stitzel, Boris S Gutkin, David A DiGregorio, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlies higher cognitive processes that are modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation by cholinergic inputs. PFC spontaneous default activity is altered in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-a disorder that can be accompanied by heavy smoking. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHRNA5 gene, encoding the α5 nAChR subunit, that increase the risks for both smoking and schizophrenia...
January 23, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111187/functional-and-oxygen-metabolic-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-the-awake-mouse-brain
#13
Rui Cao, Jun Li, Bo Ning, Naidi Sun, Tianxiong Wang, Zhiyi Zuo, Song Hu
A long-standing challenge in optical neuroimaging has been the assessment of hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in the awake rodent brain at the microscopic level. Here, we report first-of-a-kind head-restrained photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), which enables simultaneous imaging of the cerebrovascular anatomy, total concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and blood flow in awake mice. Combining these hemodynamic measurements allows us to derive two key metabolic parameters-oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2)...
January 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108489/processing-of-egomotion-consistent-optic-flow-in-the-rhesus-macaque-cortex
#14
Benoit R Cottereau, Andrew T Smith, Samy Rima, Denis Fize, Yseult Héjja-Brichard, Luc Renaud, Camille Lejards, Nathalie Vayssière, Yves Trotter, Jean-Baptiste Durand
The cortical network that processes visual cues to self-motion was characterized with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 3 awake behaving macaques. The experimental protocol was similar to previous human studies in which the responses to a single large optic flow patch were contrasted with responses to an array of 9 similar flow patches. This distinguishes cortical regions where neurons respond to flow in their receptive fields regardless of surrounding motion from those that are sensitive to whether the overall image arises from self-motion...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102175/markerless-rat-head-motion-tracking-using-structured-light-for-brain-pet-imaging-of-unrestrained-awake-small-animals
#15
Alan Miranda, Steven Staelens, Sigrid Stroobants, Jeroen Verhaeghe
Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data...
March 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101429/chronic-wide-field-imaging-of-brain-hemodynamics-in-behaving-animals
#16
Peng Miao, Lingke Zhang, Miao Li, Yiguang Zhang, Shihan Feng, Qihong Wang, Nitish V Thakor
Chronically monitoring cerebral activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies. We present a novel standalone micro-imager for monitoring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) activities in freely moving animals using the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) methods. A new cranial window method, using contact lens and wide field optics, is also proposed to achieve the chronic and wide-field imaging of rat's cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097238/quantitative-measurement-of-lymphatic-function-in-mice-by-noninvasive-near-infrared-imaging-of-a-peripheral-vein
#17
Steven T Proulx, Qiaoli Ma, Diana Andina, Jean-Christophe Leroux, Michael Detmar
Optical imaging methods have been developed to measure lymphatic function in skin; however, the lymphatic system of many organs is not accessible to this technology. Since lymphatic transport of macromolecules from any organ proceeds to the blood circulation, we aimed to develop a method that can measure lymphatic function by monitoring the fluorescence in a superficial vein of an interstitially injected tracer. We selected a 40-kDa PEGylated near-infrared dye conjugate, as it showed lymphatic system-specific uptake and extended circulation in blood...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094959/noninvasive-targeted-transcranial-neuromodulation-via-focused-ultrasound-gated-drug-release-from-nanoemulsions
#18
Raag D Airan, Randall A Meyer, Nicholas P K Ellens, Kelly R Rhodes, Keyvan Farahani, Martin G Pomper, Shilpa D Kadam, Jordan J Green
Targeted, noninvasive neuromodulation of the brain of an otherwise awake subject could revolutionize both basic and clinical neuroscience. Toward this goal, we have developed nanoparticles that allow noninvasive uncaging of a neuromodulatory drug, in this case the small molecule anesthetic propofol, upon the application of focused ultrasound. These nanoparticles are composed of biodegradable and biocompatible constituents and are activated using sonication parameters that are readily achievable by current clinical transcranial focused ultrasound systems...
January 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092972/tracking-dynamic-interactions-between-structural-and-functional-connectivity-a-tms-eeg-dmri-study
#19
Enrico Amico, Olivier Bodart, Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Lizette Heine, Pieter Van Mierlo, Charlotte Martial, Marcello Massimini, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with neuroimaging techniques allows to measure the effects of a direct perturbation of the brain. When coupled to high density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), TMS pulses revealed electrophysiological signatures of different cortical modules in health and disease. However, the neural underpinnings of these signatures remain unclear. Here, by applying multimodal analyses of cortical response to TMS recordings and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural features of different cortical modules in a cohort of awake healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072574/motion-compensation-using-origin-ensembles-in-awake-small-animal-positron-emission-tomography
#20
John E Gillam, Georgios I Angelis, Andre Z Kyme, Steven R Meikle
In emission tomographic imaging, the stochastic origin ensembles algorithm provides unique information regarding the detected counts given the measured data. Precision in both voxel and region-wise parameters may be determined for a single data set based on the posterior distribution of the count density allowing uncertainty estimates to be allocated to quantitative measures. Uncertainty estimates are of particular importance in awake animal neurological and behavioral studies for which head motion, unique for each acquired data set, perturbs the measured data...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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