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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#1
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540132/more-risks-and-complications-for-elective-spine-surgery-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#2
REVIEW
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of studies emphasize the greater morbidity/mortality for elective spine surgery in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: This review focuses on the increased morbidity/mortality of performing elective spinal operations in morbidly obese patients. There are two definitions of morbid obesity; a body mass index (BMI) of equal to or greater than 35 plus two major comorbid factors (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, etc.) or a BMI (morbidly obese III) of =≥40 kg/m(2)...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#3
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#4
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#5
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506488/perioperative-functional-neuroimaging-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-brain-areas
#6
C Mellerio, S Charron, S Lion, P Roca, G Kuchcinski, L Legrand, M Edjlali, O Naggara, J-F Meder, J Pallud, C Oppenheim
Surgical resection of gliomas involving eloquent brain areas must be maximal in order to improve patients' survival, and safe to prevent postoperative impairments. Therefore, the precise spatial relationship between the lesion and eloquent brain areas needs to be established. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are robust methods with increasing indications in neurosurgery for past decade. The aim of this review article is not only to pinpoint the major limitations of these methods in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, but also to detail practical aspects associated with the main paradigms routinely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to discuss recent validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging results with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499922/critical-analysis-of-the-lever-test-for-diagnosis-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-insufficiency
#7
Patrick A Massey, Joshua D Harris, Leland A Winston, David M Lintner, Domenica A Delgado, Patrick C McCulloch
PURPOSE: To critically analyze the "lever test" in detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to compare its accuracy with the Lachman, anterior drawer (AD), and pivot shift tests. METHODS: From June 2014 to June 2015, 91 subjects were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were subjects aged 16 to 60 years, presenting after a knee injury with subjective swelling, or an objective effusion and an uninjured normal contralateral knee for comparison. Exclusion criteria included previous knee ligamentous reconstruction, fracture of the distal femur or proximal tibia, bilateral knee injuries, or known cruciate ligament tear...
May 9, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491905/genetically-expressed-voltage-sensor-arclight-for-imaging-large-scale-cortical-activity-in-the-anesthetized-and-awake-mouse
#8
Peter Y Borden, Alex D Ortiz, Christian Waiblinger, Audrey J Sederberg, Arthur E Morrissette, Craig R Forest, Dieter Jaeger, Garrett B Stanley
With the recent breakthrough in genetically expressed voltage indicators (GEVIs), there has been a tremendous demand to determine the capabilities of these sensors in vivo. Novel voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins allow for direct measurement of neuron membrane potential changes through changes in fluorescence. Here, we utilized ArcLight, a recently developed GEVI, and examined the functional characteristics in the widely used mouse somatosensory whisker pathway. We measured the resulting evoked fluorescence using a wide-field microscope and a CCD camera at 200 Hz, which enabled voltage recordings over the entire cortical region with high temporal resolution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491313/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-a-case-of-e200k-mutation-related-spongiform-encephalopathy-with-non-diagnostic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-testing
#9
Pravin George, Christopher R Newey, Karin P Mente, Erik P Pioro
OBJECTIVE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy. The E200K mutation is found in a majority of genetically transmitted Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. METHODS: We describe the case and associated neuroimaging of an E200K-129M gene-mutation-related fatal spongiform encephalopathy with resultant clinical insomnia and thalamic changes. RESULTS: A 46-year-old Caucasian male presented with, who was well until 2 months prior to admission, a rapidly progressive dementia followed by a change in personality with auditory and visual hallucinations...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484546/postoperative-hematoma-involving-brainstem-peduncles-cerebellum-deep-subcortical-white-matter-cerebral-hemispheres-following-chronic-subdural-hematoma-evacuation
#10
Mohana Rao Patibandla, Amit K Thotakura, Dinesh Shukla, Anirudh K Purohit, Gokul Chowdary Addagada, Manisha Nukavarapu
Among the intracranial hematomas, chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are the most benign with a mortality rate of 0.5-4.0%. The elderly and alcoholics are commonly affected by CSDH. Even though high percentage of CSDH patients improves after the evacuation, there are some unexpected potential complications altering the postoperative course with neurological deterioration. Poor outcome in postoperative period is due to complications like failure of brain to re-expand, recurrence of hematoma and tension pneumocephalus...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476311/transcranial-functional-ultrasound-imaging-in-freely-moving-awake-mice-and-anesthetized-young-rats-without-contrast-agent
#11
Elodie Tiran, Jérémy Ferrier, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Sophie Pezet, Zsolt Lenkei, Mickaël Tanter
Functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging by ultrasensitive Doppler detection of blood volume was previously reported to measure adult rat brain activation and functional connectivity with unmatched spatiotemporal sampling (100 μm, 1 ms), but skull-induced attenuation of ultrasonic waves imposed skull surgery or contrast agent use. Also, fUS feasibility remains to be validated in mice, a major pre-clinical model organism. In the study described here, we performed full-depth ultrasensitive Doppler imaging and 3-D Doppler tomography of the entire mouse brain under anesthesia, non-invasively through the intact skull and skin, without contrast agents...
May 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474309/preoperative-prediction-of-language-function-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
C F Freyschlag, J Kerschbaumer, D Pinggera, T Bodner, A E Grams, C Thomé
For surgery of eloquent tumors in language areas, the accepted gold standard is functional mapping through direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in awake patients. Ever since, neuroscientists are searching for reliable noninvasive detection of function in the human brain, with variable success. The potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in combination with computational cortical parcellation to predict functional areas in language eloquent tumors has not been assessed so far. We present a proof-of-concept report involving awake surgery for a temporodorsal tumor...
May 4, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472038/auditory-motion-specific-mechanisms-in-the-primate-brain
#13
Colline Poirier, Simon Baumann, Pradeep Dheerendra, Olivier Joly, David Hunter, Fabien Balezeau, Li Sun, Adrian Rees, Christopher I Petkov, Alexander Thiele, Timothy D Griffiths
This work examined the mechanisms underlying auditory motion processing in the auditory cortex of awake monkeys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We tested to what extent auditory motion analysis can be explained by the linear combination of static spatial mechanisms, spectrotemporal processes, and their interaction. We found that the posterior auditory cortex, including A1 and the surrounding caudal belt and parabelt, is involved in auditory motion analysis. Static spatial and spectrotemporal processes were able to fully explain motion-induced activation in most parts of the auditory cortex, including A1, but not in circumscribed regions of the posterior belt and parabelt cortex...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460124/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-chronically-impairs-sleep-and-wake-dependent-emotional-processing
#14
Janna Mantua, Owen S Henry, Nolan F Garskovas, Rebecca M C Spencer
A single traumatic brain injury (TBI), even when mild (i.e., concussion), can cause lasting consequences. Individuals with a history of chronic (> 1 year prior) mild TBI have an increased risk of mood disturbances (e.g., depression, suicide). This population also has lingering sleep alterations, including poor sleep quality and changes in sleep stage proportions. Given these sleep deficits, we aimed to test whether sleep-dependent emotional memory consolidation is reduced in this population. We utilized a mild TBI group (3...
April 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444321/evidence-of-altered-brain-responses-to-nicotine-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#15
Guillaume L Poirier, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Introduction: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are susceptible to earlier and more severe nicotine addiction. To shed light on the relationship between nicotine and ADHD, we examined nicotine's effects on functional brain networks in an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Awake magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare functional connectivity in adolescent (postnatal day 44±2) males of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain and two control strains, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley (n = 16 each)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#16
Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#17
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412582/sex-differences-in-neural-activation-following-different-routes-of-oxytocin-administration-in-awake-adult-rats
#18
Kelly M Dumais, Praveen P Kulkarni, Craig F Ferris, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409251/advanced-imaging-techniques-in-pediatric-body-mri
#19
REVIEW
Jesse Courtier, Anil G Rao, Sudha A Anupindi
While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times...
May 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391630/fundus-imaging-in-newborn-children-with-wide-field-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscope
#20
Vigdis Magnusdottir, Wouter B Vehmeijer, Thorunn S Eliasdottir, Sveinn H Hardarson, Nicoline E Schalij-Delfos, Einar Stefánsson
PURPOSE: Current fundus imaging in newborn babies requires mydriatics, eye specula and corneal contact. We propose that a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) allows ultra wide-field imaging with reduced stress for the child. METHODS: This prospective observational single centre study was conducted in Landspítali, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. In this study, a noncontact wide-field SLO (Optomap 200Tx) was used to image the retina in healthy full-term newborns without the use of mydriatics or eye specula...
April 9, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
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