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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917282/interventional-mri-guided-deep-brain-stimulation-lead-implantation
#1
REVIEW
Philip S Lee, Robert Mark Richardson
Current knowledge of the functional anatomy of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, discovered through microelectrode recording and postoperative imaging, justifies purely anatomic targeting for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Interventional MRI (iMRI)-DBS is more anatomically accurate than traditional awake procedures and has similar clinical outcomes without increased risk or increased operative times. iMRI lead implantation allows patients to receive DBS therapy who cannot tolerate or do not agree to undergo an awake procedure...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898796/transjugular-biopsy-case-report-of-inferior-vena-cava-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-intracardiac-extension
#3
Laurence Weinberg, Diana Abu-Ssaydeh, Chris Macgregor, Jason Wang, Clarence Wong, Manfred Spanger, Vijayragavan Muralidharan
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be established with near certainty by correlating radiological imaging with clinical presentation. However, in the absence of diagnostic certainty, biopsy of liver tissue is mandatory for optimal management. We present our management of a patient with advanced liver disease who presented with an IVC mass extending into the right atrium, with co-existing liver lesions not meeting criteria for an imaging diagnosis of HCC. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male with Child-Pugh C liver cirrhosis presented with decompensated liver failure...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889004/quantitative-vascular-neuroimaging-of-the-rat-brain-using-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-new-insights-on-vascular-organization-and-brain-function
#4
Codi A Gharagouzloo, Liam Timms, Ju Qiao, Zihang Fang, Joseph Nneji, Aniket Pandya, Praveen Kulkarni, Anne L van de Ven, Craig Ferris, Srinivas Sridhar
A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887876/cell-specific-gain-modulation-by-synaptically-released-zinc-in-cortical-circuits-of-audition
#5
Charles T Anderson, Manoj Kumar, Shanshan Xiong, Thanos Tzounopoulos
In many excitatory synapses, mobile zinc is found within glutamatergic vesicles and is coreleased with glutamate. Ex vivo studies established that synaptically released (synaptic) zinc inhibits excitatory neurotransmission at lower frequencies of synaptic activity but enhances steady state synaptic responses during higher frequencies of activity. However, it remains unknown how synaptic zinc affects neuronal processing in vivo. Here, we imaged the sound-evoked neuronal activity of the primary auditory cortex in awake mice...
September 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882861/real-time-motor-cortex-mapping-for-the-safe-resection-of-glioma-an-intraoperative-resting-state-fmri-study
#6
T-M Qiu, F-Y Gong, X Gong, J-S Wu, C-P Lin, B B Biswal, D-X Zhuang, C-J Yao, X-L Zhang, J-F Lu, F-P Zhu, Y Mao, L-F Zhou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resting-state functional MR imaging has been used for motor mapping in presurgical planning but never used intraoperatively. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying intraoperative resting-state functional MR imaging for the safe resection of gliomas using real-time motor cortex mapping during an operation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using interventional MR imaging, we conducted preoperative and intraoperative resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity analyses of the motor cortex in 30 patients with brain tumors...
September 7, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874317/generalized-paroxysmal-fast-activity-in-eeg-an-unrecognized-finding-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#7
Vishwanath Sagi, Inyup Kim, Amar B Bhatt, Hasan Sonmezturk, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Amir M Arain
OBJECTIVE: To study generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA) in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). INTRODUCTION: GPFA is an electroencephalographic (EEG) finding in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy consisting of 15-25Hz bifrontally predominant generalized fast activity seen predominantly in sleep. Historically GPFA is linked to epileptic encephalopathy with drug resistant epilepsy and intellectual disability. However, GPFA has been rarely described as an atypical finding in patients with GGE without negative prognostic implication...
September 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868610/examination-of-foramen-tympanicum-cone-beam-computed-tomograpyh-anatomical-study
#8
Yeşim Deniz, Gediz Geduk, Ayşe Zeynep Zengin
BACKGROUND: The foramen of tympanicum is an osseous dehiscence of the temporal bone and usually close by the age of 5 years. The foramen is located posteromedial to the temporomandibular joint and anteroinferior of the external auditory canal. The aim of this study is to define prevalence, location and size of the foramen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 200 cone beam computed tomography images (400 ears). We used a CBCT dental imaging system (GALİLEOS, Sirona Dental Systems, Bensheim, Germany) working at 15-30 mA and 98 kV...
September 4, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868255/resection-of-gliomas-with-and-without-neuropsychological-support-during-awake-craniotomy-effects-on-surgery-and-clinical-outcome
#9
Anna Kelm, Nico Sollmann, Sebastian Ille, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: During awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP) is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860973/particle-tracking-facilitates-real-time-capable-motion-correction-in-2d-or-3d-two-photon-imaging-of-neuronal-activity
#10
Samira Aghayee, Daniel E Winkowski, Zachary Bowen, Erin E Marshall, Matt J Harrington, Patrick O Kanold, Wolfgang Losert
The application of 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) techniques to measure the dynamics of cellular calcium signals in populations of neurons is an extremely powerful technique for characterizing neural activity within the central nervous system. The use of TPLSM on awake and behaving subjects promises new insights into how neural circuit elements cooperatively interact to form sensory perceptions and generate behavior. A major challenge in imaging such preparations is unavoidable animal and tissue movement, which leads to shifts in the imaging location (jitter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844645/direct-electrical-stimulation-in-the-human-brain-disrupts-melody-processing
#11
Frank E Garcea, Benjamin L Chernoff, Bram Diamond, Wesley Lewis, Maxwell H Sims, Samuel B Tomlinson, Alexander Teghipco, Raouf Belkhir, Sarah B Gannon, Steve Erickson, Susan O Smith, Jonathan Stone, Lynn Liu, Trenton Tollefson, John Langfitt, Elizabeth Marvin, Webster H Pilcher, Bradford Z Mahon
Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23])...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843869/development-of-a-radioligand-for-imaging-v1a-vasopressin-receptors-with-pet
#12
Ravi Naik, Heather Valentine, Andrew Hall, William B Mathews, James C Harris, C Sue Carter, Robert F Dannals, Dean F Wong, Andrew G Horti
A series of vasopressin receptor V1a ligands have been synthesized for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The lead compound (1S,5R)-1 ((4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-methoxyphenyl) ((1S,5R)-1,3,3-trimethyl-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-6-yl)methanone) and its F-ethyl analog 6c exhibited the best combination of high binding affinity and optimal lipophilicity within the series. (1S,5R)-1 was radiolabeled with (11)C for PET studies. [(11)CH3](1S,5R)-1 readily entered the mouse (4.7% ID/g tissue) and prairie vole brains (∼2% ID/g tissue) and specifically (30-34%) labeled V1a receptor...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841121/elaborate-mapping-of-the-posterior-visual-pathway-in-awake-craniotomy
#13
Tal Shahar, Akiva Korn, Gal Barkay, Tali Biron, Amir Hadanny, Tomer Gazit, Erez Nossek, Margaret Ekstein, Anat Kesler, Zvi Ram
OBJECTIVE Resection of intraaxial tumors adjacent to the optic radiation (OR) may be associated with postoperative visual field (VF) deficits. Intraoperative navigation using MRI-based tractography and electrophysiological monitoring of the visual pathways may allow maximal resection while preserving visual function. In this study, the authors evaluated the value of visual pathway mapping in a series of patients undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted in 18 patients who underwent an awake craniotomy for resection of intraaxial tumors involving or adjacent to the OR...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830766/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-auditory-cortical-fields-in-awake-marmosets
#14
Camille R Toarmino, Cecil C C Yen, Daniel Papoti, Nicholas A Bock, David A Leopold, Cory T Miller, Afonso C Silva
The primate auditory cortex is organized into a network of anatomically and functionally distinct processing fields. Because of its tonotopic properties, the auditory core has been the main target of neurophysiological studies ranging from sensory encoding to perceptual decision-making. By comparison, the auditory belt has been less extensively studied, in part due to the fact that neurons in the belt areas prefer more complex stimuli and integrate over a wider frequency range than neurons in the core, which prefer pure tones of a single frequency...
August 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826712/preservation-of-motor-function-after-resection-of-lower-grade-glioma-at-the-precentral-gyrus-and-prediction-by-pre-surgical-fmri-and-meg-a-case-report
#15
Nobuyuki Izutsu, Manabu Kinoshita, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko Nakanishi, Mio Sakai, Haruhiko Kishima
Intra-axial brain tumors located at anatomically eloquent areas are challenging conditions. It is often difficult to pursue maximum extent of resection of the tumor in these locations. On the other hand, neuroplasticity takes place in some patients with low-grade glioma and the primary neural functions are known to sometimes shift from conventional "eloquent cortices". In the presented case, the authors detected shift of primary motor function from the precentral gyrus to the postcentral gyrus on magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from a lower-grade glioma located at the precentral gyrus...
August 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821672/audio-visual-modulation-in-mouse-v1-depends-on-cross-modal-stimulus-configuration-and-congruency
#16
Guido T Meijer, Jorrit S Montijn, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Carien S Lansink
The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network, in which information from multiple senses is integrated, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although this view is supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audio-visual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819211/dynamic-local-connectivity-uncovers-altered-brain-synchrony-during-propofol-sedation
#17
Rose Dawn Bharath, Rajanikant Panda, Jitender Saini, Kamath Sriganesh, G S Umamaheswara Rao
Human consciousness is considered a result of the synchronous "humming" of multiple dynamic networks. We performed a dynamic functional connectivity analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in 14 patients before and during a propofol infusion to characterize the sedation-induced alterations in consciousness. A sliding 36-second window was used to derive 59 time points of whole brain integrated local connectivity measurements. Significant changes in the connectivity strength (Z Corr) at various time points were used to measure the connectivity fluctuations during awake and sedated states...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794407/focal-cortical-seizures-start-as-standing-waves-and-propagate-respecting-homotopic-connectivity
#18
L Federico Rossi, Robert C Wykes, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matteo Carandini
Focal epilepsy involves excessive cortical activity that propagates both locally and distally. Does this propagation follow the same routes as normal cortical activity? We pharmacologically induced focal seizures in primary visual cortex (V1) of awake mice, and compared their propagation to the retinotopic organization of V1 and higher visual areas. We used simultaneous local field potential recordings and widefield imaging of a genetically encoded calcium indicator to measure prolonged seizures (ictal events) and brief interictal events...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755982/use-and-perceptions-of-caffeinated-energy-drinks-and-energy-shots-in-canada
#19
Danielle Wiggers, Jessica L Reid, Christine M White, David Hammond
INTRODUCTION: In Canada, energy drinks and energy shots are currently classified and regulated differently (food and drugs versus natural health products, respectively), on the assumption that they are used and perceived differently. The current study examined potential differences in use and perceptions of energy drinks and shots. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 2015 using a national commercial online panel of youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (n=2,040 retained for analysis in 2016)...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747086/menthol-enhances-nicotine-induced-locomotor-sensitization-and-in-vivo-functional-connectivity-in-adolescence
#20
Matthew F Thompson, Guillaume L Poirier, Martha I Dávila-García, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Maxwell Robidoux, Michelle L Dubuke, Scott A Shaffer, Luis Colon-Perez, Marcelo Febo, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Mentholated cigarettes capture a quarter of the US market, and are disproportionately smoked by adolescents. Menthol allosterically modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function, but its effects on the brain and nicotine addiction are unclear. To determine if menthol is psychoactive, we assessed locomotor sensitization and brain functional connectivity. Adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats were administered nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) daily with or without menthol (0.05 mg/kg or 5.38 mg/kg) for nine days. Following each injection, distance traveled in an open field was recorded...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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