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imaging AND awake

K M Naga Srinivas Nadella, Hana Roš, Chiara Baragli, Victoria A Griffiths, George Konstantinou, Theo Koimtzis, Geoffrey J Evans, Paul A Kirkby, R Angus Silver
Understanding how neural circuits process information requires rapid measurements of activity from identified neurons distributed in 3D space. Here we describe an acousto-optic lens two-photon microscope that performs high-speed focusing and line scanning within a volume spanning hundreds of micrometers. We demonstrate its random-access functionality by selectively imaging cerebellar interneurons sparsely distributed in 3D space and by simultaneously recording from the soma, proximal and distal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells in awake behaving mice...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia, a disproportional fear of dental procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anesthetic, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, due in great part for its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Keitaro Yoshida, Yu Mimura, Ryosuke Ishihara, Hiroshi Nishida, Yuji Komaki, Tomohito Minakuchi, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Masaru Mimura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka, Norio Takata
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in mice is typically performed under anesthesia due to difficulties in holding the head of awake mice stably with a conventional three-point fixation method that uses a tooth-bar and earplugs. Although some studies have succeeded in fMRI in awake mice by attaching a head-post on the skull, this cannot be applied to fMRI using a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cryogenic MRI-detector, CryoProbe, because it covers the head of a mouse closely...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Iliya Sigal, Margaret M Koletar, Dene Ringuette, Raanan Gad, Melanie Jeffrey, Peter L Carlen, Bojana Stefanovic, Ofer Levi
We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Ahmed Abdullah, Hisham El Shitany, Waleed Abbass, Amr Safwat, Amr K Elsamman, Ehab El Refaee
OBJECTIVES: Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in eloquent areas is one of the challenges in neurosurgery, using assistant tools to facilitate effective excision with minimal postoperative neurological deficits has been previously discussed (awake craniotomy and intraoperative cortical stimulation); however, these tools could have their own limitations thus implementation of a simple and effective technique that can guide to safe excision is needed in many situations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data of 76 consecutive surgical cases of LGGs of these 21 cases were situated in eloquent areas...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Oliver C Radke, Thomas Schneider, Anja Braune, Romain Pirracchio, Felix Fischer, Thea Koch
BACKGROUND: Both Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Computed Tomography (CT) allow the estimation of the lung area. We compared two algorithms for the detection of the lung area per quadrant from the EIT images with the lung areas derived from the CT images. METHODS: 39 outpatients who were scheduled for an elective CT scan of the thorax were included in the study. For each patient we recorded EIT images immediately before the CT scan. The lung area per quadrant was estimated from both CT and EIT data using two different algorithms for the EIT data...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Sebastian Ille, Nico Sollmann, Vicki M Butenschoen, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbours the risk of postoperative language impairment. Therefore the individual patient's language distribution is investigated by intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery. Yet, not all patients qualify for awake surgery. Non-invasive language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has frequently shown a high correlation in comparison with the results of DCS language mapping in terms of language-negative brain regions...
September 29, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Maarten J J B Vehmeijer, Naomi Verstoep, Jan E H Wolff, Engelbert A J M Schulten, Bas van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, dental implants have become increasingly popular in the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients. This has subsequently led to an increase of perioperative complications. Obstruction of the airway as a result of a floor of mouth hematoma after dental implant surgery is a rare but life-threatening complication. CASE REPORT: A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a compromised airway caused by a hematoma in the floor of the mouth that occurred during dental implant surgery in the edentulous anterior mandible...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
G L Poirier, W Huang, K Tam, J R DiFranza, Jean A King
Brain mechanisms underpinning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are incompletely understood. The adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied preclinical model that expresses several of the key behavioral features associated with ADHD. Yet, little is known about large-scale functional connectivity patterns in the SHR, and their potential similarity to those of humans with ADHD. Using an approach comparable to human studies, magnetic resonance imaging in the awake animal was performed to identify whole-brain intrinsic neural connectivity patterns...
September 28, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Matthew G Spangler-Bickell, Lin Zhou, Andre Z Kyme, Bart De Laat, Roger R Fulton, Johan Nuyts
Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal's head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Hideki Otsuka, Kenji Mori, Hiromichi Ito, Takashi Iwanaga
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in normal aging and in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and independent component analysis. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) in four age groups (1-3, 4-8, 20-29, and 50-59 years) and 14 childhood ASD cases (1-8 years of age) were examined by rsfMRI echo-planar imaging on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Lena C Schmid, Manuel Mittag, Stefanie Poll, Julia Steffen, Jens Wagner, Hans-Rüdiger Geis, Inna Schwarz, Boris Schmidt, Martin K Schwarz, Stefan Remy, Martin Fuhrmann
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive decline and neuronal network dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the hippocampus, microcircuit activity during learning and memory processes is tightly controlled by O-LM interneurons. Here, we investigated the effect of beta-amyloidosis on O-LM interneuron structural and functional connectivity, combining two-photon in vivo imaging of synaptic morphology, awake Ca(2+) imaging, and retrograde mono-transsynaptic rabies tracing...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Yasutaka Yanagawa, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
The effects of anesthesia on the functional auditory characteristics of cortical neurons, such as spatial and temporal response properties, vary between an anesthetized and an awake subject. However, studies have shown that an appropriate anesthetic method that approaches the awake condition is still useful because of its greater stability and controllability. The present study compared neural response properties from two core fields of the mouse auditory cortex under three anesthetic conditions: urethane; ketamine and xylazine hydrochloride (KX) mixture; and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (MMB)...
September 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Arnaud Malvache, Susanne Reichinnek, Vincent Villette, Caroline Haimerl, Rosa Cossart
The chained activation of neuronal assemblies is thought to support major cognitive processes, including memory. In the hippocampus, this is observed during population bursts often associated with sharp-wave ripples, in the form of an ordered reactivation of neurons. However, the organization and lifetime of these assemblies remain unknown. We used calcium imaging to map patterns of synchronous neuronal activation in the CA1 region of awake mice during runs on a treadmill. The patterns were composed of the recurring activation of anatomically intermingled, but functionally orthogonal, assemblies...
September 16, 2016: Science
Chihiro Yokoyama, Aya Mawatari, Akihiro Kawasaki, Chiho Takeda, Kayo Onoe, Hisashi Doi, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Luc Zimmer, Hirotaka Onoe
BACKGROUND: In vivo mapping by positron emission tomography of the serotonin 1A receptors has been hindered by the lack of suitable agonist positron emission tomography probes. (18)F-labeled F13714 is a recently developed biased agonist positron emission tomography probe that preferentially targets subpopulations of serotonin 1A receptors in their "active state," but its brain labeling pattern in nonhuman primate has not been described. In addition, a potential confound in the translatability of PET data between nonhuman animal and human arise from the use of anesthetics that may modify the binding profiles of target receptors...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Adam Wheeler, Dan Vu, Pierangelo Renella
We present a case of an ex-30 week premature male infant diagnosed postnatally with Tetralogy of Fallot, hemitruncus, and discontinuous pulmonary arteries (PAs) at 6 days of life. The patient was diagnosed by echocardiography, and the diagnosis was confirmed on subsequent dual-energy chest CT angiogram. In our patient, the left PA arose directly from the aorta, whereas the right PA originated normally from the right ventricular outflow tract. At 9 days of life, he underwent successful surgical palliation with placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig (aortopulmonary) shunt from the base of the left subclavian artery to the anomalously connected left PA along with anastomosis together of the right and left branch PAs to establish continuity with the main PA...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Thomas Deneux, Alexandre Kempf, Aurélie Daret, Emmanuel Ponsot, Brice Bathellier
Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans...
2016: Nature Communications
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