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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#1
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918152/computed-tomographic-characteristics-of-the-thyroid-glands-in-eight-hyperthyroid-cats-pre-and-postmethimazole-treatment-compared-with-seven-euthyroid-cats
#2
Jennifer L Bush, Sarah Nemanic, Jana Gordon, Gerd Bobe
Hyperthyroidism is the most common feline endocrinopathy; thyroid computed tomography (CT) may improve disease detection and methimazole dose selection. Objectives of this experimental pre-post with historical case-control study were to perform thyroid CT imaging in awake or mildly sedated hyperthyroid cats, compare thyroid gland CT appearance in euthyroid and hyperthyroid cats pre- and postmethimazole treatment, and determine whether thyroid size or attenuation correlate with methimazole dose needed for euthyroidism...
December 5, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913904/association-between-brain-structural-anomalies-electroencephalogram-and-history-of-seizures-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome
#3
Ramón Ernesto Jiménez-Arredondo, Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia, Francisco Miguel Mercado-Silva, Martha Ortiz-Aranda, Verónica Benites-Godinez, Graciela Olmos-García-de-Alba, Luis Eduardo Figuera
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II or Hunter syndrome (MPS II) is a genetic disease that can course with intellectual impairment and central nervous system (CNS) alterations. To date, no report has documented electroencephalogram (EEG) measures associated with CNS alterations, detected by imaging studies, and the history of seizures in patients with MPS II. Therefore, we decided to search this association. We included 9 patients with MPS II and performed imaging studies of the brain to detect the presence of cortico-subcortical atrophy, enlarged subarachnoid space and supratentorial ventricular size...
December 2, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911815/nicotinic-receptors-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-modulate-ultraslow-fluctuations-related-to-conscious-processing
#4
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive processes, including access to consciousness. The PFC receives significant cholinergic innervation and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute greatly to the effects of acetylcholine signaling. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of both awake and anesthetized mice, we recorded spontaneous, ongoing neuronal activity in layer II/III in the PFC of WT mice and mice deleted for different nAChR subunits. As in humans, this activity is characterized by synchronous ultraslow fluctuations and neuronal synchronicity is disrupted by light general anesthesia...
December 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#5
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#6
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858407/preclinical-imaging-anesthesia-in-rodents
#7
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857679/bold-imaging-in-awake-wild-type-and-mu-opioid-receptor-knock-out-mice-reveals-on-target-activation-maps-in-response-to-oxycodone
#8
Kelsey Moore, Dan Madularu, Sade Iriah, Jason R Yee, Praveen Kulkarni, Emmanuel Darcq, Brigitte L Kieffer, Craig F Ferris
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (μ) opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO) in response to oxycodone (OXY). Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846731/dynamic-connectivity-patterns-in-conscious-and-unconscious-brain
#9
Yuncong Ma, Christina Hamilton, Nanyin Zhang
Brain functional connectivity undergoes dynamic changes from the awake to unconscious states. However, how the dynamics of functional connectivity patterns are linked to consciousness at the behavioral level remains elusive. Here we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data during wakefulness and graded levels of consciousness in rats. Data were analyzed using a dynamic approach combining the sliding-window method and k-means clustering. Our results demonstrate that whole-brain networks contain several quasi-stable patterns that dynamically recurred from the awake state into anesthetized states...
November 15, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826950/effects-of-common-anesthetic-agents-on-18-f-flumazenil-binding-to-the-gabaa-receptor
#10
Mikael Palner, Corinne Beinat, Sam Banister, Francesca Zanderigo, Jun Hyung Park, Bin Shen, Trine Hjoernevik, Jae Ho Jung, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim, Lawrence Fung, Frederick T Chin
BACKGROUND: The availability of GABAA receptor binding sites in the brain can be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) using the radioligand, [(18)F]flumazenil. However, the brain uptake and binding of this PET radioligand are influenced by anesthetic drugs, which are typically needed in preclinical imaging studies and clinical imaging studies involving patient populations that do not tolerate relatively longer scan times. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of anesthesia on the binding of [(18)F]flumazenil to GABAA receptors in mice...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824096/dense-encoding-of-natural-odorants-by-ensembles-of-sparsely-activated-neurons-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#11
Olivier Gschwend, Jonathan Beroud, Roberto Vincis, Ivan Rodriguez, Alan Carleton
Sensory information undergoes substantial transformation along sensory pathways, usually encompassing sparsening of activity. In the olfactory bulb, though natural odorants evoke dense glomerular input maps, mitral and tufted (M/T) cells tuning is considered to be sparse because of highly odor-specific firing rate change. However, experiments used to draw this conclusion were either based on recordings performed in anesthetized preparations or used monomolecular odorants presented at arbitrary concentrations...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806119/frontal-lobe-hemodynamic-responses-to-painful-stimulation-a-potential-brain-marker-of-nociception
#12
Christopher M Aasted, Meryem A Yücel, Sarah C Steele, Ke Peng, David A Boas, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
The purpose of this study was to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine patterns of both activation and deactivation that occur in the frontal lobe in response to noxious stimuli. The frontal lobe was selected because it has been shown to be activated by noxious stimuli in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The brain region is located behind the forehead which is devoid of hair, providing a relative ease of placement for fNIRS probes on this area of the head. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showing blood-oxygenation-level dependent changes in the frontal lobes, we evaluated functional near-infrared spectroscopy measures in response to two levels of electrical pain in awake, healthy human subjects (n = 10; male = 10)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#13
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803645/sources-of-variation-influencing-concordance-between-functional-mri-and-direct-cortical-stimulation-in-brain-tumor-surgery
#14
Melanie A Morrison, Fred Tam, Marco M Garavaglia, Gregory M T Hare, Michael D Cusimano, Tom A Schweizer, Sunit Das, Simon J Graham
Object: Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) remains a promising method to aid in the surgical management of patients diagnosed with brain tumors. For patients that are candidates for awake craniotomies, surgical decisions can potentially be improved by fMRI but this depends on the level of concordance between preoperative brain maps and the maps provided by the gold standard intraoperative method, direct cortical stimulation (DCS). There have been numerous studies of the concordance between fMRI and DCS using sensitivity and specificity measures, however the results are variable across studies and the key factors influencing variability are not well understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798612/fast-volumetric-calcium-imaging-across-multiple-cortical-layers-using-sculpted-light
#15
Robert Prevedel, Aart J Verhoef, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Siegfried Weisenburger, Ben S Huang, Tobias Nöbauer, Alma Fernández, Jeroen E Delcour, Peyman Golshani, Andrius Baltuska, Alipasha Vaziri
Although whole-organism calcium imaging in small and semi-transparent animals has been demonstrated, capturing the functional dynamics of large-scale neuronal circuits in awake behaving mammals at high speed and resolution has remained one of the main frontiers in systems neuroscience. Here we present a method based on light sculpting that enables unbiased single- and dual-plane high-speed (up to 160 Hz) calcium imaging as well as in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of a mouse cortical column (0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 0...
October 31, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786241/chronic-multiscale-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-awake-common-marmoset
#16
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Yoshifumi Matsumoto, Norio Okahara, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
We report a methodology to chronically record in vivo brain activity in the awake common marmoset. Over a month, stable imaging revealed macroscopic sensory maps in the somatosensory cortex and their underlying cellular activity with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the awake but not anesthetized state. This methodology is applicable to other brain regions, and will be useful for studying cortical activity and plasticity in marmosets during learning, development, and in neurological disorders.
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763967/functional-mri-correlates-of-resting-state-temporal-theta-and-delta-eeg-rhythms
#17
Rohit Marawar, Hsiang J Yeh, Chris Carnabatu, John M Stern
INTRODUCTION: The EEG rhythms demonstrate changes in frequency and power with spontaneous changes in behavioral state that do not have well understood metabolic correlates within the brain. To investigate this question and compare the temporal lobe theta and delta rhythms, resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was obtained with simultaneous EEG. METHODS: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was recorded from 14 healthy, sleep-deprived subjects in awake and drowsy states. Scalp electrodes corresponding to bilateral temporal lobes were used to calculate delta and theta band power...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749836/random-access-scanning-microscopy-for-3d-imaging-in-awake-behaving-animals
#18
K M Naga Srinivas Nadella, Hana Roš, Chiara Baragli, Victoria A Griffiths, George Konstantinou, Theo Koimtzis, Geoffrey J Evans, Paul A Kirkby, R Angus Silver
Understanding how neural circuits process information requires rapid measurements of activity from identified neurons distributed in 3D space. Here we describe an acousto-optic lens two-photon microscope that performs high-speed focusing and line scanning within a volume spanning hundreds of micrometers. We demonstrate its random-access functionality by selectively imaging cerebellar interneurons sparsely distributed in 3D space and by simultaneously recording from the soma, proximal and distal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells in awake behaving mice...
December 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725212/tak-063-a-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-modulates-neuronal-activity-in-various-brain-regions-in-phmri-and-eeg-studies-with-and-without-ketamine-challenge
#19
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720948/functional-changes-in-brain-activity-after-hypnosis-in-patients-with-dental-phobia
#20
Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia (a disproportional fear of dental) procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anaesthetics, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
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