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"behavioral imaging"

Michel Spodenkiewicz, Jonathan Aigrain, Nadège Bourvis, Séverine Dubuisson, Mohamed Chetouani, David Cohen
Stress reactivity is a complex phenomenon associated to multiple and multimodal expressions. Response to stressors has an obvious survival function and may be seen as an internal regulation to adapt to threat or danger. The intensity of this internal response can be assessed as the self-perception of the stress response. In species with social organization, this response also serves a communicative function, so-called hetero-perception. Our study presents multimodal stress detection assessment - a new methodology combining behavioral imaging and physiological monitoring for analyzing stress from these two perspectives...
November 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
Karen V Chenausky, Andrea C Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We tested the effect of Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), a novel, intonation-based treatment for spoken language originally developed for minimally verbal (MV) children with autism, on a more-verbal child with autism. We compared this child's performance after 25 therapy sessions with that of: (1) a child matched on age, autism severity, and expressive language level who received 25 sessions of a non-intonation-based control treatment Speech Repetition Therapy (SRT); and (2) a matched pair of MV children (one of whom received AMMT; the other, SRT)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Matthew A Churgin, Richard J McCloskey, Emily Peters, Christopher Fang-Yen
Biogenic amines are conserved signaling molecules that link food cues to behavior and metabolism in a wide variety of organisms. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine regulate a number of food-related behaviors. Using a novel method for long-term quantitative behavioral imaging, we show that 5-HT and octopamine jointly influence locomotor activity and quiescence in feeding and fasting hermaphrodites, and we define the neural circuits through which this modulation occurs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Laura M Leonards, Anokh Pahwa, Maitraya K Patel, Jeffrey Petersen, Michael J Nguyen, Cecilia M Jude
Appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract that may manifest with symptoms of appendicitis, right lower quadrant pain, or palpable mass, leading to imaging or surgical intervention. The majority of appendiceal masses consist of primary epithelial neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Epithelial neoplasms-mucinous and nonmucinous types-are more often detected at imaging than NETs due to their larger size and propensity for peritoneal spread and metastatic disease. Epithelial mucinous neoplasms are defined by the presence of mucin, detected at radiologic and pathologic examination...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jineta Banerjee, Mary E Sorrell, Pablo A Celnik, Galit Pelled
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been successfully used as a non-invasive therapeutic intervention for several neurological disorders in the clinic as well as an investigative tool for basic neuroscience. rTMS has been shown to induce long-term changes in neuronal circuits in vivo. Such long-term effects of rTMS have been investigated using behavioral, imaging, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, but there is limited understanding of the immediate effects of TMS on neurons...
2017: PloS One
Shuhua Mu, Youlan Li, Bingbing Liu, Weiping Wang, Si Chen, Jiajia Wu, Lisi OuYang, Yaxi Zhu, Keyi Li, Mali Zhan, Zongwei Liu, Yu Jia, Yuxin Ma, Wanlong Lei
Oxidative stress is closely involved in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to examine the effect of anti-oxidant DHM (dihydromyricetin) on 3NP (3-nitropropionic acid) -induced behavioral deficits of experimental rats and striatal histopathological injury by using behavioral, imaging, biochemistry, histochemistry and molecular biology technologies. The experimental results showed that both motor dysfunctions and learning and memory impairments induced by 3NP were significantly reduced after DHM treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Xuewen Du, Jie Zhou, Junfeng Shi, Bing Xu
In this review we intend to provide a relatively comprehensive summary of the work of supramolecular hydrogelators after 2004 and to put emphasis particularly on the applications of supramolecular hydrogels/hydrogelators as molecular biomaterials. After a brief introduction of methods for generating supramolecular hydrogels, we discuss supramolecular hydrogelators on the basis of their categories, such as small organic molecules, coordination complexes, peptides, nucleobases, and saccharides. Following molecular design, we focus on various potential applications of supramolecular hydrogels as molecular biomaterials, classified by their applications in cell cultures, tissue engineering, cell behavior, imaging, and unique applications of hydrogelators...
December 23, 2015: Chemical Reviews
P Justin Rossi, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function...
December 2015: Neuropsychology Review
Rachel Young, Roma Subramanian, Amanda Hinnant
Background Antiobesity campaigns blaming individual behaviors for obesity have sparked concern that an emphasis on individual behavior may lead to stigmatization of overweight or obese people. Past studies have shown that perpetuating stigma is not effective for influencing behavior. Purpose This study examined whether stigmatizing or nonstigmatizing images and text in antiobesity advertisements led to differences in health-related behavioral intentions. Method Participants in this experiment were 161 American adults...
August 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Ayla Arslan
The majority of neuropsychiatric disorders show a strong degree of heritability, yet little is known about molecular factors involved in the pathophysiology of diseases like schizophrenia. After a brief historical introduction into the current understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders, the aim of this study is to discuss imaging genetics as a strategy to explore the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The candidate gene approach of imaging genetics is used for validation/replication studies of genes, whereas the hypothesis-free, noncandidate gene approach appears to be a tool for gene discovery...
2015: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Arso M Vukicevic, Ksenija Zelic, Gordana Jovicic, Marija Djuric, Nenad Filipovic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to estimate the influence of various mastication loads and different tooth treatments (composite restoration and endodontic treatment) on dentine fatigue. The analysis of fatigue behaviour of human dentine in intact and composite restored teeth with root-canal-treatment using FEA and fatigue theory was performed. METHODS: Dentine fatigue behaviour was analysed in three virtual models: intact, composite-restored and endodontically-treated tooth...
May 2015: Journal of Dentistry
Collin Challis, Olivier Berton
Social withdrawal, increased threat perception, and exaggerated reassurance seeking behaviors are prominent interpersonal symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered serotonin (5-HT) systems and corticolimbic dysconnectivity have long been suspected to contribute to these symptomatic facets; however, the underlying circuits and intrinsic cellular mechanisms that control 5-HT output during socioemotional interactions remain poorly understood. We review literature that implicates a direct pathway between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the adaptive and pathological control of social approach-avoidance behaviors...
July 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Timothy P Brawn, Daniel Margoliash
How new experiences are solidified into long-lasting memories is a central question in the study of brain and behavior. One of the most intriguing discoveries in memory research is that brain activity during sleep helps to transform newly learned information and skills into robust memories. Though the first experimental work linking sleep and memory was conducted 90 years ago by Jenkins and Dallenbach, the case for sleep-dependent memory consolidation has only garnered strong support in the last decade. Recent studies in humans provide extensive behavioral, imaging, and polysomnographic data supporting sleep consolidation of a broad range of memory tasks...
2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jennifer G Goldman, Glenn T Stebbins, Vania Leung, Barbara C Tilley, Christopher G Goetz
BACKGROUND: Non-motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD), specifically cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are recognized as important contributors to poor patient outcomes and quality of life. How sleep problems and fatigue interrelate and impact cognitive function, however, has not systematically been investigated across the stages of PD. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationships among cognitive impairment, night-time sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue across all severities of PD...
November 2014: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Y-C K Huang, T-Y Huang, H-C Chiu, T-S Kuo, C-J Hsueh, H-W Kao, C-W Wang, H-H Hsu, C-J Juan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current T2-weighted imaging takes >3 minutes to perform, for which the ultrafast transition into driven equilibrium (TIDE) technique may be potentially helpful. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluates the imaging of transition into driven equilibrium of the balanced steady-state free precession (TIDE) compared with TSE and turbo gradient spin-echo on T2-weighted MR images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers were examined with T2-weighted images by using TIDE, TSE, and turbo gradient spin-echo sequences...
June 2014: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Michael Michaelides, Sarah Ann R Anderson, Mala Ananth, Denis Smirnov, Panayotis K Thanos, John F Neumaier, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow, Yasmin L Hurd
The ability to map the functional connectivity of discrete cell types in the intact mammalian brain during behavior is crucial for advancing our understanding of brain function in normal and disease states. We combined designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) technology and behavioral imaging with μPET and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to generate whole-brain metabolic maps of cell-specific functional circuits during the awake, freely moving state. We have termed this approach DREADD-assisted metabolic mapping (DREAMM) and documented its ability in rats to map whole-brain functional anatomy...
December 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Albert M I Barth, Istvan Mody
BACKGROUND: Just like human neurological disorders, corresponding mouse models present multiple deficiencies. Estimating disease progression or potential treatment effectiveness in such models necessitates the use of time consuming and multiple tests usually requiring a large number of scarcely available genetically modified animals. NEW METHOD: Here we present a novel and simple single camera arrangement and analysis software for detailed motor function evaluation in mice walking on a wire mesh that provides complex 3D information (instantaneous position, speed, distance traveled, foot fault depth, duration, location, relationship to speed of movement, etc...
January 15, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Fangchen Zhao, David J Bottjer, Shixue Hu, Zongjun Yin, Maoyan Zhu
Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers...
2013: Scientific Reports
Dhakshina Ganeshan, Priya Bhosale, Thomas Yang, Vikas Kundra
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have provided a better understanding of the biologic behavior of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. This article focusing on imaging of gastrointestinal carcinoids will emphasize epidemiology, molecular biology, taxonomy, histopathology, and management. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal carcinoids are a biologically heterogeneous group of tumors, with variable clinical presentation and biologic behavior. Imaging can play an important role in multidisciplinary identification and management of this disease...
October 2013: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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