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"behavioral imaging" rodent

Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Collin Challis, Olivier Berton
Social withdrawal, increased threat perception, and exaggerated reassurance seeking behaviors are prominent interpersonal symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered serotonin (5-HT) systems and corticolimbic dysconnectivity have long been suspected to contribute to these symptomatic facets; however, the underlying circuits and intrinsic cellular mechanisms that control 5-HT output during socioemotional interactions remain poorly understood. We review literature that implicates a direct pathway between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the adaptive and pathological control of social approach-avoidance behaviors...
July 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Timothy P Brawn, Daniel Margoliash
How new experiences are solidified into long-lasting memories is a central question in the study of brain and behavior. One of the most intriguing discoveries in memory research is that brain activity during sleep helps to transform newly learned information and skills into robust memories. Though the first experimental work linking sleep and memory was conducted 90 years ago by Jenkins and Dallenbach, the case for sleep-dependent memory consolidation has only garnered strong support in the last decade. Recent studies in humans provide extensive behavioral, imaging, and polysomnographic data supporting sleep consolidation of a broad range of memory tasks...
2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Nathan G Clack, Daniel H O'Connor, Daniel Huber, Leopoldo Petreanu, Andrew Hires, Simon Peron, Karel Svoboda, Eugene W Myers
We have developed software for fully automated tracking of vibrissae (whiskers) in high-speed videos (>500 Hz) of head-fixed, behaving rodents trimmed to a single row of whiskers. Performance was assessed against a manually curated dataset consisting of 1.32 million video frames comprising 4.5 million whisker traces. The current implementation detects whiskers with a recall of 99.998% and identifies individual whiskers with 99.997% accuracy. The average processing rate for these images was 8 Mpx/s/cpu (2...
2012: PLoS Computational Biology
D K Min, U I Tuor, P K Chelikani
Investigating the localization of gastric sensation within the brain is important for understanding the neural correlates of satiety. Previous rodent studies have identified the brain-stem and hypothalamus as key mediators of gastric distention-induced satiation. Although, recent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) studies in humans have identified a role for higher cortico-limbic structures in mediating the satiation effects of gastric distention, the role of these regions in rodents remains to be characterized...
April 14, 2011: Neuroscience
Karmen K Yoder, Bruce H Mock, Qi-Huang Zheng, Brian P McCarthy, Amanda A Riley, Gary D Hutchins
Great progress has been made toward using small animal PET to assess neurochemical changes during behavior. [(18)F]fallypride (FAL) is a D(2)/D(3) antagonist that is sensitive to changes in endogenous dopamine, and, in theory, could be used to assess changes in dopamine during behavioral paradigms. Tail vein injections of tracer require restraint in awake animals, and catheter implantation is invasive and can cause logistical problems. Thus, administering tracer with i.p. injections (which are well-tolerated by rodents) would be preferable...
March 15, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Zachary Bencan, Damiyon Sledge, Edward D Levin
Zebrafish are becoming more widely used to study neurobehavioral pharmacology. We have developed a method to assess novel environment diving behavior of zebrafish as a model of stress response and anxiolytic drug effects. In a novel tank, zebrafish dwell in the bottom of the tank initially and then increase their swimming exploration to higher levels over time. We previously found that nicotine, which has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans, significantly lessens the novel tank diving response in zebrafish...
November 2009: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Wynne K Schiffer, Martine M Mirrione, Stephen L Dewey
UNLABELLED: Small-animal PET provides the opportunity to image brain activation during behavioral tasks in animal models of human conditions. The present studies aimed to simplify behavioral imaging procedures without a loss of quantitation by using an intraperitoneal route of administration (no cannulation, no anesthesia) and using a standardized uptake value (SUV) to reduce scan duration. METHODS: Sixteen animals with carotid artery cannulations were studied with 18F-FDG small-animal PET accompanied by serial arterial blood sampling...
February 2007: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Timothy Schallert
Select functional outcome tests commonly used for evaluating sensorimotor and cognitive capacity in rodents with focal intracerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic injury are described, along with upgrades and issues of concern for translational research. An emphasis is placed on careful quantitative and qualitative assessment of acute and long-term behavioral deficits, and on avoidance of frequent pitfalls. Methods for detecting different degrees of injury and treatment-related improvements are included. Determining the true potential of an intervention requires a set of behavioral analyses that can monitor compensatory learning...
October 2006: NeuroRx: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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