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"effective connectivity"

Benedetta Vai, Chiara Bulgarelli, Beata R Godlewska, Philip J Cowen, Francesco Benedetti, Catherine J Harmer
The timely selection of the optimal treatment for depressed patients is critical to improve remission rates. The detection of pre-treatment variables able to predict differential treatment response may provide novel approaches for treatment selection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the fronto-limbic functional response and connectivity, an effect preceding the overt clinical antidepressant effects. Here we investigated whether the cortico-limbic connectivity associated with emotional bias measured before SSRI administration predicts the efficacy of antidepressant treatment in MDD patients...
October 15, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A Kibleur, G Gras-Combe, D Benis, J Bastin, T Bougerol, S Chabardès, M Polosan, O David
High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can be used to treat severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are refractory to conventional treatments. The mechanisms of action of this approach possibly rely on the modulation of associative-limbic subcortical-cortical loops, but remain to be fully elucidated. Here in 12 patients, we report the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on behavior, and on electroencephalographic responses and inferred effective connectivity during motor inhibition processes involved in the stop signal task...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Astrid Kibleur, Mircea Polosan, Pauline Favre, David Rudrauf, Thierry Bougerol, Stéphan Chabardès, Olivier David
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (area CG25) is beneficial in treatment resistant depression. Though the mechanisms of action of Cg25 DBS remain largely unknown, it is commonly believed that Cg25 DBS modulates limbic activity of large networks to achieve thymic regulation of patients. To investigate how emotional attention is influenced by Cg25 DBS, we assessed behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to an emotional Stroop task in 5 patients during ON and OFF stimulation conditions...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Xia Wu, Qing Li, Xinyu Yu, Kewei Chen, Adam S Fleisher, Xiaojuan Guo, Jiacai Zhang, Eric M Reiman, Li Yao, Rui Li
The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN), has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis (ICA) and Bayesian network (BN) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Guifei Zhou, Jiangang Liu, Xiao Pan Ding, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sijing Yi, Meihuan Yao, Jiao Wang, Xiao Chen
Soft lanthanide luminescent materials are impressive because of their tunable and self-assembling characteristics, which make them an attractive emerging materials field of research. In this report, novel luminescent lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) with four different mesophases have been fabricated by a protic ionic liquid (IL) based europium β-diketonate complex EA[Eu(TTA)4] (EA = ethylammonium, TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoro-acetone) and an amphiphilic block copolymer (Pluronic P123). The protic IL, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), was used as both the solvent and linkage to stabilize the doped complexes...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuko Hakamata, Eisuke Sato, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Norio Murayama, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The pulvinar is important in selective attention, particularly to visual stimuli under the focus of attention. However, the pulvinar is assumed to process emotional stimuli even outside the focus of attention, because of its tight connection with the amygdala. We therefore investigated how unattended emotional stimuli affect the pulvinar and its effective connectivity (EC) while considering individual differences in selective attention. fMRI in 41 healthy human subjects revealed that the amygdala, but not the pulvinar, more strongly responded to unattended fearful faces than to unattended neutral faces (UF > UN), although we observed greater EC from the pulvinar to the amygdala...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Frøydis Morken, Turid Helland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Karsten Specht
Dyslexia is a literacy disorder affecting the efficient acquisition of reading and writing skills. The disorder is neurobiological in origin. Due to its developmental nature, longitudinal studies of dyslexia are of essence. They are, however, relatively scarce. The present study took a longitudinal approach to cortical connectivity of brain imaging data in reading tasks in children with dyslexia and children with typical reading development. The participants were followed with repeated measurements through Pre-literacy (6 years old), Emergent Literacy (8 years old) and Literacy (12 years old) stages, using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) when analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Jianguang Ni, Thomas Wunderle, Christopher Murphy Lewis, Robert Desimone, Ilka Diester, Pascal Fries
Cognition requires the dynamic modulation of effective connectivity, i.e., the modulation of the postsynaptic neuronal response to a given input. If postsynaptic neurons are rhythmically active, this might entail rhythmic gain modulation, such that inputs synchronized to phases of high gain benefit from enhanced effective connectivity. We show that visually induced gamma-band activity in awake macaque area V4 rhythmically modulates responses to unpredictable stimulus events. This modulation exceeded a simple additive superposition of a constant response onto ongoing gamma-rhythmic firing, demonstrating the modulation of multiplicative gain...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Silvia Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Sehresh Khan, Paolo Manganotti, Gloria Menegaz
The application of time-varying measures of causality between source time series can be very informative to elucidate the direction of communication among the regions of an epileptic brain. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamic patterns of epileptic networks in focal epilepsy by applying multivariate adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) analysis and graph-theory to high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings. The cortical network was modeled after source reconstruction and topology modulations were detected during interictal spikes...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Guiguang Ding, Yuchen Guo, Jile Zhou, Yue Gao
By transforming data into binary representation, i.e., Hashing, we can perform high-speed search with low storage cost, and thus Hashing has collected increasing research interest in the recent years. Recently, how to generate Hashcode for multimodal data (e.g., images with textual tags, documents with photos, etc) for large-scale cross-modality search (e.g., searching semantically related images in database for a document query) is an important research issue because of the fast growth of multimodal data in the Web...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Philipp Alexander Loehrer, Felix Sebastian Nettersheim, Fabienne Jung, Immo Weber, Carlo Huber, Till Anselm Dembek, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
Bimanual finger coordination declines with age. However, relatively little is known about the neurophysiological alterations in the motor-system causing this decline. In the present study, we used 128-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate causal interactions of cortical, motor-related brain areas. Right-handed young and elderly subjects performed complex temporally and spatially coupled as well as temporally coupled and spatially uncoupled finger tappings. Employing dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for induced responses, we inferred task-induced effective connectivity within a core motor network comprising bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), lateral premotor cortex (lPM), supplementary motor area (SMA), and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
September 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Linlin Zhu, Zhendong Niu, Yaoxin Nie, Yang Yang, Ke Li, Zhen Jin, Jieyao Wei
With regard to brain language processing, the activation patterns have been well studied, and recently there are great interest in the connectivity models. The crucial brain areas for phonological processing involves left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG). Specially in Chinese processing, the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG) is considered as an essential region. However, the connectivity pattern among these brain areas is not well understood...
2016: PloS One
Jing Jiang, Kamila Borowiak, Luke Tudge, Carolin Otto, Katharina von Kriegstein
Eye contact occurs frequently and voluntarily during face-to-face verbal communication. However, the neural mechanisms underlying eye contact when it is accompanied by spoken language remain unexplored to date. Here we used a novel approach, fixation-based event-related (FIBER) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to simulate the listener making eye contact with a speaker during verbal communication. Participants' eye movements and fMRI data were recorded simultaneously while they were freely viewing a pre-recorded speaker talking...
August 30, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
William W Graves, Olga Boukrina, Samantha R Mattheiss, Edward J Alexander, Sylvain Baillet
The distinction between letter strings that form words and those that look and sound plausible but are not meaningful is a basic one. Decades of functional neuroimaging experiments have used this distinction to isolate the neural basis of lexical (word level) semantics, associated with areas such as the middle temporal, angular, and posterior cingulate gyri that overlap the default mode network. In two fMRI experiments, a different set of findings emerged when word stimuli were used that were less familiar (measured by word frequency) than those typically used...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Magdalena A Ferdek, Clementina M van Rijn, Miroslaw Wyczesany
Ruminations are repetitive thoughts associated with symptoms, causes, and consequences of one's negative feelings. The objective of this study was to explore the neuronal basis of depressive rumination in a non-clinical population within the context of emotional control. Participants scoring high or low on the tendency to ruminate scale took part in the EEG experiment. Their EEG data were collected during a state of induced depressive ruminations and compared with positive and neutral conditions. We hypothesized that both groups would differ according to the level of activation and effective connectivity among the structures involved in the emotional control circuit...
August 29, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Qiang Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Jianyong Zheng, Guanya Li, Qianqian Meng, Qiaoyun Liu, Jizheng Zhao, Karen M von Deneen, Yuanyuan Wang, Guangbin Cui, Shijun Duan, Yu Han, Huaning Wang, Jie Tian, Yi Zhang, Yongzhan Nie
Functional constipation (FC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) with a higher prevalence in clinical practice. The primary brain regions involved in emotional arousal regulation, somatic, sensory and motor control processing have been identified with neuroimaging in FGID. It remains unclear how these factors interact to influence the baseline brain activity of patients with FC. In the current study, we combined resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) with Granger causality analysis (GCA) to investigate the causal interactions of the brain areas in 14 patients with FC and in 26 healthy controls (HC)...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
K M Park, S E Kim, K J Shin, S Y Ha, J Park, T H Kim, C W Mun, B I Lee, S E Kim
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) showed differences in their limbic networks. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the thalamus in TLE patients with HS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine TLE patients with HS and 30 controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included eight TLE patients without HS as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the limbic structures, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
August 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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