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"effective connectivity"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913429/heritability-of-the-effective-connectivity-in-the-resting-state-default-mode-network
#1
Junhai Xu, Xuntao Yin, Haitao Ge, Yan Han, Zengchang Pang, Baolin Liu, Shuwei Liu, Karl Friston
The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#2
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881959/effective-connectivity-within-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users
#3
Suchismita Ray, Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870851/a-normalization-framework-for-emotional-attention
#4
Xilin Zhang, Shruti Japee, Zaid Safiullah, Nicole Mlynaryk, Leslie G Ungerleider
The normalization model of attention proposes that attention can affect performance by response- or contrast-gain changes, depending on the size of the stimulus and attention field. Here, we manipulated the attention field by emotional valence, negative faces versus positive faces, while holding stimulus size constant in a spatial cueing task. We observed changes in the cueing effect consonant with changes in response gain for negative faces and contrast gain for positive faces. Neuroimaging experiments confirmed that subjects' attention fields were narrowed for negative faces and broadened for positive faces...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868393/atypical-effective-connectivity-of-thalamo-cortical-circuits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Youxue Zhang, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by atypical connectivity within and across multiple brain systems. We aimed to explore information transmission from the sensory periphery to information processing centers of the brain across thalamo-cortical circuits in ASD. A large multicenter dataset from the autism brain imaging data exchange was utilized. A thalamus template derived from the Automatic Anatomic Labeling atlas was subdivided into six subregions corresponding to six cortical regions using a "winner-takes-all" strategy...
November 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867351/advice-taking-from-humans-and-machines-an-fmri-and-effective-connectivity-study
#6
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866893/effective-connectivity-reveals-largely-independent-parallel-networks-of-face-and-body-patches
#7
Elsie Premereur, Jessica Taubert, Peter Janssen, Rufin Vogels, Wim Vanduffel
The primate brain processes objects in the ventral visual pathway. One object category, faces, is processed in a hierarchical network of interconnected areas along this pathway. It remains unknown whether such an interconnected network is specific for faces or whether there are similar networks for other object classes. For example, the primate inferotemporal cortex also contains a set of body-selective patches, adjacent to the face-selective patches, but it is not known whether these body-selective patches form a similar discretely connected network or whether cross-talk exists between the face- and body-processing systems...
November 16, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862625/bayesian-vector-autoregressive-model-for-multi-subject-effective-connectivity-inference-using-multi-modal-neuroimaging-data
#8
Sharon Chiang, Michele Guindani, Hsiang J Yeh, Zulfi Haneef, John M Stern, Marina Vannucci
In this article a multi-subject vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling approach was proposed for inference on effective connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI data. Their framework uses a Bayesian variable selection approach to allow for simultaneous inference on effective connectivity at both the subject- and group-level. Furthermore, it accounts for multi-modal data by integrating structural imaging information into the prior model, encouraging effective connectivity between structurally connected regions...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846290/altered-effective-connectivity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-stroke-a-resting-state-fmri-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#9
Zhiyong Zhao, Xiangmin Wang, Mingxia Fan, Dazhi Yin, Limin Sun, Jie Jia, Chaozheng Tang, Xiaohui Zheng, Yuwei Jiang, Jie Wu, Jiayu Gong
The primary motor cortex (M1) is often abnormally recruited in stroke patients with motor disabilities. However, little is known about the alterations in the causal connectivity of M1 following stroke. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity of the ipsilesional M1 is disturbed in stroke patients who show different outcomes in hand motor function. 23 patients with left-hemisphere subcortical stroke were selected and divided into two subgroups: partially paralyzed hands (PPH) and completely paralyzed hands (CPH)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836429/functional-and-effective-brain-connectivity-for-discrimination-between-alzheimer-s-patients-and-healthy-individuals-a-study-on-resting-state-eeg-rhythms
#10
Katarzyna J Blinowska, Franciszek Rakowski, Maciej Kaminski, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals. METHOD: The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833546/measures-of-coupling-between-neural-populations-based-on-granger-causality-principle
#11
REVIEW
Maciej Kaminski, Aneta Brzezicka, Jan Kaminski, Katarzyna J Blinowska
This paper shortly reviews the measures used to estimate neural synchronization in experimental settings. Our focus is on multivariate measures of dependence based on the Granger causality (G-causality) principle, their applications and performance in respect of robustness to noise, volume conduction, common driving, and presence of a "weak node." Application of G-causality measures to EEG, intracranial signals and fMRI time series is addressed. G-causality based measures defined in the frequency domain allow the synchronization between neural populations and the directed propagation of their electrical activity to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833545/dynamic-network-connectivity-analysis-to-identify-epileptogenic-zones-based-on-stereo-electroencephalography
#12
Jun-Wei Mao, Xiao-Lai Ye, Yong-Hua Li, Pei-Ji Liang, Ji-Wen Xu, Pu-Ming Zhang
Objectives: Accurate localization of epileptogenic zones (EZs) is essential for successful surgical treatment of refractory focal epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether a dynamic network connectivity analysis based on stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) signals is effective in localizing EZs. Methods: SEEG data were recorded from seven patients who underwent presurgical evaluation for the treatment of refractory focal epilepsy and for whom the subsequent resective surgery gave a good outcome...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832065/multiple-language-use-influences-oculomotor-task-performance-neurophysiological-evidence-of-a-shared-substrate-between-language-and-motor-control
#13
Karin Heidlmayr, Karine Doré-Mazars, Xavier Aparicio, Frédéric Isel
In the present electroencephalographical study, we asked to which extent executive control processes are shared by both the language and motor domain. The rationale was to examine whether executive control processes whose efficiency is reinforced by the frequent use of a second language can lead to a benefit in the control of eye movements, i.e. a non-linguistic activity. For this purpose, we administrated to 19 highly proficient late French-German bilingual participants and to a control group of 20 French monolingual participants an antisaccade task, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830769/graphlet-characteristics-in-directed-networks
#14
Igor Trpevski, Tamara Dimitrova, Tommy Boshkovski, Nikola Stikov, Ljupcho Kocarev
Graphlet analysis is part of network theory that does not depend on the choice of the network null model and can provide comprehensive description of the local network structure. Here, we propose a novel method for graphlet-based analysis of directed networks by computing first the signature vector for every vertex in the network and then the graphlet correlation matrix of the network. This analysis has been applied to brain effective connectivity networks by considering both direction and sign (inhibitory or excitatory) of the underlying directed (effective) connectivity...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830094/adaptive-plasticity-in-the-healthy-language-network-implications-for-language-recovery-after-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Gesa Hartwigsen
Across the last three decades, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has substantially increased the current knowledge of the brain's potential to undergo rapid short-term reorganization on the systems level. A large number of studies applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the healthy brain to probe the functional relevance and interaction of specific areas for different cognitive processes. NIBS is also increasingly being used to induce adaptive plasticity in motor and cognitive networks and shape cognitive functions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828859/aberrant-pulvinar-effective-connectivity-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#16
Reza Tadayonnejad, Heide Klumpp, Olusola Ajilore, Alex Leow, Kinh Luan Phan
Recent neuroimaging findings in general social anxiety disorder (gSAD) have extended our understanding of the neural mechanisms of gSAD beyond an amygdala-centric fear-based hyperactivity model to include other brain regions and networks relevant to salient cues. In particular, higher order areas compromising visual networks that process emotional and social information have been implicated. The pulvinar anchors this network and is a key regulatory node that mediates complex sensory inputs and the integration between limbic and frontal brain systems...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826234/dynamic-causal-modeling-of-hippocampal-links-within-the-human-default-mode-network-lateralization-and-computational-stability-of-effective-connections
#17
Vadim Ushakov, Maksim G Sharaev, Sergey I Kartashov, Viktoria V Zavyalova, Vitaliy M Verkhlyutov, Boris M Velichkovsky
The purpose of this paper was to study causal relationships between left and right hippocampal regions (LHIP and RHIP, respectively) within the default mode network (DMN) as represented by its key structures: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the inferior parietal cortex of left (LIPC) and right (RIPC) hemispheres. Furthermore, we were interested in testing the stability of the connectivity patterns when adding or deleting regions of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a group of 30 healthy right-handed subjects in the resting state were collected and a connectivity analysis was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818394/post-structural-methodology-at-the-quilting-point-intercultural-encounters
#18
Grant Gillett
Lacan's quilting point connects a network of signifiers with the lived world as a place of voices, memory, and adaptation "seen in" the mirror of language. Crossing cultures can obscure the ways we make sense of the world. Some planes of signification, in aiming to be universal in their knowledge (such as the natural sciences), try to track objects and events independent of our thoughts about them and the ways that signifiers may slide past each other. However, cross-structural comparison and the analysis of cross cultural encounters cannot treat its objects of interest that way...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807767/resting-state-eeg-power-and-coherence-vary-between-migraine-phases
#19
Zehong Cao, Chin-Teng Lin, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Kuan-Lin Lai, Albert C Yang, Jong-Ling Fuh, Shuu-Jiun Wang
BACKGROUND: Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases. METHODS: We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence of delta (1-3...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802274/topology-cross-frequency-and-same-frequency-band-interactions-shape-the-generation-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-neural-mass-model-of-a-cortical-column
#20
Roberto C Sotero
Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a type of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) where the phase of a low-frequency rhythm modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency, is becoming an important indicator of information transmission in the brain. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying its generation remain undetermined. A realistic, yet tractable computational model of the phenomenon is thus needed. Here we analyze a neural mass model of a cortical column, comprising fourteen neuronal populations distributed across four layers (L2/3, L4, L5 and L6)...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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