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Mahsa Dadar, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins
INTRODUCTION: Linear registration to a standard space is one of the major steps in processing and analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain. Here we present an overview of linear stereotaxic MRI registration and compare the performance of 5 publicly available and extensively used linear registration techniques in medical image analysis. METHODS: A set of 9693 T1-weighted MR images were obtained for testing from 4 datasets: ADNI, PREVENT-AD, PPMI, and HCP, two of which have multi-center and multi-scanner data and three of which have longitudinal data...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Qinghui Cheng, Zhi-Wen Hu, Katelynne E Doherty, Yuto J Tobin-Miyaji, Wei Qiang
Disruption of the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) induced by the aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides has been considered as a potential mechanism for the neurotoxicity of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular basis of such membrane disruption process remains unclear, mainly because of the severe systematic heterogeneity problem that prevents the high-resolution studies. Our previous studies using a two-component phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylglycerol (PG) model liposome showed the presence of Aβ-induced membrane disruptions that were either on the pathway or off the pathway of fibril formation...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Cheng-Han Wu, Bang-Hung Yang, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Shyh-Jen Wang, Jyh-Cheng Chen
99mTc-TRODAT-1 is a type of drug that can bind to dopamine transporters in living organisms and is often used in SPCT imaging for observation of changes in the activity uptake of dopamine in the striatum. Therefore, it is currently widely used in studies on clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and movement-related disorders. In conventional 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT image evaluation, visual inspection or manual selection of ROI for semiquantitative analysis is mainly used to observe and evaluate the degree of striatal defects...
2018: PloS One
T Vandermarken, K Croes, K Van Langenhove, I Boonen, P Servais, T Garcia-Armisen, N Brion, M S Denison, L Goeyens, M Elskens
The Zenne River, crossing the Brussels region (Belgium) is an extremely urbanized river impacted by both domestic and industrial effluents. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and activity of Endocrine Active Substances (EAS) in river water and sediments in the framework of the Environmental Quality Standards Directive (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EU). Activities were determined using Estrogen and Dioxin Responsive Elements (ERE and DRE) Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression (CALUX) bioassays...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Sung Min Park, Bo Wang, Saikat Das, Seung Chul Chae, Jin-Seok Chung, Jong-Gul Yoon, Long-Qing Chen, Sang Mo Yang, Tae Won Noh
Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between electrical polarization and a strain gradient1 that enables mechanical manipulation of polarization without applying an electrical bias2,3 . Recently, flexoelectricity was directly demonstrated by mechanically switching the out-of-plane polarization of a uniaxial system with a scanning probe microscope tip3,4 . However, the successful application of flexoelectricity in low-symmetry multiaxial ferroelectrics and therefore active manipulation of multiple domains via flexoelectricity have not yet been achieved...
March 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Patricia Dore, Ardian Dumani, Geddes Wyatt, Alex J Shepherd
This study explored associations between local and global shape perception on coloured backgrounds, colour discrimination, and non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). Five background colours were chosen for the local and global shape tasks that were tailored for the cone-opponent pathways early in the visual system (cardinal colour directions: L-M, loosely, reddish-greenish; and S-(L+M), or tritan colours, loosely, blueish-yellowish; where L, M and S refer to the long, middle and short wavelength sensitive cones). Participants also completed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM100) to determine whether performance on the local and global shape tasks correlated with colour discrimination overall, or with performance on the L-M and tritan subsets of the FM100 test...
March 9, 2018: Vision Research
Behnaz Soltani, Hamid Heidari, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Nahal Hadi, Jalal Mardaneh, Mohammad Motamedifar
The emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a global problem. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and to investigate the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants among A. baumannii isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 92 A. baumannii isolates in the years 2015-2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disk diffusion method. The presence of antibiotic resistance determinants was detected by the PCR method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Bas van der Grift, Leonard Osté, Paul Schot, Arjen Kratz, Emma van Popta, Martin Wassen, Jasper Griffioen
The fate and environmental effects of phosphorus (P) in natural waters depend on its chemical forms. The particulate P (PP) concentration is dominant over the dissolved P concentration in agriculture-dominated headwaters in the Netherlands. Routine water quality monitoring programmes do not include the chemical fractionation of PP. To quantify the chemical forms of PP under various conditions in six agriculture-dominated lowland catchments in the Netherlands, a sequential chemical extraction method was applied to suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected by centrifugation or filtration...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paul C Norris, Charles N Serhan
Metabolomics enables a systems approach to interrogate the bioactive mediators, their pathways and further metabolites involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of human and animal tissues. New metabololipidomic approaches with mass spectrometry presented in this brief review can now be utilized for the identification and profiling of lipid mediator networks that control inflammation-resolution in human blood and healthy and diseased solid tissues. Coagulation of blood is a protective response that prevents excessive bleeding on injury of blood vessels...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ho Pan Sham, Katherine H Walker, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Nandini Krishnamoorthy, David N Douda, Paul C Norris, Ioanna Barkas, Sarah Benito-Figueroa, Jennifer K Colby, Charles N Serhan, Bruce D Levy
Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) decrease NF-κB activity to prevent excessive tissue damage and promote the resolution of acute inflammation. Mechanisms for NF-κB regulation by SPMs remain to be determined. In this study, after LPS challenge, the SPMs 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (15-epi-LXA4 ), resolvin D1, resolvin D2, resolvin D3, and 17-epi-resolvin D1 were produced in vivo in murine lungs. In LPS-activated human bronchial epithelial cells, select SPMs increased expression of the NF-κB regulators A20 and single Ig IL-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yaser Khorrami, Vahid Ahmadi, Mohammad Razaghi, Narottam Das
In this paper, we numerically analyze nonlinear asymmetric switching using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) phase-shifter-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The self-phase modulation (SPM) effect and nonlinear phase shift in each MZI arm are investigated for different input pulse intensities and linear gains in both picosecond and femtosecond regimes. The input light signal is split unequally over the two arms, where SOAs are placed and act as nonlinear phase shifters in each arm...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Peihung Chen, Jason C S Yu, Michael Fettweis
  Flocculation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in marine and estuarine environments is a complex process that is influenced by physical, biological, and chemical mechanisms. The flocculation model of Maggi (2009) was adapted to simulate flocculation under various weather conditions and during different seasons. The adaptation incorporated the effect of tide-wave-combined turbulence on floc dynamics. The model was validated using in situ measurements of floc size and SPM concentration from the southern North Sea during both calm and storm conditions...
March 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Toshifumi Yamaguchi, Ken Kato, Kengo Nagashima, Satoru Iwasa, Yoshitaka Honma, Atsuo Takashima, Tetsuya Hamaguchi, Yoshinori Ito, Jun Itami, Narikazu Boku, Kazuhide Higuchi
BACKGROUND: While the standard treatment for stage II-III (non-T4) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is neoadjuvant therapy followed by esophagectomy, definitive chemoradiation therapy (dCRT) is an option to treat ESCC patients who reject or may not tolerate surgical treatment. Second primary malignancy (SPM) is a problem for long-term survivors after achieving complete response (CR) by dCRT. METHODS: The source of the subjects in this study was the patients with stage II/III (excluding T4 disease) ESCC (UICC6th) who underwent dCRT from 2000 to 2011 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Laura Recalde, Analía Vázquez, María D Groppa, María Patricia Benavides
Polyamines (PAs) produce H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) during their normal catabolism and modulate plant growth and development. To explore the biochemical basis of PAs-induced growth inhibition in Triticum aestivum L seedlings, we examined the role of O2 ·- , H2 O2 or NO in shoot and root development. Although all PA treatments resulted in a variable reduction of root and shoot elongation, spermine (Spm) caused the greater inhibition in a similar way to that observed with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
March 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Ganesh V Halade, Paul C Norris, Vasundhara Kain, Charles N Serhan, Kevin A Ingle
Inflammation promotes healing in myocardial infarction but, if unresolved, leads to heart failure. To define the inflammatory and resolving responses, we quantified leukocyte trafficking and specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) in the infarcted left ventricle and spleen after myocardial infarction, with the goal of distinguishing inflammation from its resolution. Our data suggest that the spleen not only served as a leukocyte reservoir but also was the site where SPMs were actively generated after coronary ligation in mice...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
Caroline Petus, Michelle Devlin, Eduardo Teixera da Silva, Stephen Lewis, Jane Waterhouse, Amelia Wenger, Zoe Bainbridge, Dieter Tracey
Optically active water quality components (OAC) transported by flood plumes to nearshore marine environments affect light levels. The definition of minimum OAC concentrations that must be maintained to sustain sufficient light levels for conservation of light-dependant coastal ecosystems exposed to flood waters is necessary to guide management actions in adjacent catchments. In this study, a framework for defining OAC target concentrations using empirical light attenuation models is proposed and applied to the Wet Tropics region of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (Queensland, Australia)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Roberto Guidotti, Raffaele Sinibaldi, Cinzia De Luca, Allegra Conti, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Koos C J Zevenhoven, Per E Magnelind, Vittorio Pizzella, Cosimo Del Gratta, Gian Luca Romani, Stefania Della Penna
The prototypes of ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI scanners developed in recent years represent new, innovative, cost-effective and safer systems, which are suitable to be integrated in multi-modal (Magnetoencephalography and MRI) devices. Integrated ULF-MRI and MEG scanners could represent an ideal solution to obtain functional (MEG) and anatomical (ULF MRI) information in the same environment, without errors that may limit source reconstruction accuracy. However, the low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ULF images, as well as their limited coverage, do not generally allow for the construction of an accurate individual volume conductor model suitable for MEG localization...
2018: PloS One
M Castro Berman, D J G Marino, María Victoria Quiroga, Horacio Zagarese
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds that compete with commercial crops. In Argentina, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides increased dramatically (up to ∼200,000 tons on 2012) since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops, such as transgenic soy and resistant corn, and the adoption of non-till practices in the 1990's. Sallow lakes within the Pampa region may be potentially impacted by continuous herbicide usage. We surveyed 52 shallow lakes from the Pampa region (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) to assess the occurrence and concentrations of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA)...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Douglas Grossman, James M Farnham, John Hyngstrom, Marki E Klapperich, Aaron M Secrest, Sarah Empey, Glen M Bowen, David Wada, Robert H I Andtbacka, Kenneth Grossmann, Tawnya L Bowles, Lisa A Cannon-Albright
BACKGROUND: Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). OBJECTIVES: To compare MPM vs. SPM patient survival, using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. METHODS: Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah from 1973-2011 were reviewed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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