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Rajasekaran Ganeshkumar, Suhas Somnath, Chin Wei Cheah, Stephen Jesse, Sergei V Kalinin, Rong Zhao
Ferroelectric perovskites are an important group of materials underpinning a wide variety of devices ranging from sensors and transducers to non-volatile memories and photovoltaic cells. Despite the progress in material synthesis, ferroelectric characterization of nanoscale perovskites is still a challenge. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is one of the most popular tools for probing and manipulating nanostructures to study the ferroelectric properties. However, the interpretation of hysteresis data and alternate signal origins are critical...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Ran An, Ping Dong, Makoto Komiyama, Xiaoming Pan, Xingguo Liang
DNA base depurination is one of the most common forms of DNA damage in vivo and in vitro, and the suppression of depurination is very important for versatile applications of DNA in biotechnology and medicine. In this work, it was shown that the polycations chitosan (Cho) and spermine (Spm) strongly inhibit DNA depurination through the formation of polyion complexes with DNA molecules. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of positively charged polycations with DNA efficiently suppresses the protonation of purine groups, which is the key step of depurination...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Isaac Francos Quijorna, Eva Santos-Nogueira, Karsten Gronert, Aaron B Sullivan, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Samuel David, Jan M Schwab, Ruben Lopez Vales
Resolution of inflammation is defective after spinal cord injury (SCI), which impairs tissue integrity and remodelling, and leads to functional deficits. Effective treatments for SCI are not currently available. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a highly conserved specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) hosting potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties with potent tissue regenerative actions. Here, we provide evidence that the inappropriate biosynthesis of SPM in the lesioned spinal cord hampers the resolution of inflammation and leads to deleterious consequences on neurological outcome in adult female mice...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jun-Min Gao, Xiao-Ling Chen, Xiu-Qian Sun, Ke Zhang, You-Peng Chen, Jin-Song Guo, Yu Shen
Organotins (OTs) pollution in the aquatic environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) was assessed during the reservoir's operating cycle. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) in the water phase and suspended particulate matter (SPM) at different water levels were analysed. It was found that the distribution of OTs in the surface and bottom water phases were similar, with the dominant OTs being BTs at the low water level and PhTs at the high water level. The detection rates and concentrations of OTs in the water phase at the high water level were both higher than those at the low water level, with most OTs being monobutyltin (MBT) at the low water level and monophenyltin (MPhT) at the high water level...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dimitri Renard, Giovanni Castelnovo, Laurent Collombier, Eric Thouvenot, Vincent Boudousq
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between clinical pattern and cerebral glucose metabolism on [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS: Predefined clinical signs (ataxia, visual, pyramidal, myoclonus, limb apraxia, limb dystonia, sensory, parkinsonism, and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]) and FDG-PET data were assessed in consecutive CJD patients. Two types of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses, using stringent level of significance p<0...
November 3, 2017: Prion
Lucas Chaves, Lísia Moura Tomich, Matias Salomão, Gleice Cristina Leite, Jessica Ramos, Roberta Ruedas Martins, Camila Rizek, Patricia Neves, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Ulysses Amigo, Thais Guimaraes, Anna Sara Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
PURPOSE: Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa is increasing worldwide. In Brazil, SPM-1 is the main P. aeruginosa carbapenemase identified. Little is known about the virulence factor in SPM-1 clones.Methodolgy. We describe a carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (CRPa-BSI) outbreak in a bone marrow transplant Unit (BMT). Twenty-nine CRPa-BSI cases were compared to 58 controls. Microbiological characteristics of isolates, such as sensitivity, carbapenemase gene PCR for P...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jin-Oh Jung, Seokhwan Choi, Yeonghoon Lee, Jinwoo Kim, Donghyeon Son, Jhinhwan Lee
We have built a variable temperature scanning probe microscope (SPM) that covers 4.6 K-180 K and up to 7 T whose SPM head fits in a 52 mm bore magnet. It features a temperature-controlled sample stage thermally well isolated from the SPM body in good thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. It has a 7-sample-holder storage carousel at liquid helium temperature for systematic studies using multiple samples and field emission targets intended for spin-polarized spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on samples with various compositions and doping conditions...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Takashi Kaneta
Here we describe a protocol for the determination of polyamines using capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet absorbance detection. Aliphatic polyamines were derivatized with salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonate (SAS) which formed Schiff base with amino groups, resulting in anionic derivatives. The derivatization of polyamines, including putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM), was conducted in 10 mM HEPES buffer with pH 7.8 containing 5 mM SAS in a mixed solvent of water and ethanol...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eva Bystrenova, Zuzana Bednarikova, Marianna Barbalinardo, Francesco Valle, Zuzana Gazova, Fabio Biscarini
Peptide aggregation into oligomers and fibrillar architectures is a hallmark of severe neurodegenerative pathologies, diabetes mellitus or systemic amyloidoses. The polymorphism of amyloid forms and their distribution are both effectors that potentially modulate the disease, thus it is important to understand the molecular basis of protein amyloid disorders through the interaction of the different amyloid forms with neural cells and tissues. Here we explore the effect of amyloid fibrils on the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line in vitro...
October 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Pilar Sanz-Cervera, Gemma Pastor-Cerezuela, Francisco González-Sala, Raúl Tárraga-Mínguez, Maria-Inmaculada Fernández-Andrés
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often show impairments in sensory processing (SP) and higher functions. The main objective of this study was to compare SP, praxis and social participation (SOC) in four groups of children: ASD Group (n = 21), ADHD Group (n = 21), ASD+ADHD Group (n = 21), and Comparison Group (n = 27). Participants were the parents and teachers of these children who were 5-8 years old (M = 6.32). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate the sensory profile, praxis and SOC of the children in both the home and classroom contexts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ke Du, Myeongkee Park, Anthony Griffiths, Ricardo Carrion, Jean Patterson, Holger Schmidt, Richard Mathies
A microfluidic sample preparation multiplexer (SPM) and assay procedure is developed to improve amplification-free detection of Ebola virus RNA from blood. While a previous prototype successfully detected viral RNA following off-chip RNA extraction from infected cells, the new device and protocol can detect Ebola virus in raw blood with clinically relevant sensitivity. The Ebola RNA is hybridized with sequence specific capture and labeling DNA probes in solution and then the complex is pulled down onto capture beads for purification and concentration...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Taishi Hirai, J Aaron Grantham, James Sapontis, David J Cohen, Steven P Marso, William Lombardi, Dimitri Karmpaliotis, Jeffrey Moses, William J Nicholson, Ashish Pershad, R Michael Wyman, Anthony Spaedy, Stephen Cook, Parag Doshi, Robert Federici, Karen Nugent, Kensey L Gosch, John A Spertus, Adam C Salisbury
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the impact of subintimal plaque modification (SPM) on early health status following unsuccessful chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI. BACKGROUND: Intentionally dilating the subintimal space during unsuccessful CTO PCI to facilitate flow through dissection planes and improve success of repeat PCI attempts is a technique used by some hybrid operators, and may improve health status by restoring distal vessel flow despite unsuccessful CTO PCI...
October 25, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Ricci, Alessandro Martorana, Francesco Ursini, Pasqualina Sannino, Georgios Karalis, Orazio Schillaci
AIMS: physiopathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still matter of debate. Especially the role of amyloid β and tau pathology in the development of the disease are still matter of debate. Changes in tau and amyloid β peptide concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hypometabolic patterns at fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET scanning are considered as biomarkers of AD. The present study was aimed to evaluate the relationships between the concentrations of CSF total Tau (t-Tau), phosphorilated Tau (p-Tau) and Aβ1-42 amyloid peptide with (18)F-FDG brain distribution in a group of patients with AD...
October 21, 2017: Brain Research
Yoshihiro Takahashi, Kaede Ono, Yuuta Akamine, Takuya Asano, Masatoshi Ezaki, Itsupei Mouri
To understand the polyamine (PA) catabolic pathways in Brachypodium distachyon, we focused on the flavin-containing polyamine oxidase enzymes (PAO), and characterized them at the molecular and biochemical levels. Five PAO isoforms were identified from database searches, and we named them BdPAO1 to BdPAO5. By gene expression analysis using above-ground tissues such as leaf, stem and inflorescence, it was revealed that BdPAO2 is the most abundant PAO gene in normal growth conditions, followed by BdPAO3 and BdPAO4...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Juanhong Yu, Kai Keng Ang, Su Hui Ho, Angelia Sia, Roger Ho
Recent studies have shown that pleasant and unpleasant emotions could be detected through functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). This study investigates the prefrontal cortical activation in human subjects while they were viewing urban and garden scenes. A multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS system was used to record the prefrontal cortical activations from seven subjects. During the data collection, the subjects viewed 40 trials of video clips. In each trial, the subjects viewed a video of randomized urban or garden scenes for 30s followed by 30s of idle scene which showed a dark blue progress bar on black background on the screen...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Leonid N Ten, Joseph Okiria, Jae-Jin Lee, Seung-Yeol Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Dae Sung Lee, Hee-Young Jung
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated 15J8-5(T), was isolated from beach soil on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The isolate grew at 10-37 °C (optimal 25 °C), pH 6-8 (optimal pH 7) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 15J8-5(T) represented a member of the family Cytophagaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes and was most closely related to Spirosoma knui 15J8-12(T) (93...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Zikuan Chen, Arvind Caprihan, Eswar Damaraju, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince Calhoun
BACKGROUND: The output of BOLD fMRI consists of a pair of magnitude and phase components. While the magnitude data has been widely accepted for brain function analysis, we can also make use of the phase data (unwrapped) since this is a good representation of the internal magnetic field. In this work, we discuss the use of fMRI phase data for brain function analysis. NEW METHODS: The fMRI phase data taken from 100 subjects are preprocessed using standard SPM approaches...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Ellen Jaspers, Lisa Mailleux, Kaat Desloovere, Jos Vanrenterghem, Els Ortibus, Guy Molenaers, Hilde Feys, Katrijn Klingels
Upper limb three-dimensional movement analysis (UL-3DMA) offers a reliable and valid tool to evaluate movement patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP). However, it remains unknown to what extent the underlying motor impairments explain deviant movement patterns. Such understanding is key to develop efficient rehabilitation programs. Although UL-3DMA has been shown to be a useful tool to assess movement patterns, it results in a multitude of data, challenging the clinical interpretation and consequently its implementation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jing Zhang, Xiaochen Zhang, Yanan Li, Zhenzhen Zhou, Chuanlong Wu, Zhiyan Liu, Lanxiang Hao, Shanshan Fan, Fang Jiang, Yan Xie, Ling Jiang
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is the most common endocrine neoplasm. The risk of TC as a second primary malignancy (SPM) of breast cancer is significantly increased. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely contacted xenoestrogen and increases susceptibility to breast cancer through binding to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). However, the effect of BPA on thyroid carcinogenesis has not been fully demonstrated. This present study aimed to characterize the effects of BPA on the development of TC using a Fischer 344 (F344) rat model...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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