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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369387/phenotype-and-natural-history-of-elderly-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-multicentre-case-control-study
#1
M Mañosa, M Calafat, R de Francisco, C García, M J Casanova, P Huelín, M Calvo, J Tosca, L Fernández-Salazar, C Arajol, Y Zabana, G Bastida, J Hinojosa, L Márquez, M Barreiro-de-Acosta, X Calvet, D Monfort, M R Gómez-Garcia, E Rodríguez, J M Huguet, M Rojas-Feria, D Hervias, R Atienza, D Busquets, E Zapata, C Dueñas, M Charro, F J Martínez-Cerezo, R Plaza, J M Vázquez, J P Gisbert, F Cañete, E Cabré, E Domènech
BACKGROUND: Onset during old age has been reported in upto 10% of total cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To evaluate phenotypic characteristics and the use of therapeutic resources in patients with elderly onset IBD. METHODS: Case-control study including all those patients diagnosed with IBD over the age of 60 years since 2000 who were followed-up for >12 months, identified from the IBD databases. Elderly onset cases were compared with IBD patients aged 18 to 40 years at diagnosis, matched by year of diagnosis, gender and type of IBD (adult-onset)...
January 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357130/short-chain-fatty-acid-transporters-role-in-colonic-homeostasis
#2
Sathish Sivaprakasam, Yangzom D Bhutia, Shengping Yang, Vadivel Ganapathy
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Though diffusion in protonated form is a significant route, carrier-mediated mechanisms constitute the major route for the entry of SCFA in their anionic form into colonic epithelium. Several transport systems operate in cellular uptake of SCFA. MCT1 (SLC16A1) and MCT4 (SLC16A3) are H+-coupled and mediate electroneutral transport of SCFA (H+: SCFA stoichiometry; 1:1). MCT1 is expressed both in the apical membrane and basolateral membrane of colonic epithelium whereas MCT4 specifically in the basolateral membrane...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350564/role-of-madcam-1-expressing-high-endothelial-venule-like-vessels-in-colitis-induced-in-mice-lacking-sulfotransferases-catalyzing-l-selectin-ligand-biosynthesis
#3
Shulin Low, Jotaro Hirakawa, Hitomi Hoshino, Kenji Uchimura, Hiroto Kawashima, Motohiro Kobayashi
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease histologically characterized by diffuse mononuclear cell infiltrates in colonic mucosa. These inflammatory cells are considered to be recruited via high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels displaying mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1), the ligand for α4β7 integrin, and/or peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd), an L-selectin ligand. 6- O-sulfation of N-acetylglucosamine in the carbohydrate moiety of PNAd is catalyzed exclusively by N-acetylglucosamine-6- O-sulfotransferase 1 (GlcNAc6ST-1) and GlcNAc6ST-2...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348389/efficacy-of-curcumin-as-adjuvant-therapy-to-induce-or-maintain-remission-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#4
Marcellus Simadibrata, Christopher Christian Halimkesuma, Benedicta Mutiara Suwita
BACKGROUND: treatment guidelines for ulcerative colitis (UC) not yet established. Currently, mesalazine, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators are treatment options for UC. However, they are known to have unpleaseant side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, hepatitis, and male infertility. Curcumin is found in Turmeric plants (Curcuma longa L.), which possesses both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to determine whether curcumin as adjuvant therapy can induce or maintain remission in UC patients...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343654/intestinal-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#5
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
January 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330435/beta-catenin-cleavage-enhances-transcriptional-activation
#6
Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A Barrett
Nuclear activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for cell proliferation in inflammation and cancer. Studies from our group indicate that β-catenin activation in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) correlates with increased nuclear levels of β-catenin phosphorylated at serine 552 (pβ-Cat552). Biochemical analysis of nuclear extracts from cancer biopsies revealed the existence of low molecular weight (LMW) pβ-Cat552, increased to the exclusion of full size (FS) forms of β-catenin. LMW β-catenin lacks both termini, leaving residues in the armadillo repeat intact...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310593/how-disease-extent-can-be-included-in-the-endoscopic-activity-index-of-ulcerative-colitis-the-panmayo-score-a-promising-scoring-system
#7
Anita Bálint, Klaudia Farkas, Zoltán Szepes, Ferenc Nagy, Mónika Szűcs, László Tiszlavicz, Renáta Bor, Ágnes Milassin, Mariann Rutka, Anna Fábián, Tamás Molnár
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy plays crucial role in the establishment of the diagnosis, management and follow-up of ulcerative colitis (UC). None of the currently widely used endoscopic scores consider disease extent, and therefore do not correlate with the real severity of UC. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of a new score, the Pancolonic Modified Mayo Score that can reflect not only the severity, but the extent of active UC. METHODS: One hundred and four UC patients were enrolled in this prospective study...
January 8, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302827/colonic-perforation-due-to-severe-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-after-immunosuppression
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Soriano, Nazareno Smerieri, Stefano Bonilauri, Loredana De Marco, Alberto Cavazza, Carlo Salvarani
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small-vessel necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis typically involving upper airways, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to end-organ damage and life-threatening complications. Major infections during GPA course represent a considerable concern in the management of the disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are rare but significant complications in the course of GPA being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Colonic perforation due to CMV colitis is exceedingly rare and has so far almost exclusively been documented in HIV, renal transplant, and systemic lupus erythematosus patients...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276753/indian-hedgehog-suppresses-a-stromal-cell-driven-intestinal-immune-response
#9
B Florien Westendorp, Nikè V J A Büller, Olga N Karpus, Willemijn A van Dop, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Pim J Koelink, Clinton Y Snel, Sander Meisner, Joris J T H Roelofs, Anja Uhmann, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Jarom Heijmans, Heidi Hahn, Vanesa Muncan, Manon E Wildenberg, Gijs R van den Brink
Background & Aims: Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor for Ihh is expressed only in the mesenchyme, but the exact Hedgehog target cell has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate further the nature of this target cell in the context of intestinal inflammation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196621/remodelling-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-hyperactive-nlrp3-induces-regulatory-t-cells-to-maintain-homeostasis
#10
Xiaomin Yao, Chenhong Zhang, Yue Xing, Guang Xue, Qianpeng Zhang, Fengwei Pan, Guojun Wu, Yingxin Hu, Qiuhong Guo, Ailing Lu, Xiaoming Zhang, Rongbin Zhou, Zhigang Tian, Benhua Zeng, Hong Wei, Warren Strober, Liping Zhao, Guangxun Meng
Inflammasomes are involved in gut homeostasis and inflammatory pathologies, but the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in these processes is not well understood. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) patients with NLRP3 mutations have autoinflammation in skin, joints, and eyes, but not in the intestine. Here we show that the intestines of CAPS model mice carrying an Nlrp3 R258W mutation maintain homeostasis in the gut. Additionally, such mice are strongly resistant to experimental colitis and colorectal cancer; this is mainly through a remodelled gut microbiota with enhanced anti-inflammatory capacity due to increased induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174402/commensal-fungi-recapitulate-the-protective-benefits-of-intestinal-bacteria
#11
Tony T Jiang, Tzu-Yu Shao, W X Gladys Ang, Jeremy M Kinder, Lucien H Turner, Giang Pham, Jordan Whitt, Theresa Alenghat, Sing Sing Way
Commensal intestinal microbes are collectively beneficial in preventing local tissue injury and augmenting systemic antimicrobial immunity. However, given the near-exclusive focus on bacterial species in establishing these protective benefits, the contributions of other types of commensal microbes remain poorly defined. Here, we show that commensal fungi can functionally replace intestinal bacteria by conferring protection against injury to mucosal tissues and positively calibrating the responsiveness of circulating immune cells...
November 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151692/fecal-calprotectin-measurement-is-a-marker-of-short-term-clinical-outcome-and-presence-of-mucosal-healing-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Athanasios Kostas, Spyros I Siakavellas, Charalambos Kosmidis, Anna Takou, Joanna Nikou, Georgios Maropoulos, John Vlachogiannakos, George V Papatheodoridis, Ioannis Papaconstantinou, Giorgos Bamias
AIM: To evaluate the utility of fecal calprotectin (FC) in predicting relapse and endoscopic activity during follow-up in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort. METHODS: All FC measurements that were obtained during a 3-year period from patients with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission were identified. Data regarding the short-term (6 mo) course of the disease were extracted from the medical files. Exclusion criteria were defined as: (1) An established flare of the disease at the time of FC measurement, (2) Loss to follow up within 6 mo from baseline FC measurement, and, (3) Insufficient data on file...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127496/classification-of-eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-small-and-large-intestine
#13
Aoife J McCarthy, Kieran Sheahan
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis, have been increasing in prevalence in Western countries in recent years. Eosinophils are normally scanty in the gastrointestinal tract, and increased numbers of eosinophils can denote pathology. Normal values for tissue eosinophils vary widely between different segments of the colon, thus location of the biopsy is critically important for the interpretation of findings. However, no standard diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis or eosinophilic colitis...
November 10, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#14
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102418/the-utility-of-food-antigen-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-crohn-s-disease-and-remission-maintenance-after-exclusive-enteral-nutrition
#15
Gefei Wang, Jianan Ren, Guanwei Li, Qiongyuan Hu, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) involves intensive immunologic responses to food antigens. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) showed efficacy in inducing disease remission. However, relapse commonly occurred when normal diet was reintroduced. We aimed to investigate the food-specific IgG antibodies of CD, and clarify the effects of exclusion diet guided by food-specific antibodies on remission maintenance after EEN. METHODS: All available data of food-specific antibodies were retrieved from the database and analyzed for the diagnostic value...
October 25, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036010/the-reasoning-beyond-the-potential-use-of-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-and-other-specified-diets-in-children-with-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Ron Shaoul, Stephanie Brown, Andrew S Day
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily on the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. Furthermore, nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of remission of disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to induce remission, including in patients with isolated colonic disease, and leads to mucosal healing in Crohn disease (CD)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034459/amelioration-of-autoimmunity-with-an-inhibitor-selectively-targeting-all-active-centers-of-the-immunoproteasome
#17
Michael Basler, Elmer Maurits, Gerjan de Bruin, Julia Koerner, Herman S Overkleeft, Marcus Groettrup
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MECL-1 (β2i), LMP2 (β1i), and LMP7 (β5i) are the proteolytically active subunits of the immunoproteasome, a special type of proteasome mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Targeting LMP7 has been shown to be therapeutically effective in pre-clinical models of autoimmune diseases. In this study, a recently described inhibitor of the immunoproteasome LU-005i was investigated with respect to selectivity and biological activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The specificity of LU-005i and other immunoproteasome selective inhibitors was characterized using fluorogenic peptide substrates...
October 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991085/crohn-s-disease-of-the-pouch-a-true-diagnosis-or-an-oversubscribed-diagnosis-of-exclusion
#18
Amy L Lightner, Joel G Fletcher, John H Pemberton, Kellie L Mathis, Laura E Raffals, Thomas Smyrk
BACKGROUND: After IPAA, 8% of patients with ulcerative colitis are later diagnosed with Crohn's disease of the pouch, associated with an increased rate of pouch failure. No study has reported on how often the clinical diagnosis is correlated with histologic findings of Crohn's disease in the excised pouch. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical diagnosis is consistent with pathologic confirmation at pouch excision. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a tertiary IBD referral center...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977914/potential-link-between-fusobacterium-enrichment-and-dna-methylation-accumulation-in-the-inflammatory-colonic-mucosa-in-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Tomomitsu Tahara, Ichiro Hirata, Naoko Nakano, Sayumi Tahara, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Hyuga Yamada, Dai Yoshida, Takafumi Ohmori, Kohei Maeda, Naruomi Komura, Hirokazu Ikuno, Yasutaka Jodai, Toshiaki Kamano, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tetsuya Tuskamoto, Makoto Urano, Tomoyuki Shibata, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fusobacterium enrichment has been associated with colorectal cancer development. Ulcerative colitis (UC) associated tumorigenesis is characterized as high degree of methylation accumulation through continuous colonic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential link between Fusobacterium enrichment and DNA methylation accumulation in the inflammatory colonic mucosa in UC. METHODS: In the candidate analysis, inflamed colonic mucosa from 86 UC patients were characterized the methylation status of colorectal a panel of cancer related 24 genes...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951510/increased-cholestatic-enzymes-in-two-patients-with-long-term-history-of-ulcerative-colitis-consider-primary-biliary-cholangitis-not-always-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#20
Erietta Polychronopoulou, Vasiliki Lygoura, Nikolaos K Gatselis, George N Dalekos
Several hepatobiliary disorders have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) being the most specific. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, rarely occurs in UC. We present two PBC cases of 67 and 71 years who suffered from long-standing UC. Both patients were asymptomatic but they had increased cholestatic enzymes and high titres of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)-the laboratory hallmark of PBC. After careful exclusion of other causes of cholestasis by MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), virological and microbiological investigations, a diagnosis of PBC associated with UC was established...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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