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Exclusion colitis

Frauke Degenhardt, Andrea Dirmeier, Rocio Lopez, Sylvia Lang, Claudia Kunst, Dirk Roggenbuck, Dirk Reinhold, Silke Szymczak, Gerhard Rogler, Frank Klebl, Andre Franke, Florian Rieder
BACKGROUND: The presentation of Crohn's disease (CD) is heterogeneous and often leads to serious complications and need for surgery. We tested serum anti-zymogen granule glycoprotein 2 (GP2) antibodies, including its novel isoform alpha, for association with genetic variants, diagnosis, disease stratification, and prediction of CD courses in a combined cross-sectional and cohort study. METHODS: Serum samples of 303 CD, 108 ulcerative colitis, 72 other inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, and 206 controls without predominant gastrointestinal diseases controls (HC) were tested for the presence of Anti-GP2 and Anti-Saccharomyces cervisiae (ASCA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Asra Akbar, George Nissan, Priyanka Chaudhry, Priya Rangasamy, Steven Mudrovich
We report a 41-year-old woman who developed histology- and colonoscopy-proven ischemic colitis with the use of naratriptan not exceeding the maximum 2 doses a day and 3 days per week and without a known medical or cardiovascular history. By exclusion of other causes of colonic ischemia, naratriptan was considered the sole causal agent. Discontinuation of naratriptan resulted in a complete clinical recovery. To date, our patient is the youngest known patient to develop ischemic colitis on isolated naratriptan in the setting of no known medical risk factors or predisposing medical condition...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Hugh J Freeman
Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kuldeep Verma, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sunando Datta
Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis and liver abscess in human, ingests the intestinal bacteria and variety of host cells. Phagocytosis of bacteria by the amebic trophozoite has been reported to be important for the virulence of the parasite. Here, we set out to characterize different stages of phagocytosis of type 1 E. coli and investigated the role of a set of amoebic Rab GTPases in the process. The localizations of the Rab GTPases during different stages of the phagocytosis were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy and their functional relevance were determined using fluorescence activated cell sorter based assay as well as colony forming unit assay...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Giusy Elia, Marco Biricotti, Roberto Vita, Salvatore Benvenga, Alessandro Antonelli
We have evaluated prospectively the prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in outpatient clinic in 3069 consecutive patients with diagnosed chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), with respect to two age- and sex-matched control groups: a) a control group of 1023 subjects, extracted from a random sample of the general population without thyroid disorders; b) 1023 patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter extracted from the same random sample of the general population, with similar iodine intake. The results of our study demonstrate a significant increase of the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in AT patients (with respect to both controls), for the following diseases: chronic autoimmune gastritis (CAG), vitiligo (Vit), rheumatoid arthritis, polymialgia rheumatica (Polym), celiac disease, diabetes, sjogren disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, alopecia, psoriathic arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and HCV-related cryoglobulinemia...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
William J Sandborn, Brian G Feagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Kai Hildner, Elise Punkenburg, Benjamin Abendroth, Markus F Neurath
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) represent a group of chronic immune-mediated disorders that are influenced by a genetic predisposition and additional environmental triggers. Genome-wide association studies strongly implicate that a number of immune system-related genetic variations are critically contributing to the initiation and promotion of intestinal inflammation. Especially the identification of the strong association of a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms including interleukin (IL)-23R, CCR6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Stat4 with IBD susceptibility point at a critical involvement of T cells and especially of IL-17a-producing Th17 cells in the immune pathogenesis of IBD...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Umair Sohail
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies...
September 2016: Primary Care
Pamela L Valentino, Shanna Wiggins, Sarah Harney, Roshan Raza, Christine K Lee, Maureen M Jonas
OBJECTIVES: Data regarding pediatric PSC natural history are limited. We describe a large pediatric PSC cohort with longitudinal follow-up. METHODS: Records review of pediatric PSC patients diagnosed between 1984 and 2014. RESULTS: N = 120 (63% M) aged 1-21y (median 14y) at diagnosis. 27% (31/113) had ASC (autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis), 24% had exclusive small duct PSC, METAVIR stage was F3-F4 in 41%. 81% of PSC patients had IBD; most had ulcerative/indeterminate colitis (72/97), typically pancolitis (40/72)...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jennifer S Ko, Georgina Uberti, Karl Napekoski, Deepa Patil, Steven D Billings
BACKGROUND: Skin is commonly affected by extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but a controlled, systematic histopathologic analysis of cutaneous lesions is lacking. METHODS: 4147 classified IBD (Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC); 2000-2013) resections were cross referenced with skin biopsies. Associated non-neoplastic skin biopsies were categorized by basic reaction pattern and neutrophilic versus granulomatous. RESULTS: Of 4147 patients, 133 had non-neoplastic skin biopsies (106/2772, 3...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Aaron L Hecht, Benjamin W Casterline, Zachary M Earley, Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
The microbiota is a major source of protection against intestinal pathogens; however, the specific bacteria and underlying mechanisms involved are not well understood. As a model of this interaction, we sought to determine whether colonization of the murine host with symbiotic non-toxigenic Bacteroides fragilis could limit acquisition of pathogenic enterotoxigenic B. fragilis We observed strain-specific competition with toxigenic B. fragilis, dependent upon type VI secretion, identifying an effector-immunity pair that confers pathogen exclusion...
September 2016: EMBO Reports
Fábio Barrozo do Canto, Sylvia Maria Nicolau Campos, Alessandra Granato, Rafael F da Silva, Luciana Souza de Paiva, Alberto Nóbrega, Maria Bellio, Rita Fucs
Intestinal inflammation can be induced by the reconstitution of T/B cell-deficient mice with low numbers of CD4(+) T lymphocytes depleted of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). Using RAG-knockout mice as recipients of either splenocytes exclusively depleted of CD25(+) cells or FACS-purified CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) T cells, we found that the augmentation of potentially colitogenic naïve T cell numbers in the inoculum was unexpectedly beneficial for the suppression of colon disease and maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martina Di Giovangiulio, Goele Bosmans, Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Morgane Florens, Giovanna Farro, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Gianluca Matteoli, Guy Boeckxstaens
Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR(-/-) mice...
June 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Giovanni C Actis, Rinaldo Pellicano
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are being seen as a gut inflammatory hub occurring: 1) with inflammatory spots in the eyes, skin, liver, joints (extra-intestinal manifestations); 2) with functionally contiguous disorders such as psoriasis and lung disease (barrier organ diseases); 3) as the consequence of genetic loss of non-redundant cell functions that are critical for gut homeostasis and defense (monogenic IBD). Recent multidisciplinary analysis, fostered by the input of genomic search, has helped hypothesize two pathogenetic models for the main phenotypes of IBDs...
June 17, 2016: Minerva Medica
Manon Roche, Charléric Bornet, Philippe Monges, Andreas Stein, Sophie Gensollen, Piseth Seng
Some antibiotics are reserved essentially for hospital settings owing to cost effectiveness and in order to fight the emerging antibiotic resistance crisis. In some cases, antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals may be prescribed in outpatients for serious infections or in the absence of a therapeutic alternative. A 30-day prospective audit of outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions by measuring appropriateness according to guidelines...
July 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gabriela Möslein
The ileoanal pouch has become the standard restorative procedure of choice for patients with the classical phenotype in FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis) and also for ulcerative colitis (UC). Whilst we tend to encounter descriptive analyses comparing functional outcome, fertility and quality of life (QOL) between series in literature, there may be an urgent need to discuss the subtle technical modifications that may be pivotal for improving long-term QOL in FAP patients. Our aim is to review the current literature and discuss the aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis that may require specific reevaluation for FAP...
July 2016: Familial Cancer
Yongjun Wang, Claire E Parker, Brian G Feagan, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Oral 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) preparations were intended to avoid the adverse effects of sulfasalazine (SASP) while maintaining its therapeutic benefits. Previously, it was found that 5-ASA drugs were more effective than placebo but had a statistically significant therapeutic inferiority relative to SASP. This updated review includes more recent studies and evaluates the effectiveness, dose-responsiveness, and safety of 5-ASA preparations used for maintenance of remission in quiescent ulcerative colitis...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elisa Deriu, Gayle M Boxx, Xuesong He, Calvin Pan, Sammy David Benavidez, Lujia Cen, Nora Rozengurt, Wenyuan Shi, Genhong Cheng
Human influenza viruses replicate almost exclusively in the respiratory tract, yet infected individuals may also develop gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Using an influenza mouse model, we found that influenza pulmonary infection can significantly alter the intestinal microbiota profile through a mechanism dependent on type I interferons (IFN-Is). Notably, influenza-induced IFN-Is produced in the lungs promote the depletion of obligate anaerobic bacteria and the enrichment of Proteobacteria in the gut, leading to a "dysbiotic" microenvironment...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Marina Aloi, Liron Birimberg-Schwartz, Stephan Buderus, Iva Hojsak, John M Fell, Jiri Bronsky, Gigi Veereman, Sibylle Koletzko, Ron Shaoul, Erasmo Miele, Dan Turner, Richard K Russell
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) is the rarest IBD subtype with treatment based on extrapolation from ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) studies. We compared IBDU treatment choices with other colonic IBDs and explored long-term outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective longitudinal study of 23 centers of pediatric IBD with isolated colitis, including a mild ileitis consistent with backwash. RESULTS: Of note, 797 children (median age: 11...
June 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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