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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469619/immune-responses-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-mice
#1
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Ulrike Escher, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Compelling evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of the commensal intestinal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of antibiotics induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota composition on the murine mucosal and systemic immunity. To address this, conventional C57BL/6j mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks. Restoration of the intestinal microbiota by peroral fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) led to reestablishment of small intestinal CD4(+), CD8(+), and B220(+) as well as of colonic CD4(+) cell numbers as early as 7 days post-FMT...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394751/practice-patterns-for-the-use-of-antibiotic-agents-in-damage-control-laparotomy-and-its-impact-on-outcomes
#2
Stephanie R Goldberg, Jennifer Henning, Luke G Wolfe, Therese M Duane
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify practice patterns associated with the use of antimicrobial agents with damage control laparotomy (DCL) and the relationship with post-operative intra-abdominal infection (IAI) rates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of trauma patients undergoing laparotomy at a Level 1 trauma center in 2010. Patients undergoing DCL versus those primarily closed (PCL) were compared for antimicrobial use (ABX) and its correlation with IAI rates (p < 0...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378801/antibody-targeted-paclitaxel-loaded-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-cd20-b-cell-lymphoma
#3
Wendy K Nevala, John T Butterfield, Shari L Sutor, Daniel J Knauer, Svetomir N Markovic
We developed a nano-antibody targeted chemotherapy (nATC) delivery strategy in which tumor specific and clinically relevant antibodies (rituximab, anti-CD20) are non-covalently bound to the albumin scaffold of nab-paclitaxel (ABX). We define the nanoparticle formed when the 2 drugs are bound (AR160). The newly created nATC retains the cytotoxicity of ABX and CD20 affinity of rituximab in vitro. We describe the binding characteristics of the ABX and rituximab in AR160 using peptide mapping/Biacore approach. Flow-based methods, including ImageStream and nanoparticle tracking, were used to characterize the AR160 particles in vitro...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290524/gut-dysbiosis-and-neuroimmune-responses-to-brain-infection-with-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#4
F J Carrillo-Salinas, L Mestre, M Mecha, A Feliú, R Del Campo, N Villarrubia, C Espejo, X Montalbán, J C Álvarez-Cermeño, L M Villar, C Guaza
Recent studies have begun to point out the contribution of microbiota to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is a model of progressive MS. Here, we first analyze the effect of intracerebral infection with TMEV on commensal microbiota and secondly, whether the early microbiota depletion influences the immune responses to TMEV on the acute phase (14 dpi) and its impact on the chronic phase (85 dpi). The intracranial inoculation of TMEV was associated with a moderate dysbiosis...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257503/depletion-of-enteric-bacteria-diminishes-leukocyte-infiltration-following-doxorubicin-induced-small-intestinal-damage-in-mice
#5
Jacquelyn S Carr, Stephanie King, Christopher M Dekaney
BACKGROUND & AIMS: While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237482/effects-of-the-hydro-ethanolic-extract-of-marrubium-vulgare-in-female-rats
#6
Rim Aouni, Mossadok Ben Attia, Mohamed Habib Jaafoura, Amina Bibi-Derbel, Mustapha Haouari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ethanol-water (80:20) extract of Marrubium vulgare (M. vulgare) on the hematological parameters, macroscopic and histological aspects of the uterus and fetus in non-pregnant and pregnant rats. METHODS: Female rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n = 9), group N (normal rats) and group G (pregnant rats) considered as control groups, group NE (normal rats treated with the ethanol-water (80:20, v/v) extract of M. vulgare) and group GE (pregnant rats treated with the extract)...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211545/the-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-tolerance-to-morphine-mediated-antinociception-in-mice
#7
Minho Kang, Ryan A Mischel, Sukhada Bhave, Essie Komla, Alvin Cho, Charity Huang, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
There is growing appreciation for the importance of gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While morphine and other narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapy for moderate to severe pain clinically, they have been noted to alter microbial composition and promote bacterial translocation to other tissues. Here we examined the pharmacodynamic properties of chronic morphine in mice following bacterial depletion with oral gavage of an antibiotic cocktail (ABX). ABX significantly reduced gut bacteria and prevented chronic morphine induced increases in gut permeability, colonic mucosal destruction, and colonic IL-1β expression...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190080/predicting-favorable-and-unfavorable-consequences-of-perceptual-learning-worsening-and-the-peak-shift
#8
Matthew G Wisniewski
Discrimination learning can cause improved and worsened ability to perceive differences. This subsequently affects how stimuli are associated with meanings and behaviors. Here, human listeners were trained with frequency-modulated (FM) tonal sweeps (500-1000 Hz) in a paradigm where one FM rate (8.29 octaves per second) required a 'Target' response, while a rate either slower (5.76 octaves per second) or faster (11.94 octaves per second) required a 'Non-Target' response. Training led to a shift in 'Target' responding along the FM rate dimension away from the 'Target' in a direction opposite the trained 'Non-Target'...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152702/improving-the-treatment-of-patients-with-low-risk-neutropenic-fever-a-quality-improvement-project-at-the-cleveland-clinic-taussig-cancer-institute-tci
#9
Jessica Lau, Erika M Gallagher, Machelle Moeller, Carolyn Best, James Stevenson
101 Background: NF is an oncologic emergency and has historically resulted in inpatient (inpt) management. The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score can be used to identify NF pts at LR for complications who can be safely managed in the outpatient (outpt) setting. Despite established guidelines supporting outpt management of LRNF, provider awareness is low and inpt admission for intravenous antibiotics (abx) continues to be standard of care. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team performed a QI project to improve management of LRNF (baseline cohort of LRNF pts treated from Jan - Mar 2014, N = 13)...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034915/early-life-antibiotic-treatment-enhances-the-pathogenicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-intestinal-inflammation
#10
Sebastian Scheer, Tiago S Medina, Alex Murison, Matthew D Taves, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Kiran K Soma, Georgia Perona-Wright, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Daniel D De Carvalho, Colby Zaph
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD...
April 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999038/pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-abx464-a-novel-first-in-class-compound-to-treat-hiv-infection-in-healthy-hiv-uninfected-subjects
#11
Didier Scherrer, Regine Rouzier, P Noel Barrett, Jean-Marc Steens, Paul Gineste, Robert L Murphy, Jamal Tazi, Hartmut J Ehrlich
Background: An anti-HIV compound (ABX464) has been developed with a novel mechanism of activity in that it blocks viral gene expression in cells that are already infected. Objectives: A first-in-man study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ABX464. This was carried out as an open label, parallel group, single ascending dose, exploratory study. Methods: Twenty-four male subjects in good health without HIV infection, aged from 18 to 55 years old, with BMIs of 18-27 kg/m 2 were included...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908083/perceptual-thresholds-for-non-ideal-diffuse-field-reverberation
#12
David Romblom, Catherine Guastavino, Philippe Depalle
The objective of this study is to understand listeners' sensitivity to directional variations in non-ideal diffuse field reverberation. An ABX discrimination test was conducted using a semi-spherical 28-loudspeaker array; perceptual thresholds were estimated by systematically varying the level of a segment of loudspeakers for lateral, height, and frontal conditions. The overall energy was held constant using a gain compensation scheme. When compared to an ideal diffuse field, the perceptual threshold for detection is -2...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818730/effect-of-lead-exposure-on-the-status-of-reticulocyte-count-indices-among-workers-from-lead-battery-manufacturing-plant
#13
Ravibabu Kalahasthi, Tapu Barman
Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer...
October 2016: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810065/social-media-as-a-tool-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#14
Jennifer Pisano, Natasha Pettit, Allison Bartlett, Palak Bhagat, Zhe Han, Chuanhong Liao, Emily Landon
BACKGROUND: To increase the reach of our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), social media platforms, Facebook and Twitter, were used to increase internal medicine residents' (IMRs') antibiotic (Abx) knowledge and awareness of ASP resources. METHODS: Fifty-five of 110 (50%) IMRs consented to participate; 39 (71%) completed both pre- and postintervention surveys and followed our ASP on social media. Along with 20 basic Abx and infectious diseases (IDs) questions, this survey assessed IMR awareness of ASP initiatives, social media usage, and attitudes and beliefs surrounding Abx resistance...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729758/the-relationship-between-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
Bengi Ece Kurtul, Pinar Altiaylik Ozer
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible associations of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Patients were divided to three groups of 40 patients with non-neovascular ARMD (group 1), 40 patients with neovascular ARMD (group 2), and 40 healthy control subjects (group 3). The neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were evaluated using an ABX Pentra DF120/USA biochemical analyzer, and hs-CRP levels were measured using a Beckman Coulter Immage 800...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650707/preoperative-oral-antibiotics-reduce-infections-after-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#16
Michal Mik, Maciej Berut, Radzislaw Trzcinski, Lukasz Dziki, Jaroslaw Buczynski, Adam Dziki
AIM: The objectives were to recognize the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery due to colorectal cancer and to assess the impact of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and oral antibiotic prophylaxis (ABX) on SSIs. METHODS: Records from two colorectal centers were used. Risk factors of SSIs were categorized into patient-, disease-, and treatment-dependent. RESULTS: A group of 2240 patients was included. SSIs were noted in 364 patients (16...
December 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530776/effect-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-exposure-to-electrostatic-field-on-some-hematological-parameters-in-rats
#17
Hayk Harutyunyan, Vahe Mkrtchyan, Karine Sukiasyan, Gohar Sahakyan, Gayane Poghosyan, Ani Soghomonyan, Eugene Cherniavsky, Ekaterina Bondarenko, Vladimir Shkumatov
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the external electrostatic field (ESF) on some hematological parameters in rats. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out. In in vivo investigations, rats were exposed to ESF (200 kV/m) during short (1 h) and long periods (6 days, 6 h daily). For in vitro study, the blood of intact rats was exposed to ESF for 1 h. Blood hematology was measured using validated ABX Micros ESV 60 Veterinary Hematology Analyzer. DNA damage in blood leucocytes was detected by means of comet assay...
August 17, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528855/comparison-of-two-synthetic-bone-graft-products-in-a-rabbit-posterolateral-fusion-model
#18
Douglas Fredericks, Emily B Petersen, Nicole Watson, Nicole Grosland, Katherine Gibson-Corley, Joseph Smucker
BACKGROUND: The drawbacks of iliac crest autograft as graft material for spine fusion are well reported. Despite continued modifications to improve bone healing capacity, the efficacy of synthetic graft materials as stand-alone replacements remains uncertain. The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion concepts. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, biomechanical and histological data on novel fusion materials. The objective of this study was to compare the spine fusion capability of two synthetic bone graft products in an established rabbit posterolateral spine fusion (PLF) model: Signafuse® Bioactive Bone Graft Putty and Actifuse® ABX...
2016: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465568/pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-late-vitreoretinal-sequelae-of-infectious-endophthalmitis-surgical-management-and-outcomes
#19
Benjamin J Thomas, Neesurg Mehta, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Jayanth Sridhar, Ajay E Kuriyan, Nidhi Relhan, Michelle C Liang, Maria A Woodward, Andre J Witkin, Chirag Shah, Harry W Flynn, Sunir J Garg, Jeremy D Wolfe
PURPOSE: To report the visual acuity outcomes after pars plana vitrectomy for delayed vitreoretinal sequelae of infectious endophthalmitis. All eyes were initially treated with intravitreal antibiotics (Abx). METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, consecutive case series. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes met the study criteria. The mean follow-up was 48 weeks (SD ± 61.8). Mean interval from Abx to pars plana vitrectomy was 13 weeks (SD ± 14.3, range 2-70)...
April 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444685/microbiota-modulates-behavior-and-protein-kinase-c-mediated-camp-response-element-binding-protein-signaling
#20
Li Zeng, Benhua Zeng, Haiyang Wang, Bo Li, Ran Huo, Peng Zheng, Xiaotong Zhang, Xiangyu Du, Meiling Liu, Zheng Fang, Xuejiao Xu, Chanjuan Zhou, Jianjun Chen, Wenxia Li, Jing Guo, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Evolutionary pressure drives gut microbiota-host coevolution and results in complex interactions between gut microbiota and neural development; however, the molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota governs host behavior remain obscure. Here, we report that colonization early in life is crucial for the microbiota to modulate brain development and behavior; later colonization or deletion of microbiota cannot completely reverse the behaviors. Microarray analysis revealed an association between absence of gut microbiota and expression in cAMP responding element-binding protein (CREB) regulated genes in the hippocampus...
2016: Scientific Reports
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