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Sebastian Scheer, Tiago S Medina, Alex Murison, Matthew D Taves, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Kiran K Soma, Georgia Perona-Wright, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Daniel D De Carvalho, Colby Zaph
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Didier Scherrer, Regine Rouzier, P Noel Barrett, Jean-Marc Steens, Paul Gineste, Robert L Murphy, Jamal Tazi, Hartmut J Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: An anti-HIV compound (ABX464) has been developed with a novel mechanism of activity in that it blocks viral gene expression in cells that are already infected. OBJECTIVES: A first-in-man study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ABX464. This was carried out as an open label, parallel group, single ascending dose, exploratory study. METHODS: Twenty-four male subjects in good health without HIV infection, aged from 18 to 55 years old, with BMIs of 18-27 kg/m(2) were included...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
David Romblom, Catherine Guastavino, Philippe Depalle
The objective of this study is to understand listeners' sensitivity to directional variations in non-ideal diffuse field reverberation. An ABX discrimination test was conducted using a semi-spherical 28-loudspeaker array; perceptual thresholds were estimated by systematically varying the level of a segment of loudspeakers for lateral, height, and frontal conditions. The overall energy was held constant using a gain compensation scheme. When compared to an ideal diffuse field, the perceptual threshold for detection is -2...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Ravibabu Kalahasthi, Tapu Barman
Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer...
October 2016: Toxicological Research
Jennifer Pisano, Natasha Pettit, Allison Bartlett, Palak Bhagat, Zhe Han, Chuanhong Liao, Emily Landon
BACKGROUND: To increase the reach of our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), social media platforms, Facebook and Twitter, were used to increase internal medicine residents' (IMRs') antibiotic (Abx) knowledge and awareness of ASP resources. METHODS: Fifty-five of 110 (50%) IMRs consented to participate; 39 (71%) completed both pre- and postintervention surveys and followed our ASP on social media. Along with 20 basic Abx and infectious diseases (IDs) questions, this survey assessed IMR awareness of ASP initiatives, social media usage, and attitudes and beliefs surrounding Abx resistance...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Bengi Ece Kurtul, Pinar Altiaylik Ozer
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible associations of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Patients were divided to three groups of 40 patients with non-neovascular ARMD (group 1), 40 patients with neovascular ARMD (group 2), and 40 healthy control subjects (group 3). The neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were evaluated using an ABX Pentra DF120/USA biochemical analyzer, and hs-CRP levels were measured using a Beckman Coulter Immage 800...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Michal Mik, Maciej Berut, Radzislaw Trzcinski, Lukasz Dziki, Jaroslaw Buczynski, Adam Dziki
AIM: The objectives were to recognize the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery due to colorectal cancer and to assess the impact of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and oral antibiotic prophylaxis (ABX) on SSIs. METHODS: Records from two colorectal centers were used. Risk factors of SSIs were categorized into patient-, disease-, and treatment-dependent. RESULTS: A group of 2240 patients was included. SSIs were noted in 364 patients (16...
December 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Hayk Harutyunyan, Vahe Mkrtchyan, Karine Sukiasyan, Gohar Sahakyan, Gayane Poghosyan, Ani Soghomonyan, Eugene Cherniavsky, Ekaterina Bondarenko, Vladimir Shkumatov
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the external electrostatic field (ESF) on some hematological parameters in rats. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out. In in vivo investigations, rats were exposed to ESF (200 kV/m) during short (1 h) and long periods (6 days, 6 h daily). For in vitro study, the blood of intact rats was exposed to ESF for 1 h. Blood hematology was measured using validated ABX Micros ESV 60 Veterinary Hematology Analyzer. DNA damage in blood leucocytes was detected by means of comet assay...
August 17, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
Douglas Fredericks, Emily B Petersen, Nicole Watson, Nicole Grosland, Katherine Gibson-Corley, Joseph Smucker
BACKGROUND: The drawbacks of iliac crest autograft as graft material for spine fusion are well reported. Despite continued modifications to improve bone healing capacity, the efficacy of synthetic graft materials as stand-alone replacements remains uncertain. The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion concepts. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, biomechanical and histological data on novel fusion materials. The objective of this study was to compare the spine fusion capability of two synthetic bone graft products in an established rabbit posterolateral spine fusion (PLF) model: Signafuse® Bioactive Bone Graft Putty and Actifuse® ABX...
2016: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Benjamin J Thomas, Neesurg Mehta, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Jayanth Sridhar, Ajay E Kuriyan, Nidhi Rehlan, Michelle C Liang, Maria A Woodward, Andre J Witkin, Chirag Shah, Harry W Flynn, Sunir J Garg, Jeremy D Wolfe
PURPOSE: To report the visual acuity outcomes after pars plana vitrectomy for delayed vitreoretinal sequelae of infectious endophthalmitis. All eyes were initially treated with intravitreal antibiotics (Abx). METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, consecutive case series. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes met the study criteria. The mean follow-up was 48 weeks (SD ± 61.8). Mean interval from Abx to pars plana vitrectomy was 13 weeks (SD ± 14.3, range 2-70)...
July 26, 2016: Retina
Li Zeng, Benhua Zeng, Haiyang Wang, Bo Li, Ran Huo, Peng Zheng, Xiaotong Zhang, Xiangyu Du, Meiling Liu, Zheng Fang, Xuejiao Xu, Chanjuan Zhou, Jianjun Chen, Wenxia Li, Jing Guo, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Evolutionary pressure drives gut microbiota-host coevolution and results in complex interactions between gut microbiota and neural development; however, the molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota governs host behavior remain obscure. Here, we report that colonization early in life is crucial for the microbiota to modulate brain development and behavior; later colonization or deletion of microbiota cannot completely reverse the behaviors. Microarray analysis revealed an association between absence of gut microbiota and expression in cAMP responding element-binding protein (CREB) regulated genes in the hippocampus...
2016: Scientific Reports
Frederico R C Costa, Marcela C S Françozo, Gabriela G de Oliveira, Aline Ignacio, Angela Castoldi, Dario S Zamboni, Simone G Ramos, Niels O Câmara, Marcel R de Zoete, Noah W Palm, Richard A Flavell, João S Silva, Daniela Carlos
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Yuk Man Lei, Luqiu Chen, Ying Wang, Andrew T Stefka, Luciana L Molinero, Betty Theriault, Keston Aquino-Michaels, Ayelet S Sivan, Cathryn R Nagler, Thomas F Gajewski, Anita S Chong, Caroline Bartman, Maria-Luisa Alegre
Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen-mismatched skin grafts...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yuhong Lü, Changwu Yue, Meiyun Shao, Shengyan Qian, Ning Liu, Yuxin Bao, Miao Wang, Minghao Liu, Xiaoqian Li, Yinyin Wang, Ying Huang
Genome mining is an effective tool used to discover novel natural products from actinomycetes. Genome sequence analysis of Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2 revealed the presence of one putative type II polyketide gene cluster (ABX), which may correspond to type II polyketide products including BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives. The addition of natural humus acid successfully activated the biosynthsis of the abx gene cluster. BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives, named zunyimycin A, were also detected. The targeted deletion of the polyketide skeleton synthesis genes such as abxp, abxk, and abxs was performed in the wild strain to identify the gene cluster for BE-24566B biosynthesis...
May 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wendy K Nevala, Sarah A Buhrow, Daniel J Knauer, Joel M Reid, Elena A Atanasova, Svetomir N Markovic
Antibody-directed chemotherapy (ADC) offers an advantage over conventional chemotherapy because it provides antibody-directed targeting, with resultant improvement in therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity. Despite extensive research, with notable exceptions, broad clinical application of ADC remains elusive; major hurdles include the instability of antibody-chemotherapy linkers and reduced tumor toxicity of the chemotherapy when bound to the antibody. To address these challenges, we have developed a platform technology that utilizes the nab-paclitaxel formulation of paclitaxel, Abraxane, in which hydrophobic paclitaxel is suspended in 130-nm albumin nanoparticles and thus made water-soluble...
July 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Bertrand Plainchont, Daisy Pitoux, Ghanem Hamdoun, Jean-Michel Ouvrard, Denis Merlet, Jonathan Farjon, Nicolas Giraud
A detailed analysis of NMR spectra acquired based on spatial frequency encoding is presented. A theoretical model to simulate gradient encoded pulses is developed in order to describe the spatial properties of the NMR signals that are locally created throughout the sample. The key features that affect the efficiency of the slice selection process during excitation as well as refocusing pulses are investigated on a model ABX spin system, both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the sensitivity and resolution of the pure shift and J-edited experiments based on a spatial frequency encoding can be optimized to a point where high-resolution techniques based on a spatial frequency encoding approach show optimal performance compared to other methods...
August 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
B E Kurtul, P A Ozer, E U Kabatas
PurposeTo investigate the relationship between serum neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and pseudoexfoliation syndrome.Materials and methodsThis study was designed as a retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into three groups: 55 patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (group 1), 19 patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (group 2), and 48 control subjects without pseudoexfoliation syndrome or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (group 3). The levels of neutrophils and lymphocytes were measured by ABX Pentra DF120/USA biochemical analyzer...
August 2016: Eye
Cintia S de Paiva, Dan B Jones, Michael E Stern, Fang Bian, Quianta L Moore, Shani Corbiere, Charles F Streckfus, Diane S Hutchinson, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Stephen C Pflugfelder
There is mounting evidence that the microbiome has potent immunoregulatory functions. We assessed the effects of intestinal dysbiosis in a model of Sjögren syndrome (SS) by subjecting mice to desiccating stress (DS) and antibiotics (ABX). We characterized the conjunctival, tongue and fecal microbiome profiles of patients with SS. Severity of ocular surface and systemic disease was graded. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing characterized the microbiota. ABX + DS mice had a significantly worse dry eye phenotype compared to controls, a decrease in Clostridium and an increase in Enterobacter, Escherichia/Shigella, and Pseudomonas in stool after ABX + DS for 10 days...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shi Liu, Fan Zheng, Ilya Grinberg, Andrew M Rappe
Piezoelectrics play a critical role in various applications. The permanent dipole associated with the molecular cations in organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) may lead to spontaneous polarization and thus piezoelectricity. Here we explore the piezoelectric properties of OMHPs with density functional theory. We find that the piezoelectric coefficient depends sensitively on the molecular ordering and that the experimentally observed light-enhanced piezoelectricity is likely due to a nonpolar to polar structural transition...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Rosita Rigoni, Elena Fontana, Simone Guglielmetti, Bruno Fosso, Anna Maria D'Erchia, Virginia Maina, Valentina Taverniti, Maria Carmina Castiello, Stefano Mantero, Giovanni Pacchiana, Silvia Musio, Rosetta Pedotti, Carlo Selmi, J Rodrigo Mora, Graziano Pesole, Paolo Vezzoni, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Fabio Grassi, Anna Villa, Barbara Cassani
Omenn syndrome (OS) is caused by hypomorphic Rag mutations and characterized by a profound immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune-like manifestations. Both in humans and mice, OS is mediated by oligoclonal activated T and B cells. The role of microbial signals in disease pathogenesis is debated. Here, we show that Rag2(R229Q) knock-in mice developed an inflammatory bowel disease affecting both the small bowel and colon. Lymphocytes were sufficient for disease induction, as intestinal CD4 T cells with a Th1/Th17 phenotype reproduced the pathological picture when transplanted into immunocompromised hosts...
March 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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