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Sebastien Alazet, Johannes Preindl, Raphael Simonet-Davin, Stefano Nicolai, Annik Nanchen, Thierry Meyer, Jerome Waser
Azides are building blocks of increasing importance in synthetic chemistry, chemical biology, and materials science. Azidobenziodoxolone (ABX, Zhdankin reagent) is a valuable azide source, but its safety profile has not been thoroughly established. Herein, we report a safety study of ABX, which shows its hazardous nature. We introduce two derivatives, tBu-ABX and ABZ (azidobenziodazolone), with a better safety profile, and use them in established photoredox- and metal-mediated azidations, and in a new ring-expansion of silylated cyclobutanols to give azidated cyclopentanones...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Lu Yuan, Siruo Zhang, Huan Li, Fan Yang, Noosheen Mushtaq, Shakir Ullah, Yi Shi, Cuihong An, Jiru Xu
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Gut flora can modulate the host response to chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the understanding regarding the relationship between the gut microbiota and the antitumor efficacy of 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment is limited. Therefore, we compared the tumor size and profiled the gut microbiota of mice treated with 5-FU, combined with probiotics or ABX (an antibiotic cocktail of antibiotics) by using the Colorectal Cancer (CRC) mouse model and high-throughput sequencing...
September 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Natarajan Bhaskaran, Cheriese Quigley, Clarissa Paw, Shivani Butala, Elizabeth Schneider, Pushpa Pandiyan
Interactions between mucosal tissues and commensal microbes control appropriate host immune responses and inflammation, but very little is known about these interactions. Here we show that the depletion of resident bacteria using antibiotics (Abx) causes oral and gut immunopathology during oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) infection. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction in the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs ) and IL-17A producers, with a concomitant increase in oral tissue pathology. While C. albicans (CA) is usually controlled in the oral cavity, antibiotic treatment led to CA dependent oral and gut inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hongsup Yoon, Monika Schaubeck, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Andreas Blesl, Stephanie Heinzlmeir, Hannes Hahne, Thomas Clavel, Suchita Panda, Christina Ludwig, Bernhard Kuster, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Patrizia Kump, Dirk Haller, Gabriele Hörmannsperger
Background & Aims: Antibiotic (ABx) therapy is associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease but underlying mechanisms are unknown. We observed high fecal serine protease activity (PA) to be a frequent side effect of ABx therapy. The aim of the present study was to unravel whether this rise in large intestinal PA may promote colitis development via detrimental effects on the large intestinal barrier. Methods: Transwell experiments were used to assess the impact of high PA in ABx-treated patients or vancomycin/metronidazole-treated mice on the epithelial barrier...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yosef Joseph Segman, Ella Sheiman
Objectives: This validation test was conducted in the Fujisan Blood Bank, Fortaleza, Brazil and evaluated the noninvasive TensorTip MTX (MTX, Cnoga Medical Ltd.) readings of hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, blood pressure, and heart rate compared to reference lab device readings. Generally, these parameters are measured from venous or capillary blood samples run on a laboratory analyzer or handheld invasive testing devices. Needle sticks are inconvenient to blood donors with relatively high exposure risks...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Alexander Yitbarek, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Leah Read, Éva Nagy, J Scott Weese, Jeff L Caswell, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
Commensal gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. The current study was designed to assess the role of gut microbiota of chickens in the initiation of antiviral responses against avian influenza virus. Day-old layer chickens received a cocktail of antibiotics for 12 (ABX-D12) or 16 (ABX-D16) days to deplete their gut microbiota, followed by treatment of chickens from ABX-12 with five Lactobacillus species combination (PROB), fecal microbial transplant suspension (FMT) or sham treatment daily for four days...
September 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyle L Flannigan, Michael R Taylor, Sheldon K Pereira, Jimena Rodriguez-Arguello, Andrew W Moffat, Laurie Alston, Xuemei Wang, Karen K Poon, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Mahesh Jonnalagadda, Prasanth K Chelikani, Heather J Galipeau, Ian A Lewis, Matthew L Workentine, Steven C Greenway, Simon A Hirota
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is commonly prescribed after transplantation and has major advantages over other immunosuppressive drugs, but frequent gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects limit its use. The mechanism(s) underlying MMF-related GI toxicity have yet to be elucidated. METHODS: To investigate MMF-related GI toxicity, experimental mice were fed chow containing MMF (0.563%) and multiple indices of toxicity, including weight loss and colonic inflammation, were measured...
September 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Anne-Marie Dupuy, Maëlle Plawecki, Anne-Sophie Bargnoux, Stéphanie Badiou, Martine Delage, Manuela Lotierzo, Jean-Paul Cristol
BACKGROUND: Mindray BS480©, a multi-parametric and random-access clinical chemistry instrument, is suitable for medium-sized hospital applications. Large laboratories in hospital environments require high throughput non-emergency settings that could slow routine production lines. In addition, the possibility to adapt to different methodologies is of great convenience for improving the transfer from manual to automated applications. The aim of the study is to evaluate analytical performances and to draw a comparison between analyzers for most common clinical parameters under simulated routine conditions...
July 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Justin S Cisar, Olivia D Weber, Jason R Clapper, Jacqueline L Blankman, Cassandra L Henry, Gabriel M Simon, Jessica P Alexander, Todd K Jones, R Alan B Ezekowitz, Gary P O'Neill, Cheryl A Grice
The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) converts the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and other monoacylglycerols into fatty acids and glycerol. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of MGLL leads to elevation in 2-AG in the central nervous system and corresponding reductions in arachidonic acid and eicosanoids, producing antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and antineuroinflammatory effects without inducing the full spectrum of psychoactive effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Rajendra Karki, Ein Lee, Qifan Zhu, Prajwal Gurung, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Mice deficient in SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN), a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), develop a spontaneous inflammatory disorder with pathologic hallmarks similar to atopic dermatitis and psoriasis in humans. Previous studies identified the crucial role of components of the TNF and IL-1 signaling pathways in the progression of disease in SHARPIN-deficient mice. However, an innate immune adaptor or sensor that relates to the disease progression has remained unknown...
July 23, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Alexander J Adami, Sonali J Bracken, Linda A Guernsey, Ektor Rafti, Kendra R Maas, Joerg Graf, Adam P Matson, Roger S Thrall, Craig M Schramm
INTRODUCTION: Early-life exposure to antibiotics (ABX) has been linked to increases in asthma severity and prevalence in both children and laboratory animals. We explored the immunologic mechanisms behind this association using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma and early-life ABX exposure. METHODS: Mice were exposed to three short courses of ABX following weaning and experimental asthma was thereafter induced. Airway cell counts and differentials; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE); pulmonary function; lung histopathology; pulmonary regulatory T cells (Tregs); and the fecal microbiome were characterized following ABX exposure and induction of experimental asthma...
July 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
Lihong Fu, Yixuan Qiu, Linyan Shen, Canqi Cui, Shuang Wang, Shujie Wang, Yun Xie, Xinjie Zhao, Xianfu Gao, Guang Ning, Aifang Nie, Yanyun Gu
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that the delayed effect of antibiotics (abx) on gut microbiota after its cessation is not as favorable as its immediate effect on host metabolism. However, it is not known how the diverse abx-dependent metabolic effects influence diabetic subjects and how gut microbiota is involved. Here, we treated db/db mice with abx cocktail for 12 days and discontinued for 24 days. We found that db/db mice showed decreased body weight and blood glucose after abx treatment, which rapidly caught up after abx cessation...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
In Kyu Lee, Min Jeong Gu, Kwang Hyun Ko, Suhan Bae, Girak Kim, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Eun Bae Kim, Young-Yun Kong, Tae Sub Park, Byung-Chul Park, Hyun Jung Jung, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun
The gut microbiota in chicken has long been studied, mostly from the perspective of growth performance. However, there are some immunological studies regarding gut homeostasis in chicken. Although CD4+ CD25+ T cells are reported to act as regulatory T cells (Tregs) in chicken, there have been no studies showing the relationship between gut microbiota and Tregs. Therefore, we established a model for 'antibiotics (ABX)-treated chickens' through administration of an antibiotic cocktail consisting of ampicillin, gentamycin, neomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin in water for 7 days...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Schatz, Francis Bach, Emmanuel Dupoux
Theories of cross-linguistic phonetic category perception posit that listeners perceive foreign sounds by mapping them onto their native phonetic categories, but, until now, no way to effectively implement this mapping has been proposed. In this paper, Automatic Speech Recognition systems trained on continuous speech corpora are used to provide a fully specified mapping between foreign sounds and native categories. The authors show how the machine ABX evaluation method can be used to compare predictions from the resulting quantitative models with empirically attested effects in human cross-linguistic phonetic category perception...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes
Diabetes is one of the largest health emergencies of the twenty-first century and it is increasing with alarming rate throughout the world. Glycemic Control in diabetes patients is an important issue in minimizing diabetes related complications and deaths. Institution based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017. Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and biochemical profiles were determined using Huma Meter A1c and ABX PENTRA 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. Independent t-test to compare groups, bivariate and multi variable logistic regression analysis were used...
May 18, 2018: Adipocyte
Joana Mihani, Suela Këlliçi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics (abx) constitute the most prescribed therapeutic agent in the world. There is little data regarding antibiotic consumption by young children in Albania. AIM: This study aims to evaluate antibiotic prescription in children in quantitative and qualitative terms, and therefore, propose recommendations to improve overall clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study was conducted based on unreimbursed prescriptions collected in 25 pharmacies, randomly selected within the district of Tirana, during the period beginning December 2015 to January 2016...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Peng Wang, Huijun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Hao Tian, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to decreased production of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides and is accompanied by dysbiosis of the gut. The role of gut microbiota in regulating Paneth cell function during PN is unknown. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received either an antibiotic cocktail (Abx) or nothing (Normal) in their drinking water for 2 weeks before being fed either standard laboratory chow (Abx-Chow and Normal-Chow) or a continuous infusion of PN solution (Abx-PN and Normal-PN) for 7 days...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yanyan Qin, Rui Zhou, Wei Wang, Hongyi Yin, Yanmin Yang, Yuhong Yue, Qing Tong, Lu Liu, Yali Jin, Yankun Shi, Shunli Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Rui Zhang, Chang Zuo, Tingting Jia, Ning Wang, Qingtao Wang
BACKGROUND: Measurement uncertainty (MU) is a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes its dispersion. We report results for estimating MU following the application of a top-down procedure using only proficiency test data to establish uncertainty levels for various analytes. METHODS: Data were obtained from 142 laboratories participating in the Beijing Center for Clinical Laboratory (BCCL) proficiency testing/external quality assessment (PT/EQA) schemes...
August 28, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera, Ermanno Puxeddu, Marco Mantero, Francesco Blasi, Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta
Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often corticosteroid resistant and, thus, alternative anti-inflammatory approaches are needed. Since it is still not clear whether blocking specific pro-inflammatory factors may provide clinical benefit in COPD, we have performed a meta-analysis to quantify the impact of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) targeting the cytokine/chemokine-mediated inflammation in COPD. A pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed by extracting data from randomized clicnial trials on COPD concerning the impact of mABs vs...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Larissa B Thackray, Scott A Handley, Matthew J Gorman, Subhajit Poddar, Prachi Bagadia, Carlos G Briseño, Derek J Theisen, Qing Tan, Barry L Hykes, Hueylie Lin, Tiffany M Lucas, Chandni Desai, Jeffrey I Gordon, Kenneth M Murphy, Herbert W Virgin, Michael S Diamond
Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of optimal T cell responses, with decreased levels of WNV-specific CD8+ T cells associated with increased infection and immunopathology...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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