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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815240/-research-on-physical-and-mechanical-properties-crown-accuracy-by-using-self-made-fus-invest-dental-investment
#1
Jin-Shuang Wu, He-Lin Xing, Chao-Fang Dong, Tian-Wen Guo, Se-Fei Yang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of pure titanium castings cast by self- made FUS-invest dental investment, and evaluate casting accuracy. METHODS: Seven pure titanium castings were cast by self-made FUS-invest zirconium investment and analyzed using servo hydraulic dynamic experiment system (JJG139-83 standard), scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analysis. Thirty-eight crowns of pure titanium were cast by two different methods...
April 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810071/understanding-the-geometry-of-connected-fracture-flow-with-multiperiod-oscillatory-hydraulic-tests
#2
Claire Sayler, Michael Cardiff, Michael D Fort
An understanding of the spatial and hydraulic properties of fast preferential flow pathways in the subsurface is necessary in applications ranging from contaminant fate and transport modeling to design of energy extraction systems. One method for the characterization of fracture properties over interwellbore scales is Multiperiod Oscillatory Hydraulic (MOH) testing, in which the aquifer response to oscillatory pressure stimulations is observed. MOH tests were conducted on isolated intervals of wells in siliciclastic and carbonate aquifers in southern Wisconsin...
August 15, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803193/a-detailed-risk-assessment-of-shale-gas-development-on-headwater-streams-in-the-pennsylvania-portion-of-the-upper-susquehanna-river-basin-u-s-a
#3
Kelly O Maloney, John A Young, Stephen P Faulkner, Atesmachew Hailegiorgis, E Terrence Slonecker, Lesley E Milheim
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (<200km(2) in upstream catchment) in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania, U...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801551/fault-reactivation-and-earthquakes-with-magnitudes-of-up-to-mw4-7-induced-by-shale-gas-hydraulic-fracturing-in-sichuan-basin-china
#4
Xinglin Lei, Dongjian Huang, Jinrong Su, Guomao Jiang, Xiaolong Wang, Hui Wang, Xin Guo, Hong Fu
This paper presents a timely and detailed study of significant injection-induced seismicity recently observed in the Sichuan Basin, China, where shale-gas hydraulic fracturing has been initiated and the aggressive production of shale gas is planned for the coming years. Multiple lines of evidence, including an epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, relocated hypocenters, the mechanisms of 13 large events (M W  > 3.5), and numerically calculated Coulomb failure stress results, convincingly suggest that a series of earthquakes with moment magnitudes up to M W 4...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800690/community-airborne-particulate-matter-from-mining-for-sand-used-as-hydraulic-fracturing-proppant
#5
Thomas M Peters, Patrick T O'Shaughnessy, Ryan Grant, Ralph Altmaier, Elizabeth Swanton, Jeffrey Falk, David Osterberg, Edith Parker, Nancy G Wyland, Sinan Sousan, Aimee Liz Stark, Peter S Thorne
Field and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of proppant sand mining and processing activities on community particulate matter (PM) concentrations. In field studies outside 17 homes within 800m of sand mining activities (mining, processing, and transport), respirable (PM4) crystalline silica concentrations were low (<0.4μg/m(3)) with crystalline silica detected on 7 samples (2% to 4% of mass). In long-term monitoring at 6 homes within 800m of sand mining activities, the highest daily mean PM concentrations observed were 14...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798163/draft-genome-sequences-of-multiple-frackibacter-strains-isolated-from-hydraulically-fractured-shale-environments
#6
Anne E Booker, Michael D Johnston, Rebecca A Daly, Kelly C Wrighton, Michael J Wilkins
The genomes of three novel Frackibacter strains (WG11, WG12, and WG13) were sequenced. These strains were isolated from hypersaline fluid collected from a hydraulically fractured natural gas well. These genomes provide information on the mechanisms necessary for growth in these environments and offer insight into interactions with other community members.
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791971/comparision-of-the-expandable-nail-with-locked-nail-in-the-treatment-of-closed-diaphyseal-fractures-of-femur
#7
S Sipahioglu, S Zehir, B Sarikaya, U E Isikan
BACKGROUND: Expandable nails achieve stability only by hydraulic expansion; therefore suggest less radiation exposure and operation time. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of expandable femoral nails with locked intramedullary nails in the treatment of diaphyseal fractures of femur. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated closed AO = Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen type 32.A or 32.B unilateral femoral shaft fractures operated with expandable or locked nail were evaluated retrospectively...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780853/inhibition-of-biodegradation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-compounds-by-glutaraldehyde-groundwater-column-and-microcosm-experiments
#8
Jessica D Rogers, Imma Ferrer, Shantal S Tummings, Angela Bielefeldt, Joseph N Ryan
The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development has raised concerns about the potential contamination of aquifers; however, the groundwater fate and transport of hydraulic fracturing fluid compounds and mixtures remains a significant data gap. Degradation kinetics of five hydraulic fracturing compounds (2-propanol, ethylene glycol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and 2-ethylhexanol) in the absence and presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde were investigated under a range of redox conditions using sediment-groundwater microcosms and flow-through columns...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773834/the-shear-mechanisms-of-natural-fractures-during-the-hydraulic-stimulation-of-shale-gas-reservoirs
#9
Zhaobin Zhang, Xiao Li
The shearing of natural fractures is important in the permeability enhancement of shale gas reservoirs during hydraulic fracturing treatment. In this work, the shearing mechanisms of natural fractures are analyzed using a newly proposed numerical model based on the displacement discontinuities method. The fluid-rock coupling system of the model is carefully designed to calculate the shearing of fractures. Both a single fracture and a complex fracture network are used to investigate the shear mechanisms. The investigation based on a single fracture shows that the non-ignorable shearing length of a natural fracture could be formed before the natural fracture is filled by pressurized fluid...
August 23, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759440/removal-of-calcium-and-magnesium-ions-from-shale-gas-flowback-water-by-chemically-activated-zeolite
#10
Haiqing Chang, Teng Liu, Qiping He, Duo Li, John Crittenden, Baicang Liu
Shale gas has become a new sweet spot of global oil and gas exploration, and the large amount of flowback water produced during shale gas extraction is attracting increased attention. Internal recycling of flowback water for future hydraulic fracturing is currently the most effective, and it is necessary to decrease the content of divalent cations for eliminating scaling and maintaining effectiveness of friction reducer. Zeolite has been widely used as a sorbent to remove cations from wastewater. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, activation chemical, activation condition, and sorption condition on removal of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) from shale gas flowback water...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723084/mineral-reactions-in-shale-gas-reservoirs-barite-scale-formation-from-reusing-produced-water-as-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid
#11
Amelia N Paukert Vankeuren, J Alexandra Hakala, Karl Jarvis, Johnathan E Moore
Hydraulic fracturing for gas production is now ubiquitous in shale plays, but relatively little is known about shale-hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) reactions within the reservoir. To investigate reactions during the shut-in period of hydraulic fracturing, experiments were conducted flowing different HFFs through fractured Marcellus shale cores at reservoir temperature and pressure (66 °C, 20 MPa) for one week. Results indicate HFFs with hydrochloric acid cause substantial dissolution of carbonate minerals, as expected, increasing effective fracture volume (fracture volume + near-fracture matrix porosity) by 56-65%...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715172/a-spatiotemporal-industrial-activity-model-for-estimating-the-intensity-of-oil-and-gas-operations-in-colorado
#12
William B Allshouse, John L Adgate, Benjamin D Blair, Lisa M McKenzie
Oil and gas (O&G) production in the United States has increased in the last 15 years and operations, which are trending towards large multi-well pads, release hazardous air pollutants. Health studies have relied on proximity to O&G wells as an exposure metric, typically using an inverse distance weighting (IDW) approach. Since O&G emissions are dependent on multiple factors, a dynamic model is needed to describe the variability in air pollution emissions over space and time. We used information on Colorado O&G activities, production volumes, and air pollutant emission rates from two Colorado basins to create a spatiotemporal industrial activity model to develop an intensity-adjusted IDW well count metric...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714141/intrinsic-3d-prestressing-a-new-route-for-increasing-strength-and-improving-toughness-of-hybrid-inorganic-biocements
#13
Martha Schamel, Jake E Barralet, Michael Gelinsky, Jürgen Groll, Uwe Gbureck
Cement is the most consumed resource and is the most widely used material globally. The ability to extrinsically prestress cementitious materials with tendons usually made from steel allows the creation of high-strength bridges and floors from this otherwise brittle material. Here, a dual setting cement system based on the combination of hydraulic cement powder with an aqueous silk fibroin solution that intrinsically generates a 3D prestressing during setting, dramatically toughening the cement to the point it can be cut with scissors, is reported...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710527/assessment-of-surface-water-contamination-from-coalbed-methane-fracturing-derived-volatile-contaminants-in-sullivan-county-indiana-usa
#14
Nicholas Meszaros, Bikram Subedi, Tristan Stamets, Naima Shifa
There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds...
July 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699344/watershed-scale-impacts-from-surface-water-disposal-of-oil-and-gas-wastewater-in-western-pennsylvania
#15
William D Burgos, Luis Castillo-Meza, Travis L Tasker, Thomas J Geeza, Patrick J Drohan, Xiaofeng Liu, Joshua D Landis, Jens Blotevogel, Molly McLaughlin, Thomas Borch, Nathaniel R Warner
Combining horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing has increased extraction of hydrocarbons from low-permeability oil and gas (O&G) formations across the United States; accompanied by increased wastewater production. Surface water discharges of O&G wastewater by centralized waste treatment (CWT) plants pose risks to aquatic and human health. We evaluated the impact of surface water disposal of O&G wastewater from CWT plants upstream of the Conemaugh River Lake (dam controlled reservoir) in western Pennsylvania...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697484/organic-compounds-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-and-wastewaters-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Jenna L Luek, Michael Gonsior
High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686682/a-road-damage-and-life-cycle-greenhouse-gas-comparison-of-trucking-and-pipeline-water-delivery-systems-for-hydraulically-fractured-oil-and-gas-field-development-in-colorado
#17
Ray C Duthu, Thomas H Bradley
The process of hydraulic fracturing for recovery of oil and natural gas uses large amounts of fresh water and produces a comparable amount of wastewater, much of which is typically transported by truck. Truck transport of water is an expensive and energy-intensive process with significant external costs including roads damages, and pollution. The integrated development plan (IDP) is the industry nomenclature for an integrated oil and gas infrastructure system incorporating pipeline-based transport of water and wastewater, centralized water treatment, and high rates of wastewater recycling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685163/sulfide-generation-by-dominant-halanaerobium-microorganisms-in-hydraulically-fractured-shales
#18
Anne E Booker, Mikayla A Borton, Rebecca A Daly, Susan A Welch, Carrie D Nicora, David W Hoyt, Travis Wilson, Samuel O Purvine, Richard A Wolfe, Shikha Sharma, Paula J Mouser, David R Cole, Mary S Lipton, Kelly C Wrighton, Michael J Wilkins
Hydraulic fracturing of black shale formations has greatly increased United States oil and natural gas recovery. However, the accumulation of biomass in subsurface reservoirs and pipelines is detrimental because of possible well souring, microbially induced corrosion, and pore clogging. Temporal sampling of produced fluids from a well in the Utica Shale revealed the dominance of Halanaerobium strains within the in situ microbial community and the potential for these microorganisms to catalyze thiosulfate-dependent sulfidogenesis...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628868/an-overview-on-exploration-and-environmental-impact-of-unconventional-gas-sources-and-treatment-options-for-produced-water
#19
REVIEW
Tânia L S Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, Sérgio Castro-Silva, José L Figueiredo, Adrián M T Silva
Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613298/modelling-aqueous-solubility-of-sodium-chloride-in-clays-at-thermodynamic-conditions-of-hydraulic-fracturing-by-molecular-simulations
#20
Filip Moučka, Martin Svoboda, Martin Lísal
To address the high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we have studied the equilibrium partitioning of NaCl and water between the bulk phase and clay pores. In shale rocks, such a partitioning can occur between fractures with a bulk-like phase and clay pores. We use an advanced Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) technique based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of a temperature of 365 K and pressure of 275 bar, and we represent clay pores by pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite slits of a width ranging from about 7 to 28 Å, covering clay pores from dry clay to clay pores with a bulk-like layer in the middle of the pore...
June 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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