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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628868/an-overview-on-exploration-and-environmental-impact-of-unconventional-gas-sources-and-treatment-options-for-produced-water
#1
REVIEW
Tânia L S Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, Sérgio Castro-Silva, José L Figueiredo, Adrián M T Silva
Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613298/modelling-aqueous-solubility-of-sodium-chloride-in-clays-at-thermodynamic-conditions-of-hydraulic-fracturing-by-molecular-simulations
#2
Filip Moučka, Martin Svoboda, Martin Lísal
To address the high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we have studied the equilibrium partitioning of NaCl and water between the bulk phase and clay pores. In shale rocks, such a partitioning can occur between fractures with a bulk-like phase and clay pores. We use an advanced Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) technique based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of a temperature of 365 K and pressure of 275 bar, and we represent clay pores by pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite slits of a width ranging from about 7 to 28 Å, covering clay pores from dry clay to clay pores with a bulk-like layer in the middle of the pore...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603681/methane-emissions-from-the-marcellus-shale-in-southwestern-pennsylvania-and-northern-west-virginia-based-on-airborne-measurements
#3
Xinrong Ren, Dolly L Hall, Timothy Vinciguerra, Sarah E Benish, Phillip R Stratton, Doyeon Ahn, Jonathan R Hansford, Mark D Cohen, Sayantan Sahu, Hao He, Courtney Grimes, Ross J Salawitch, Sheryl H Ehrman, Russell R Dickerson
Natural gas production in the U.S. has increased rapidly over the past decade, along with concerns about methane (CH4) leakage (total fugitive emissions), and climate impacts. Quantification of CH4 emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations is important for establishing scientifically sound, cost-effective policies for mitigating greenhouse gases. We use aircraft measurements and a mass balance approach for three flight experiments in August and September 2015 to estimate CH4 emissions from O&NG operations in the southwestern Marcellus Shale region...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591666/characterization-of-the-chemicals-used-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-for-wells-located-in-the-marcellus-shale-play
#4
Huan Chen, Kimberly E Carter
Hydraulic fracturing, coupled with the advances in horizontal drilling, has been used for recovering oil and natural gas from shale formations and has aided in increasing the production of these energy resources. The large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids used in this technology contain chemical additives, which may be toxic organics or produce toxic degradation byproducts. This paper investigated the chemicals introduced into the hydraulic fracturing fluids for completed wells located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia from data provided by the well operators...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588399/from-arteries-to-boreholes-steady-state-response-of-a-poroelastic-cylinder-to-fluid-injection
#5
L C Auton, C W MacMinn
The radially outward flow of fluid into a porous medium occurs in many practical problems, from transport across vascular walls to the pressurization of boreholes. As the driving pressure becomes non-negligible relative to the stiffness of the solid structure, the poromechanical coupling between the fluid and the solid has an increasingly strong impact on the flow. For very large pressures or very soft materials, as is the case for hydraulic fracturing and arterial flows, this coupling can lead to large deformations and, hence, to strong deviations from a classical, linear-poroelastic response...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575059/distribution-and-diversity-of-aquatic-macroinvertebrate-assemblages-in-a-semi-arid-region-earmarked-for-shale-gas-exploration-eastern-cape-karoo-south-africa
#6
Annah Mabidi, Matthew S Bird, Renzo Perissinotto
This study aims to investigate macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and composition across the three major waterbody types (temporary rivers, depression wetlands and semi-permanent dams) of the Eastern Cape Karoo, and to identify important environmental and spatial correlates of macroinvertebrate assemblage composition in the region. A total of 33 waterbodies (9 dams, 13 depression wetlands and 11 rivers) were sampled. Altogether, 91 taxa were recorded in November 2014 and 82 in April 2015. Twenty-seven taxa were common to all three waterbody types (across both sampling occasions), with 17 of these observed in November and 19 in April...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574803/noise-characterization-of-oil-and-gas-operations
#7
Cameron Radtke, Daniel A Autenrieth, Tiffany Lipsey, William J Brazile
In cooperation with The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, researchers at Colorado State University performed area noise monitoring at 23 oil and gas sites throughout Northern Colorado. The goals of this study were to: (1) measure and compare the noise levels for the different phases of oil and gas development sites; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of noise barriers; and (3) determine if noise levels exceeded the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission noise limits. The four phases of oil and gas development include drilling, hydraulic fracturing, completion and production...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558422/reflections-on-a-boom-perceptions-of-energy-development-impacts-in-the-bakken-oil-patch-inform-environmental-science-policy-priorities
#8
Devan Allen McGranahan, Felix N Fernando, Meghan L E Kirkwood
Ecosystems worldwide have been subject to new or intensified energy development facilitated by technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, activity that has generated concern for air, water, biotic, and social resources. Application of these technologies in the development of the Bakken oil patch has made it one of the most productive petroleum plays in North America, causing unprecedented landscape industrialization of otherwise rural, agricultural counties in western North Dakota. The region is isolated, and development impacts have not been well-studied...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549287/unconventional-energy-resources-in-a-crowded-subsurface-reducing-uncertainty-and-developing-a-separation-zone-concept-for-resource-estimation-and-deep-3d-subsurface-planning-using-legacy-mining-data
#9
Alison A Monaghan
Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493306/decisions-on-hydraulic-fracturing-must-be-science-based
#10
EDITORIAL
Jean-Philippe Nicot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482653/hydrogeochemical-and-isotopic-indicators-of-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-fluids-in-shallow-groundwater-and-stream-water-derived-from-dameigou-shale-gas-extraction-in-the-northern-qaidam-basin
#11
Zhaoxian Zheng, Hongda Zhang, Zongyu Chen, Xufeng Li, Pucheng Zhu, Xiaoshun Cui
Most of the shale gas production in northwest China is from continental shale. Identifying hydrogeochemical and isotopic indicators of toxic hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) has great significance in assessing the safety of drinking water from shallow groundwater and streamwater. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic data for HFFF from the Dameigou shale formations (Cl/Br ratio (1.81 × 10(-4)-6.52 × 10(-4)), Ba/Sr (>0.2), δ(11)B (-10-1‰), and ε(SW)Sr (56-65, where ε(SW)Sr is the deviation of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10(4))) were distinct from data for the background saline shallow groundwater and streamwater before fracturing...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469616/guar-gum-stimulates-biogenic-sulfide-production-at-elevated-pressures-implications-for-shale-gas-extraction
#12
Sophie L Nixon, Leanne Walker, Matthew D T Streets, Bob Eden, Christopher Boothman, Kevin G Taylor, Jonathan R Lloyd
Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448913/temporal-characterization-of-flowback-and-produced-water-quality-from-a-hydraulically-fractured-oil-and-gas-well
#13
James Rosenblum, Andrew W Nelson, Bridger Ruyle, Michael K Schultz, Joseph N Ryan, Karl G Linden
This study examined water quality, naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM), major ions, trace metals, and well flow data for water used and produced from start-up to operation of an oil and gas producing hydraulically-fractured well (horizontal) in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin in northeastern Colorado. Analysis was conducted on the groundwater used to make the fracturing fluid, the fracturing fluid itself, and nine flowback/produced water samples over 220days of operation. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater produced during operation decreased from 8200 to 2500mg/L, while the total dissolved solids (TDS) increased in this same period from 14,200 to roughly 19,000mg/L...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#14
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425455/the-effect-of-hydraulic-flowback-and-produced-water-on-gill-morphology-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-response-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#15
Tamzin A Blewett, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Perrine L M Delompré, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing fluid are complex mixtures containing high concentrations of salts (up to 330,000 ppm), organic, and metal contaminants. However, little data exist on the potential mechanisms of toxicity of these flowback and produced wastewaters (FPW) on aquatic biota. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to either control, FPW (2.5 or 7.5%), FPW that had been treated with activated charcoal (AC), or a custom salt-matched control (SW; replicating only the salt content of FPW) for 48 hours. Gill histology revealed decreases in interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) and mean lamellar length in all treatments (FPW, AC and SW) compared to control, indicative of hyperosmotic stress...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422971/comparison-of-chemical-use-between-hydraulic-fracturing-acidizing-and-routine-oil-and-gas-development
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William T Stringfellow, Mary Kay Camarillo, Jeremy K Domen, Seth B C Shonkoff
The potential hazards and risks associated with well-stimulation in unconventional oil and gas development (hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, and matrix acidizing) have been investigated and evaluated and federal and state regulations requiring chemical disclosure for well-stimulation have been implemented as part of an overall risk management strategy for unconventional oil and gas development. Similar evaluations for chemicals used in other routine oil and gas development activities, such as maintenance acidizing, gravel packing, and well drilling, have not been previously conducted, in part due to a lack of reliable information concerning on-field chemical-use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403606/halogenated-organic-compounds-identified-in-hydraulic-fracturing-wastewaters-using-ultrahigh-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#17
Jenna L Luek, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Paula J Mouser, William Tyler Petty, Susan D Richardson, Michael Gonsior
Large volumes of water return to the surface following hydraulic fracturing of deep shale formations to retrieve oil and natural gas. Current understanding of the specific organic constituents in these hydraulic fracturing wastewaters is limited to hydrocarbons and a fraction of known chemical additives. In this study, we analyzed hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) as a nontargeted technique to assign unambiguous molecular formulas to singly charged molecular ions...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399557/radiological-results-and-clinical-patient-outcome-after-implantation-of-a-hydraulic-expandable-vertebral-body-replacement-following-traumatic-vertebral-fractures-in-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-a-3-year-follow-up
#18
Michael Kreinest, Dorothee Schmahl, Paul A Grützner, Stefan Matschke
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective monocentric study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was the analysis of patient outcome and radiological results 3 years after implantation of a hydraulic expandable vertebral body replacement (VBR) system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Around 70% to 90% of all traumatic spinal fractures are located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Dorso-ventral stabilization is a frequently used procedure in traumatic vertebral body fracture treatment...
April 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389120/reference-equations-for-handgrip-strength-normative-values-in-young-adult-and-middle-aged-subjects
#19
Jordão Lopes, Samantha Torres Grams, Edy Floriano da Silva, Luana Adriano de Medeiros, Christina May Moran de Brito, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369113/a-pilot-study-to-assess-residential-noise-exposure-near-natural-gas-compressor-stations
#20
Meleah D Boyle, Sutyajeet Soneja, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Laura Dalemarre, Amy R Sapkota, Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Sacoby Wilson, Donald Milton, Amir Sapkota
BACKGROUND: U.S. natural gas production increased 40% from 2000 to 2015. This growth is largely related to technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. Environmental exposures upon impacted communities are a significant public health concern. Noise associated with natural gas compressor stations has been identified as a major concern for nearby residents, though limited studies exist. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a pilot study to characterize noise levels in 11 homes located in Doddridge County, West Virginia, and determined whether these levels differed based on time of day, indoors vs...
2017: PloS One
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