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Hydraulic fracturing

Derek Johnson, Robert Heltzel, Andrew Nix, Mahdi Darzi, Dakota Oliver
Natural gas from shale plays dominates new production and growth. However, unconventional well development is an energy intensive process. The prime movers, which include over-the-road service trucks, horizontal drilling rigs, and hydraulic fracturing pumps, are predominately powered by diesel engines that impact air quality. Instead of relying on certification data or outdated emission factors, this model uses new in-use emissions and activity data combined with historical literature to develop a national emissions inventory...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Christopher D Kassotis, Danh C Vu, Phuc H Vo, Chung-Ho Lin, Jennifer N Cornelius-Green, Sharyle Patton, Susan C Nagel
Unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) operations couple horizontal drilling with hydraulic fracturing to access previously inaccessible fossil fuel deposits. Hydraulic fracturing, a common form of stimulation, involves the high-pressure injection of water, chemicals, and sand to fracture the target layer and release trapped natural gas and/or oil. Spills and/or discharges of wastewater have been shown to impact surface, ground, and drinking water. The goals of this study were to characterize the endocrine activities and measure select organic contaminants in groundwater from conventional oil and gas (COG) and UOG production regions of Wyoming...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fan Zhang, Geng Ma, Xiao Liu, Yunqi Tao, Dan Feng, Rui Li
Hydraulic fracturing can improve the permeability of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs effectively, which is of great significance to the commercial production of CBM. However, the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing is affected by multiple factors. The mechanism of fracture initiation, morphology and propagation in CBM reservoirs is not clear and need to be further explored. Hydraulic fracturing experiment is an accurate tool to explore these mechanisms. The quantity of experimental coal rock is large and processing method is complex, so specimen made of similar materials was applied to replace coal rock...
2018: PloS One
Jeffrey Kevin Bean, Sahil Bhandari, Anthony Bilotto, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 mg of carbon (C) L-1 ...
March 29, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jingjing Dai, Danh Vu, Susan Nagel, Chung-Ho Lin, Maria Fidalgo de Cortalezzi
The authors describe a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that enables detection of 2-butoxyethanol (2BE), a pollutant associated with hydraulic fracturing contamination. Detection is based on a combination of a colloidal crystal templating and a molecular imprinting. The MIPs are shown to display higher binding capacity for 2BE compared to non-imprinted films (NIPs), with imprinting efficiencies of ∼ 2. The tests rely on the optical effects that are displayed by the uniformly ordered porous structure of the material...
December 6, 2017: Mikrochimica Acta
Paulina K Piotrowski, Benedikt A Weggler, David A Yoxtheimer, Christina N Kelly, Erica Barth-Naftilan, James E Saiers, Frank L Dorman
Hydraulic fracturing is an increasingly common technique for the extraction of natural gas entrapped in shale formations. This technique has been highly criticized due to the possibility of environmental contamination, underscoring the need for method development to identify chemical factors that could be utilized in point-source identification of environmental contamination events. Here, we utilize comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight (HRT) mass spectrometry, which offers a unique instrumental combination allowing for petrole-omics hydrocarbon fingerprinting...
March 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qiang Tie, Hongchang Hu, Fuqiang Tian, N Michele Holbrook
Accurately estimating forest evapotranspiration and its components is of great importance for hydrology, ecology, and meteorology. In this study, a comparison of methods for determining forest evapotranspiration and its components at annual, monthly, daily, and diurnal scales was conducted based on in situ measurements in the subhumid mountainous forest of North China. The goal of the study was to evaluate the accuracies and reliabilities of the different methods. The results indicate the following: (1) The sap flow upscaling procedure, taking into account diversities in forest types and tree species, produced component-based forest evapotranspiration estimate that agreed with eddy covariance-based estimate at the temporal scales of year, month, and day, while soil water budget-based forest evapotranspiration estimate was also qualitatively consistent with eddy covariance-based estimate at the daily scale; (2) At the annual scale, catchment water balance-based forest evapotranspiration estimate was significantly higher than eddy covariance-based estimate, which might probably result from non-negligible subsurface runoff caused by the widely distributed regolith and fractured bedrock under the ground; (3) At the sub-daily scale, the diurnal course of sap flow based-canopy transpiration estimate lagged significantly behind eddy covariance-based forest evapotranspiration estimate, which might physiologically be due to stem water storage and stem hydraulic conductivity...
March 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sreeparvathy Vijay, Bvn P Kambhammettu, Srinivasa Rao Peddinti, Sarada Psl
Accurate quantification of in situ heterogeneity and flow processes through fractured geologic media remains elusive for hydrogeologists due to the complexity in fracture characterization and its multi-scale behavior. In this research, we demonstrated the efficacy of tracer-ERT experiments combined with numerical simulations to characterize heterogeneity and delineate preferential flow paths in a fractured granite aquifer. A series of natural gradient saline tracer experiments were conducted from a depth window of 18 to 22 m in an injection well located inside the IIT Hyderabad campus...
March 22, 2018: Ground Water
Pierre H M Pechon, Rhys Pullin, Mark J Eaton, Stephan A Jones, Sam Evans
During uncemented hip arthroplasty the femoral prosthesis can be fitted too tightly into the femoral canal, causing a hoop-stress fracture of the proximal femur. The research undertaken evaluated Acoustic Emission (AE) technology as a potential method of detecting a fracture forming in this manner, in an attempt to assess whether this technology may be used as a means of early warning of impending fracture during surgery. Deer femora were prepared in a manner similar to surgery and uncemented hip arthroplasty broaches were inserted until fracture occurred...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Ashley L Bolden, Kim Schultz, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective to pursue. This process is known to use greater than 1,000 chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, detergents, and biocides. In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Poul Christoffersen, Marion Bougamont, Alun Hubbard, Samuel H Doyle, Shane Grigsby, Rickard Pettersson
Supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet are expanding inland, but the impact on ice flow is equivocal because interior surface conditions may preclude the transfer of surface water to the bed. Here we use a well-constrained 3D model to demonstrate that supraglacial lakes in Greenland drain when tensile-stress perturbations propagate fractures in areas where fractures are normally absent or closed. These melt-induced perturbations escalate when lakes as far as 80 km apart form expansive networks and drain in rapid succession...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Jenna L Luek, Mourad Harir, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Paula J Mouser, Michael Gonsior
The chemistry of hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters is complex and is known to vary by operator, geologic formation, and fluid age. A time series of hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters was collected from two adjacent Marcellus Shale gas wells for organic chemical composition analyses using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Hierarchical clustering was used to compare and extract ions related to different fluid ages and many halogenated organic molecular ions were identified in flowback fluids and early produced waters based on exact mass...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Jing-Hu Yang, Xiang Yu, Yi Yang, Zeng-Qiang Yang
Underground coal mining activities are prone to cause movement and breakage in geological strata and also lead to mining subsidence and even ground fissures. Along the direction working panel advancing, ground fissures may occur in roof in front and/or behind working panel. However, the investigations of previous similarity tests in lab only emphasize on the region behind working panel. By improving strata material property in construction and mounting artificial pressure devices, two physical simulation tests were conducted and successfully investigated the simulated results...
2018: PloS One
Michael A Chen, Benjamin D Kocar
Radium (Ra) is a radioactive element commonly found within soils, sediments and natural waters. Elevated Ra activities arising through natural and anthropogenic processes pose a threat to groundwater resources and human health, and Ra isotope ratios are used to decipher groundwater movement, estimate submarine discharge flux, and fingerprint contamination associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Although adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides and certain clay minerals is well established as a dominant mechanism controlling Ra transport and retention, the extent of Ra sorption to other minerals and under variable environmental conditions (e...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Caoxiong Li, Yinghao Shen, Hongkui Ge, Yanjun Zhang, Tao Liu
Shales have abundant micro-nano pores. Meanwhile, a considerable amount of fracturing liquid is imbibed spontaneously in the hydraulic fracturing process. The spontaneous imbibition in tortuous micro-nano pores is special to shale, and dynamic contact angle and slippage are two important characteristics. In this work, we mainly investigate spontaneous imbibition considering dynamic contact angle and slip effect in fractal tortuous capillaries. We introduce phase portrait analysis to analyse the dynamic state and stability of imbibition...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caineng Zou, Yunyan Ni, Jian Li, Andrew Kondash, Rachel Coyte, Nancy Lauer, Huiying Cui, Fengrong Liao, Avner Vengosh
Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S A Clancy, F Worrall, R J Davies, J G Gluyas
Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission (2009 to 2015) were used to examine spill rates from oil and gas well pads. Pollution incident records for England and road transport incident data for the UK were examined as an analogue for potential offsite spills associated with transport for a developing shale industry...
January 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Peter A Bain, Anu Kumar
The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stable luciferase reporter gene assays to investigate the potential for selected HF chemicals or geogenics to activate or antagonise nuclear receptor signalling. We screened three biocides (bronopol [BP], glutaraldehyde [GA], and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate [THPS]), a surfactant (2-butoxyethanol), a friction reducer (polyacrylamide), and a coal seam geogenic (o-cresol) for their potential to act as agonists or antagonists of the estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Maria Kozłowska, Michael R Brudzinski, Paul Friberg, Robert J Skoumal, Nicholas D Baxter, Brian S Currie
Understanding the causes of human-induced earthquakes is paramount to reducing societal risk. We investigated five cases of seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing (HF) in Ohio since 2013 that, because of their isolation from other injection activities, provide an ideal setting for studying the relations between high-pressure injection and earthquakes. Our analysis revealed two distinct groups: (i) deeper earthquakes in the Precambrian basement, with larger magnitudes (M > 2), b-values < 1, and many post-shut-in earthquakes, versus (ii) shallower earthquakes in Paleozoic rocks ∼400 m below HF, with smaller magnitudes (M < 1), b-values > 1...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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