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Hydraulic fracturing

Erik J Folkerts, Tamzin A Blewett, Yuhe He, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a wastewater produced during fracturing activities in an operating well which is hyper saline and chemically heterogeneous in nature, containing both anthropogenic and petrogenic chemicals. Determination of FPW associated toxicity to embryonic fish is limited, while investigation into how embryonic exposures may affect later life stages is not yet studied. Zebrafish embryos (24hrs post fertilization) were acutely exposed to 2.5% and 5% FPW fractions for either 24 or 48hrs and returned to freshwater...
October 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Manar Zaki Al Shobber, Thamer A Alkhadra
PURPOSE: Investigate and compare fracture resistance of four commercially available esthetic crowns. METHODS: Sixty-four anterior crowns were used: NuSmile Primary crowns (NuSmile, Houston, Tex. USA) (16); Preveneered Cheng Crowns, (Orthodontic Technologies Inc., Houston, TX) (16); NuSmile ZR (NuSmile, Houston, Tex. USA); and Cheng Crowns zirconia (Orthodontic Technologies Inc., Houston, TX). Crowns were mounted and cemented on a negative replica and placed under servo hydraulic mechanical universal testing machine...
October 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
Darpan Chorghe, Mutiara Ayu Sari, Shankararaman Chellam
One promising water management strategy during hydraulic fracturing is treatment and reuse of flowback/produced water. In particular, the saline flowback water contains many of the chemicals employed for fracking, which need to be removed before possible reuse as "frac water." This manuscript targets turbidity along with one of the additives; borate-based cross-linkers used to adjust the rheological characteristics of the frac-fluid. Alum and ferric chloride were evaluated as coagulants for clarification and boron removal from saline flowback water obtained from a well in the Eagle Ford shale...
September 28, 2017: Water Research
Yuqing Sun, Cheng Lei, Eakalak Khan, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Daohui Lin, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
In this study, alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate entrapped nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was tested for structural evolution, chemical transformation, and metals/metalloids removal (Cu(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II), and As(V)) after 1-2month passivation in model saline wastewaters from hydraulic fracturing. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful prevention of Fe(0) corrosion by polymeric entrapment. Increasing ionic strength (I) from 0 to 4.10M (deionized water to Day-90 fracturing wastewater (FWW)) with prolonged aging time induced chemical instability of alginate due to dissociation of carboxyl groups and competition for hydrogen bonding with nZVI, which caused high Na (7...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
William R Rish, Edward J Pfau
A bounding risk assessment is presented that evaluates possible human health risk from a hypothetical scenario involving a 10,000-gallon release of flowback water from horizontal fracturing of Marcellus Shale. The water is assumed to be spilled on the ground, infiltrates into groundwater that is a source of drinking water, and an adult and child located downgradient drink the groundwater. Key uncertainties in estimating risk are given explicit quantitative treatment using Monte Carlo analysis. Chemicals that contribute significantly to estimated health risks are identified, as are key uncertainties and variables to which risk estimates are sensitive...
October 3, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Leonardo Morais Paiva, Sílvio Leite de Macedo Neto, Diogo Ranier de Macedo Souto, George Neri Barros Ferreira, Hélio Ismael da Costa, Anderson Freitas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, through biomechanical testing, the resistance to and energy required for the occurrence of proximal femoral fracture in synthetic bone after removal of a proximal femoral nail model (PFN), comparing the results obtained with a reinforcement technique using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). METHODS: Fifteen synthetic bones were used: five units for the control group (CG), five for the test group without reinforcement (TGNR), and five for the test group with reinforcement (TGR)...
2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Cairong He, Tongke Wang, Zhixue Zhao, Yonghong Hao, Tian-Chyi J Yeh, Hongbin Zhan
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a major pathway of groundwater flow to coastal oceanic environments. It could affect water quality and marine ecosystems due to pollutants and trace elements transported through groundwater. Relations between different characteristics of aquifers and SGD have been investigated extensively before, but the role of fractures in SGD still remains unknown. In order to better understand the mechanism of groundwater flow and solute transport through fractures in SGD, one-dimensional analytical solutions of groundwater hydraulic head and velocity through a synthetic horizontal fracture with periodic boundary conditions were derived using a Laplace transform technique...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Samuel J Maguire-Boyle, Joseph E Huseman, Thomas J Ainscough, Darren L Oatley-Radcliffe, Abdullah A Alabdulkarem, Sattam Fahad Al-Mojil, Andrew R Barron
The environmental impact of shale oil and gas production by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is of increasing concern. The biggest potential source of environmental contamination is flowback and produced water, which is highly contaminated with hydrocarbons, bacteria and particulates, meaning that traditional membranes are readily fouled. We show the chemical functionalisation of alumina ceramic microfiltration membranes (0.22 μm pore size) with cysteic acid creates a superhydrophilic surface, allowing for separation of hydrocarbons from frac and produced waters without fouling...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
D Costa, V Pereira, J Góis, A Danko, A Fiúza
Public acceptance is crucial for the implementation of energy technologies. Hydraulic fracturing is a technology widely used in the USA for natural gas production from shale formations, but currently finds strong public opposition worldwide, especially in Europe. Shale gas exploitation and exploration have the potential to significantly reduce import dependency in several countries, including Spain. To better understand public opinion on this issue, this article reports a survey targeting both the entire Spanish population and the inhabitants of the province of Burgos, the location where shale gas exploration permits have already been issued...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Emily A Chittick, Tanja Srebotnjak
As high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HF) has grown substantially in the United States over the past decade, so has the volume of produced water (PW), i.e., briny water brought to the surface as a byproduct of oil and gas production. According to a recent study (Groundwater Protection Council, 2015), more than 21 billion barrels of PW were generated in 2012. In addition to being high in TDS, PW may contain hydrocarbons, PAH, alkylphenols, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), metals, and other organic and inorganic substances...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Weilin Huang, Runqiu Wang, Huijian Li, Yangkang Chen
Microseismic method is an essential technique for monitoring the dynamic status of hydraulic fracturing during the development of unconventional reservoirs. However, one of the challenges in microseismic monitoring is that those seismic signals generated from micro seismicity have extremely low amplitude. We develop a methodology to unveil the signals that are smeared in the strong ambient noise and thus facilitate a more accurate arrival-time picking that will ultimately improve the localization accuracy. In the proposed technique, we decompose the recorded data into several morphological multi-scale components...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Erik J Folkerts, Tamzin A Blewett, Yuhe He, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas reserves is an increasing practice in many international energy sectors. Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a hyper saline wastewater returned to the surface from a fractured well containing chemical species present in the initial fracturing fluid, geogenic contaminants, and potentially newly synthesized chemicals formed in the fracturing well environment. However, information on FPW toxicological mechanisms of action remain largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Julien Maire, Antoine Joubert, Delphine Kaifas, Thomas Invernizzi, Julien Marduel, Stéfan Colombano, David Cazaux, Cédric Marion, Pierre-Yves Klein, Alain Dumestre, Nicolas Fatin-Rouge
Immiscible mobilization and foam flushing were assessed as low surfactant consuming technologies, for the enhanced recovery of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) residual at a site contaminated by heavy chlorinated compounds. Preliminary experiments in well-controlled conditions demonstrated the phenomena involved in these remediation technologies and their limitations. Furthermore, we characterized the technologies according to by their surfactant consumption (per kg of DNAPL recovered) and the final DNAPL saturation reached...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bridget R Scanlon, Robert C Reedy, Frank Male, Mark Walsh
The Permian Basin is being transformed by the "shale revolution" from a major conventional play to the world's largest unconventional play, but water management is critical in this semiarid region. Here we explore evolving issues associated with produced water (PW) management and hydraulic fracturing water demands based on detailed well-by-well analyses. Our results show that although conventional wells produce ∼13 times more water than oil (PW to oil ratio, PWOR = 13), this produced water has been mostly injected back into pressure-depleted oil-producing reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Claire R Tiedeman, Allen M Shapiro, Paul A Hsieh, Thomas E Imbrigiotta, Daniel J Goode, Pierre J Lacombe, Mary F DeFlaun, Scott R Drew, Carole D Johnson, John H Williams, Gary P Curtis
Field characterization of a trichloroethene (TCE) source area in fractured mudstones produced a detailed understanding of the geology, contaminant distribution in fractures and the rock matrix, and hydraulic and transport properties. Groundwater flow and chemical transport modeling that synthesized the field characterization information proved critical for designing bioremediation of the source area. The planned bioremediation involved injecting emulsified vegetable oil and bacteria to enhance the naturally occurring biodegradation of TCE...
September 5, 2017: Ground Water
Danielle Butler, Sarah Nemanic, Jennifer J Warnock
Detection and accurate classification of traumatic tarsal fractures are important for identifying cases requiring surgical intervention. The aim of this prospective, experimental, methods comparison study was to directly compare the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of tarsal computed tomography (CT), ten-view and two-view digital radiographs for detecting traumatic fractures of the canine tarsus. The working hypothesis was that tarsal fractures would be detected with higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity using CT imaging compared to radiography, and a ten-view would be superior to a two-view radiographic study...
September 3, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
E Zapata, F Rongieras, J-B Pialat, H Follet, D Mitton
Forward falls represent a risk of injury for the elderly. The risk is increased in elderly persons with bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. However, half of the patients with fracture were not considered at risk based on bone density measurement (current clinical technique). We assume that loading conditions are of high importance and should be considered. Real loading conditions in a fall can reach a loading speed of 2m/s on average. The current study aimed to apply more realistic loading conditions that simulate a forward fall on the radius ex vivo...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Junfeng Zhu, Thomas M Parris, Charles J Taylor, Steven E Webb, Bart Davidson, Richard Smath, Stephen D Richardson, Lisa J Molofsky, Jenna S Kromann, Ann P Smith
The expanding use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology to produce oil and gas from tight rock formations has increased public concern about potential impacts on the environment, especially on shallow drinking water aquifers. In eastern Kentucky, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have been used to develop the Berea Sandstone and the Rogersville Shale. To assess baseline groundwater chemistry and evaluate methane detected in groundwater overlying the Berea and Rogersville plays, we sampled 51 water wells and analyzed the samples for concentrations of major cations and anions, metals, dissolved methane, and other light hydrocarbon gases...
August 29, 2017: Ground Water
Svetlana Ikonnikova, Frank Male, Bridget R Scanlon, Robert C Reedy, Guinevere McDaid
Production of oil from shale and tight reservoirs accounted for almost 50% of 2016 total U.S. production and is projected to continue growing. The objective of our analysis was to quantify the water outlook for future shale oil development using the Eagle Ford Shale as a case study. We developed a water outlook model that projects water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback and produced water (FP) volumes based on expected energy prices; historical oil, natural gas, and water-production decline data per well; projected well spacing; and well economics...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tim Komarek, Attila Cseh
The United States (US) began to experience a boom in natural gas production in the 2000s due to the advent of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling technology. While the natural gas boom affected many people through lower energy prices, the strongest effects were concentrated in smaller communities where the fracking occurred. We analyze one potential cost to communities where fracking takes place: an increase of sexually transmitted diseases. We use a quasi-natural experiment within the Marcellus shale region plus panel data estimation techniques to quantify the impact of fracking activity on local gonorrhea incidences...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
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