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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220696/unconventional-oil-and-gas-spills-risks-mitigation-priorities-and-state-reporting-requirements
#1
Lauren A Patterson, Katherine E Konschnik, Hannah Wiseman, Joseph Fargione, Kelly O Maloney, Joseph Kiesecker, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Sally Entrekin, Anne Trainor, James E Saiers
Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2-16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m(3) in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m(3) in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m(3). Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213127/quantitation-of-lead-210-210-pb-using-lead-203-203-pb-as-a-massless-yield-tracer
#2
D May, A N Nelson, M K Schultz
Determination of Pb-210 ((210)Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of (210)Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159795/predominance-and-metabolic-potential-of-halanaerobium-in-produced-water-from-hydraulically-fractured-marcellus-shale-wells
#3
Daniel Lipus, Amit Vikram, Daniel Ross, Daniel Bain, Djuna Gulliver, Richard Hammack, Kyle Bibby
: Microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140571/the-sub-lethal-and-reproductive-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-flowback-and-produced-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-the-water-flea-daphnia-magna
#4
Tamzin A Blewett, Perrine L M Delompre, Yuhe He, Erik J Folkerts, Shannon L Flynn, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna, was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 d) exposures...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122672/insights-into-the-subsurface-transport-of-as-v-and-se-vi-in-produced-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-using-soil-samples-from-qingshankou-formation-songliao-basin-china
#5
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation...
January 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119794/the-oblique-metaphyseal-shortening-osteotomy-of-the-distal-ulna-surgical-technique-and-results-of-ten-patients
#6
Szabolcs Benis, Jean F Goubau, Koen Mermuys, Petrus Van Hoonacker, Bart Berghs, Diederick Kerckhove, Bert Vanmierlo
Background Ulnocarpal abutment is a common condition following distal radius fractures. There are different surgical methods of treatment for this pathology: open and arthroscopic wafer procedure or an ulnar shortening osteotomy. We describe an oblique metaphyseal shortening osteotomy of the distal ulna using two cannulated headless compression screws. We report the results of 10 patients treated with this method. Materials and Methods Out of 17 patients, 10 could be reviewed retrospectively for this study...
February 2017: Journal of Wrist Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105596/monitoring-nutrients-fate-after-digestate-spreading-in-a-short-rotation-buffer-area
#7
Nicolò Colombani, Bruno Boz, Bruna Gumiero, Micòl Mastrocicco
One of the main sources of reactive nitrogen pollution is animal manure. The disposal of digestate (material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock) in agricultural soils could solve both the problems of soil fertilization and waste removal, but the fate of digestate in the environment must be assessed carefully before its massive utilization. To investigate whether digestate could be safely employed as a soil fertilizer, an agricultural field located in Monastier di Treviso (Northern Italy) and characterized by the presence of low hydraulic conductivity clay soils, was selected to be amended with bovine digestate...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102897/controls-on-methane-occurrences-in-shallow-aquifers-overlying-the-haynesville-shale-gas-field-east-texas
#8
Jean-Philippe Nicot, Toti Larson, Roxana Darvari, Patrick Mickler, Michael Slotten, Jordan Aldridge, Kristine Uhlman, Ruth Costley
Understanding the source of dissolved methane in drinking-water aquifers is critical for assessing potential contributions from hydraulic fracturing in shale plays. Shallow groundwater in the Texas portion of the Haynesville Shale area (13,000 km(2) ) was sampled (70 samples) for methane and other dissolved light alkanes. Most samples were derived from the fresh water bearing Wilcox formations and show little methane except in a localized cluster of 12 water wells (17% of total) in a approximately 30 × 30 km(2) area in Southern Panola County with dissolved methane concentrations less than 10 mg/L...
January 19, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091599/a-comprehensive-numerical-model-for-simulating-fluid-transport-in-nanopores
#9
Yuan Zhang, Wei Yu, Kamy Sepehrnoori, Yuan Di
Since a large amount of nanopores exist in tight oil reservoirs, fluid transport in nanopores is complex due to large capillary pressure. Recent studies only focus on the effect of nanopore confinement on single-well performance with simple planar fractures in tight oil reservoirs. Its impacts on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries have not been reported. In this study, a numerical model was developed to investigate the effect of confined phase behavior on cumulative oil and gas production of four horizontal wells with different fracture geometries...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058583/assessing-geotechnical-centrifuge-modelling-in-addressing-variably-saturated-flow-in-soil-and-fractured-rock
#10
Brendon R Jones, Luke B Brouwers, Warren D Van Tonder, Matthys A Dippenaar
The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054594/experimental-investigation-of-the-hydraulic-and-heat-transfer-properties-of-artificially-fractured-granite
#11
Jin Luo, Yongqiang Zhu, Qinghai Guo, Long Tan, Yaqin Zhuang, Mingliang Liu, Canhai Zhang, Wei Xiang, Joachim Rohn
In this paper, the hydraulic and heat-transfer properties of two sets of artificially fractured granite samples are investigated. First, the morphological information is determined using 3D modelling technology. The area ratio is used to describe the roughness of the fracture surface. Second, the hydraulic properties of fractured granite are tested by exposing samples to different confining pressures and temperatures. The results show that the hydraulic properties of the fractures are affected mainly by the area ratio, with a larger area ratio producing a larger fracture aperture and higher hydraulic conductivity...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043701/unconventional-oil-and-gas-spills-materials-volumes-and-risks-to-surface-waters-in-four-states-of-the-u-s
#12
Kelly O Maloney, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Lauren A Patterson, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sally A Entrekin, Joseph E Fargione, Joseph M Kiesecker, Kate E Konschnik, Joseph N Ryan, Anne M Trainor, James E Saiers, Hannah J Wiseman
Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031695/mitigating-climate-change-at-the-carbon-water-nexus-a-call-to-action-for-the-environmental-engineering-community
#13
Andres F Clarens, Catherine A Peters
Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030372/does-increased-traffic-flow-around-unconventional-resource-development-activities-represent-the-major-respiratory-hazard-to-neighboring-communities-knowns-and-unknowns
#14
Michael A McCawley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to demonstrate that the focus on air emissions causing respiratory effects and associated with gas development may be misplaced by attributing those exposures mainly to well pad activities. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent publications on the health effects of hydraulic fracturing operations seem to parallel findings from studies of diesel particulate exposure near roadways and the health effects associated with those exposures...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999569/local-and-regional-diversity-reveals-dispersal-limitation-and-drift-as-drivers-for-groundwater-bacterial-communities-from-a-fractured-granite-formation
#15
E D Beaton, Bradley S Stevenson, Karen J King-Sharp, Blake W Stamps, Heather S Nunn, Marilyne Stuart
Microorganisms found in terrestrial subsurface environments make up a large proportion of the Earth's biomass. Biogeochemical cycles catalyzed by subsurface microbes have the potential to influence the speciation and transport of radionuclides managed in geological repositories. To gain insight on factors that constrain microbial processes within a formation with restricted groundwater flow we performed a meta-community analysis on groundwater collected from multiple discrete fractures underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (located in Ontario, Canada)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973770/effects-on-biotransformation-oxidative-stress-and-endocrine-disruption-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-exposed-to-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#16
Yuhe He, Erik J Folkerts, Yifeng Zhang, Jonathan W Martin, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss
The effects of hydraulic fracturing (HF) flowback and produced water (HF-FPW), a complex saline mixture of injected HF fluids and deep formation water that return to the surface, was examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Exposure to HF-FPWs resulted in significant induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in both liver and gill tissues. Increased lipid peroxidation via oxidative stress was also detected by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The mRNA expressions of a battery of genes related to biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption were also measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR)...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969550/characterizing-flow-pathways-in-a-sandstone-aquifer-tectonic-vs-sedimentary-heterogeneities
#17
G Medici, L J West, N P Mountney
Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤180m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943264/predicting-water-resource-impacts-of-unconventional-gas-using-simple-analytical-equations
#18
P G Cook, A Miller, M Shanafield, C T Simmons
The rapid expansion in unconventional gas development over the past two decades has led to concerns over the potential impacts on groundwater resources. Although numerical models are invaluable for assessing likelihood of impacts at particular sites, simpler analytical models are also useful because they help develop hydrological understanding. Analytical approaches are also valuable for preliminary assessments and to determine where more complex models are warranted. In this article, we present simple analytical solutions that can be used to predict: (1) the spatial extent of drawdown from horizontal wells drilled into the gas-bearing formation, and rate of recovery after gas production ceases; (2) the potential for upward transport of contaminants from the gas-bearing formation to shallow aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations when pressures in the gas-bearing formation are greatly increased; and (3) the potential downward leakage of water from shallow aquifers during depressurization of gas-bearing formations...
December 12, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936415/hydraulic-fracturing-in-cells-and-tissues-fracking-meets-cell-biology
#19
REVIEW
Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929142/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-risk-of-triggering-geological-disasters-by-injection-under-shear-stress
#20
Yixin Liu, Jiang Xu, Shoujian Peng
Fluid injection has been applied in many fields, such as hazardous waste deep well injection, forced circulation in geothermal fields, hydraulic fracturing, and CO2 geological storage. However, current research mainly focuses on geological data statistics and the dominating effects of pore pressure. There are only a few laboratory-conditioned studies on the role of drilling boreholes and the effect of injection pressure on the borehole wall. Through experimental phenomenology, this study examines the risk of triggering geological disasters by fluid injection under shear stress...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
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