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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929142/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-risk-of-triggering-geological-disasters-by-injection-under-shear-stress
#1
Yixin Liu, Jiang Xu, Shoujian Peng
Fluid injection has been applied in many fields, such as hazardous waste deep well injection, forced circulation in geothermal fields, hydraulic fracturing, and CO2 geological storage. However, current research mainly focuses on geological data statistics and the dominating effects of pore pressure. There are only a few laboratory-conditioned studies on the role of drilling boreholes and the effect of injection pressure on the borehole wall. Through experimental phenomenology, this study examines the risk of triggering geological disasters by fluid injection under shear stress...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927981/xylem-surfactants-introduce-a-new-element-to-the-cohesion-tension-theory
#2
H Jochen Schenk, Susana Espino, David M Romo, Neda Nima, Aissa Y T Do, Joseph M Michaud, Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Jinlong Yang, Yi Y Zuo, Kathy Steppe, Steven Jansen
Vascular plants transport water under negative pressure without constantly creating gas bubbles that would disable their hydraulic systems. Attempts to replicate this feat in artificial systems almost invariably result in bubble formation, except under highly controlled conditions with pure water and only hydrophilic surfaces present. In theory, conditions in the xylem should favor bubble nucleation even more: There are millions of conduits with at least some hydrophobic surfaces; xylem sap is saturated or sometimes supersaturated with atmospheric gas, and may contain surface active molecules that can lower surface tension...
December 7, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922962/retention-and-mechanical-behavior-of-attachment-systems-for-implant-retained-auricular-prostheses
#3
Eder Alberto Sigua-Rodriguez, Douglas Rangel Goulart, Zarina Tatia Santos, Natalia Alvarez-Pinzon, Sergio Olate, José Ricardo de Albergaria-Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: Auricular prostheses are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The retention of these has often been a problem. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of 3 retained auricular prosthetic connections when submitted to a mechanical cycling test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve samples with installed implants were obtained and divided into 3 groups according to their retention system with 4 samples in each group. I: bar-clip system; II: magnet system; and III: ball/o-ring system...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921191/a-review-of-the-public-health-impacts-of-unconventional-natural-gas-development
#4
REVIEW
P J Saunders, D McCoy, R Goldstein, A T Saunders, A Munroe
The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#5
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875753/searching-for-anomalous-methane-in-shallow-groundwater-near-shale-gas-wells
#6
Zhenhui Li, Cheng You, Matthew Gonzales, Anna K Wendt, Fei Wu, Susan L Brantley
Since the 1800s, natural gas has been extracted from wells drilled into conventional reservoirs. Today, gas is also extracted from shale using high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). These wells sometimes leak methane and must be re-sealed with cement. Some researchers argue that methane concentrations, C, increase in groundwater near shale-gas wells and that "fracked" wells leak more than conventional wells. We developed techniques to mine datasets of groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania townships where contamination had been reported...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865434/potential-water-resource-impacts-of-hydraulic-fracturing-from-unconventional-oil-production-in-the-bakken-shale
#7
REVIEW
Namita Shrestha, Govinda Chilkoor, Joseph Wilder, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, James J Stone
Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856850/fault-activation-by-hydraulic-fracturing-in-western-canada
#8
Xuewei Bao, David W Eaton
Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the midwestern United States where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3...
November 17, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849573/life-cycle-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-freshwater-consumption-associated-with-bakken-tight-oil
#9
Ian J Laurenzi, Joule A Bergerson, Kavan Motazedi
In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87-94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88-94) of diesel...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821342/high-temperature-ultralow-water-content-carbon-dioxide-in-water-foam-stabilized-with-viscoelastic-zwitterionic-surfactants
#10
Shehab Alzobaidi, Chang Da, Vu Tran, Maša Prodanović, Keith P Johnston
Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is <0.05 water) tend to be inherently unstable given that the large capillary pressures that cause the lamellar films to thin. Herein, we demonstrate that these C/W foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819349/a-comprehensive-model-for-real-gas-transport-in-shale-formations-with-complex-non-planar-fracture-networks
#11
Ruiyue Yang, Zhongwei Huang, Wei Yu, Gensheng Li, Wenxi Ren, Lihua Zuo, Xiaosi Tan, Kamy Sepehrnoori, Shouceng Tian, Mao Sheng
A complex fracture network is generally generated during the hydraulic fracturing treatment in shale gas reservoirs. Numerous efforts have been made to model the flow behavior of such fracture networks. However, it is still challenging to predict the impacts of various gas transport mechanisms on well performance with arbitrary fracture geometry in a computationally efficient manner. We develop a robust and comprehensive model for real gas transport in shales with complex non-planar fracture network. Contributions of gas transport mechanisms and fracture complexity to well productivity and rate transient behavior are systematically analyzed...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813406/environmental-life-cycle-analysis-of-water-and-co2-based-fracturing-fluids-used-in-unconventional-gas-production
#12
Rodney Franklin Wilkins, Anne Holland Menefee, Andres F Clarens
Many of the environmental impacts associated with hydraulic fracturing of unconventional gas wells are tied to the large volumes of water that such operations require. Efforts to develop non-aqueous alternatives have focused on carbon dioxide as a tunable working fluid even though the full environmental and production impacts of a switch away from water have yet to be quantified. Here we report on a life cycle analysis of using either water or CO2 for gas production in the Marcellus shale. The results show that CO2-based fluids, as currently conceived, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 400% (with sequestration credit) and water consumption by 80% when compared to conventional water-based fluids...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796832/developing-monitoring-plans-to-detect-spills-related-to-natural-gas-production
#13
Aubrey E Harris, Leslie Hopkinson, Daniel J Soeder
Surface water is at risk from Marcellus Shale operations because of chemical storage on drill pads during hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return of water high in total dissolved solids (up to 345 g/L) from shale gas production. This research evaluated how two commercial, off-the-shelf water quality sensors responded to simulated surface water pollution events associated with Marcellus Shale development. First, peak concentrations of contaminants from typical spill events in monitored watersheds were estimated using regression techniques...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783932/unconventional-oil-and-gas-development-and-risk-of-childhood-leukemia-assessing-the-evidence
#14
Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743793/identifying-chemicals-of-concern-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-used-for-oil-production
#15
William T Stringfellow, Mary Kay Camarillo, Jeremy K Domen, Whitney L Sandelin, Charuleka Varadharajan, Preston D Jordan, Matthew T Reagan, Heather Cooley, Matthew G Heberger, Jens T Birkholzer
Chemical additives used for hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing of oil reservoirs were reviewed and priority chemicals of concern needing further environmental risk assessment, treatment demonstration, or evaluation of occupational hazards were identified. We evaluated chemical additives used for well stimulation in California, the third largest oil producing state in the USA, by the mass and frequency of use, as well as toxicity. The most frequently used chemical additives in oil development were gelling agents, cross-linkers, breakers, clay control agents, iron and scale control agents, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and various impurities and product stabilizers used as part of commercial mixtures...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743207/fracked-ecology-response-of-aquatic-trophic-structure-and-mercury-biomagnification-dynamics-in-the-marcellus-shale-formation
#16
Christopher James Grant, Allison K Lutz, Aaron D Kulig, Mitchell R Stanton
Unconventional natural gas development and hydraulic fracturing practices (fracking) are increasing worldwide due to global energy demands. Research has only recently begun to assess fracking impacts to surrounding environments, and very little research is aimed at determining effects on aquatic biodiversity and contaminant biomagnification. Twenty-seven remotely-located streams in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale basin were sampled during June and July of 2012 and 2013. At each stream, stream physiochemical properties, trophic biodiversity, and structure and mercury levels were assessed...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723415/development-of-engine-activity-cycles-for-the-prime-movers-of-unconventional-natural-gas-well-development
#17
Derek Johnson, Robert Heltzel, Andrew Nix, Rebekah Barrow
Implications Development of representative, engine dynamometer test-cycles, from in-use activity data, is crucial in understanding fuel efficiency and emissions for engine operating modes that are different from cycles mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations. Representative cycles were created for the prime movers of unconventional well development - OTR trucks, drilling and hydraulic fracturing engines. The representative cycles are implemented on scaled engines to reduce fuel consumption during research and development of new technologies in controlled laboratory environments...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718428/zero-valent-iron-for-the-abatement-of-arsenate-and-selenate-from-flowback-water-of-hydraulic-fracturing
#18
Yuqing Sun, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 μg L(-1) As(V) and 350 μg L(-1) Se(VI) in high-salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L(-1) ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second-order rate expression with the observed rates of 4...
October 5, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683690/third-generation-percutaneous-vertebral-augmentation-systems
#19
REVIEW
Daniele Vanni, Renato Galzio, Anna Kazakova, Andrea Pantalone, Giovanni Grillea, Marcello Bartolo, Vincenzo Salini, Vincenzo Magliani
Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height...
March 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680396/methane-sources-and-migration-mechanisms-in-shallow-groundwaters-in-parker-and-hood-counties-texas-a-heavy-noble-gas-analysis
#20
Tao Wen, M Clara Castro, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Chris M Hall, Toti Larson, Patrick Mickler, Roxana Darvari
This study places constraints on the source and transport mechanisms of methane found in groundwater within the Barnett Shale footprint in Texas using dissolved noble gases, with particular emphasis on (84)Kr and (132)Xe. Dissolved methane concentrations are positively correlated with crustal (4)He, (21)Ne, and (40)Ar and suggest that noble gases and methane originate from common sedimentary strata, likely the Strawn Group. In contrast to most samples, four water wells with the highest dissolved methane concentrations unequivocally show strong depletion of all atmospheric noble gases ((20)Ne, (36)Ar, (84)Kr, (132)Xe) with respect to air-saturated water (ASW)...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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