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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058583/assessing-geotechnical-centrifuge-modelling-in-addressing-variably-saturated-flow-in-soil-and-fractured-rock
#1
Brendon R Jones, Luke B Brouwers, Warren D Van Tonder, Matthys A Dippenaar
The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054594/experimental-investigation-of-the-hydraulic-and-heat-transfer-properties-of-artificially-fractured-granite
#2
Jin Luo, Yongqiang Zhu, Qinghai Guo, Long Tan, Yaqin Zhuang, Mingliang Liu, Canhai Zhang, Wei Xiang, Joachim Rohn
In this paper, the hydraulic and heat-transfer properties of two sets of artificially fractured granite samples are investigated. First, the morphological information is determined using 3D modelling technology. The area ratio is used to describe the roughness of the fracture surface. Second, the hydraulic properties of fractured granite are tested by exposing samples to different confining pressures and temperatures. The results show that the hydraulic properties of the fractures are affected mainly by the area ratio, with a larger area ratio producing a larger fracture aperture and higher hydraulic conductivity...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043701/unconventional-oil-and-gas-spills-materials-volumes-and-risks-to-surface-waters-in-four-states-of-the-u-s
#3
Kelly O Maloney, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Lauren A Patterson, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sally A Entrekin, Joseph E Fargione, Joseph M Kiesecker, Kate E Konschnik, Joseph N Ryan, Anne M Trainor, James E Saiers, Hannah J Wiseman
Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031695/mitigating-climate-change-at-the-carbon-water-nexus-a-call-to-action-for-the-environmental-engineering-community
#4
Andres F Clarens, Catherine A Peters
Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030372/does-increased-traffic-flow-around-unconventional-resource-development-activities-represent-the-major-respiratory-hazard-to-neighboring-communities-knowns-and-unknowns
#5
Michael A McCawley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to demonstrate that the focus on air emissions causing respiratory effects and associated with gas development may be misplaced by attributing those exposures mainly to well pad activities. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent publications on the health effects of hydraulic fracturing operations seem to parallel findings from studies of diesel particulate exposure near roadways and the health effects associated with those exposures...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999569/local-and-regional-diversity-reveals-dispersal-limitation-and-drift-as-drivers-for-groundwater-bacterial-communities-from-a-fractured-granite-formation
#6
E D Beaton, Bradley S Stevenson, Karen J King-Sharp, Blake W Stamps, Heather S Nunn, Marilyne Stuart
Microorganisms found in terrestrial subsurface environments make up a large proportion of the Earth's biomass. Biogeochemical cycles catalyzed by subsurface microbes have the potential to influence the speciation and transport of radionuclides managed in geological repositories. To gain insight on factors that constrain microbial processes within a formation with restricted groundwater flow we performed a meta-community analysis on groundwater collected from multiple discrete fractures underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (located in Ontario, Canada)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973770/effects-on-biotransformation-oxidative-stress-and-endocrine-disruption-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-exposed-to-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#7
Yuhe He, Erik J Folkerts, Yifeng Zhang, Jonathan W Martin, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss
The effects of hydraulic fracturing (HF) flowback and produced water (HF-FPW), a complex saline mixture of injected HF fluids and deep formation water that return to the surface, was examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Exposure to HF-FPWs resulted in significant induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in both liver and gill tissues. Increased lipid peroxidation via oxidative stress was also detected by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The mRNA expressions of a battery of genes related to biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption were also measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR)...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969550/characterizing-flow-pathways-in-a-sandstone-aquifer-tectonic-vs-sedimentary-heterogeneities
#8
G Medici, L J West, N P Mountney
Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤180m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943264/predicting-water-resource-impacts-of-unconventional-gas-using-simple-analytical-equations
#9
P G Cook, A Miller, M Shanafield, C T Simmons
The rapid expansion in unconventional gas development over the past two decades has led to concerns over the potential impacts on groundwater resources. Although numerical models are invaluable for assessing likelihood of impacts at particular sites, simpler analytical models are also useful because they help develop hydrological understanding. Analytical approaches are also valuable for preliminary assessments and to determine where more complex models are warranted. In this article, we present simple analytical solutions that can be used to predict: (1) the spatial extent of drawdown from horizontal wells drilled into the gas-bearing formation, and rate of recovery after gas production ceases; (2) the potential for upward transport of contaminants from the gas-bearing formation to shallow aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations when pressures in the gas-bearing formation are greatly increased; and (3) the potential downward leakage of water from shallow aquifers during depressurization of gas-bearing formations...
December 12, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936415/hydraulic-fracturing-in-cells-and-tissues-fracking-meets-cell-biology
#10
REVIEW
Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929142/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-risk-of-triggering-geological-disasters-by-injection-under-shear-stress
#11
Yixin Liu, Jiang Xu, Shoujian Peng
Fluid injection has been applied in many fields, such as hazardous waste deep well injection, forced circulation in geothermal fields, hydraulic fracturing, and CO2 geological storage. However, current research mainly focuses on geological data statistics and the dominating effects of pore pressure. There are only a few laboratory-conditioned studies on the role of drilling boreholes and the effect of injection pressure on the borehole wall. Through experimental phenomenology, this study examines the risk of triggering geological disasters by fluid injection under shear stress...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927981/xylem-surfactants-introduce-a-new-element-to-the-cohesion-tension-theory
#12
H Jochen Schenk, Susana Espino, David M Romo, Neda Nima, Aissa Y T Do, Joseph M Michaud, Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Jinlong Yang, Yi Y Zuo, Kathy Steppe, Steven Jansen
Vascular plants transport water under negative pressure without constantly creating gas bubbles that would disable their hydraulic systems. Attempts to replicate this feat in artificial systems almost invariably result in bubble formation, except under highly controlled conditions with pure water and only hydrophilic surfaces present. In theory, conditions in the xylem should favor bubble nucleation even more: There are millions of conduits with at least some hydrophobic surfaces; xylem sap is saturated or sometimes supersaturated with atmospheric gas, and may contain surface active molecules that can lower surface tension...
December 7, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922962/retention-and-mechanical-behavior-of-attachment-systems-for-implant-retained-auricular-prostheses
#13
Eder Alberto Sigua-Rodriguez, Douglas Rangel Goulart, Zarina Tatia Santos, Natalia Alvarez-Pinzon, Sergio Olate, José Ricardo de Albergaria-Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: Auricular prostheses are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The retention of these has often been a problem. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of 3 retained auricular prosthetic connections when submitted to a mechanical cycling test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve samples with installed implants were obtained and divided into 3 groups according to their retention system with 4 samples in each group. I: bar-clip system; II: magnet system; and III: ball/o-ring system...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921191/a-review-of-the-public-health-impacts-of-unconventional-natural-gas-development
#14
REVIEW
P J Saunders, D McCoy, R Goldstein, A T Saunders, A Munroe
The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#15
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875753/searching-for-anomalous-methane-in-shallow-groundwater-near-shale-gas-wells
#16
Zhenhui Li, Cheng You, Matthew Gonzales, Anna K Wendt, Fei Wu, Susan L Brantley
Since the 1800s, natural gas has been extracted from wells drilled into conventional reservoirs. Today, gas is also extracted from shale using high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). These wells sometimes leak methane and must be re-sealed with cement. Some researchers argue that methane concentrations, C, increase in groundwater near shale-gas wells and that "fracked" wells leak more than conventional wells. We developed techniques to mine datasets of groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania townships where contamination had been reported...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865434/potential-water-resource-impacts-of-hydraulic-fracturing-from-unconventional-oil-production-in-the-bakken-shale
#17
REVIEW
Namita Shrestha, Govinda Chilkoor, Joseph Wilder, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, James J Stone
Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856850/fault-activation-by-hydraulic-fracturing-in-western-canada
#18
Xuewei Bao, David W Eaton
Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the Midwestern United States, where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3...
December 16, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849573/life-cycle-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-freshwater-consumption-associated-with-bakken-tight-oil
#19
Ian J Laurenzi, Joule A Bergerson, Kavan Motazedi
In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87-94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88-94) of diesel...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821342/high-temperature-ultralow-water-content-carbon-dioxide-in-water-foam-stabilized-with-viscoelastic-zwitterionic-surfactants
#20
Shehab Alzobaidi, Chang Da, Vu Tran, Maša Prodanović, Keith P Johnston
Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is <0.05 water) tend to be inherently unstable given that the large capillary pressures that cause the lamellar films to thin. Herein, we demonstrate that these C/W foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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