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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242825/hydraulic-fracturing-and-infant-health-new-evidence-from-pennsylvania
#1
Janet Currie, Michael Greenstone, Katherine Meckel
The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227634/release-of-particulate-iron-sulfide-during-shale-fluid-interaction
#2
Yevgeny Kreisserman, Simon Emmanuel
During hydraulic fracturing, a technique often used to extract hydrocarbons from shales, large volumes of water are injected into the subsurface. Although the injected fluid typically contains various reagents, it can become further contaminated by interaction with minerals present in the rocks. Pyrite, which is common in organic-rich shales, is a potential source of toxic elements, including arsenic and lead, and it is generally thought that for these elements to become mobilized, pyrite must first dissolve...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226768/algal-treatment-of-wastewater-generated-during-oil-and-gas-production-using-hydraulic-fracturing-technology
#3
Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Nurhan Turgut Dunford
Hydraulic fracturing technology is widely used for recovering natural gas and oil from tight oil and gas reserves. Large volumes of wastewater, flowback water, are produced during the fracturing process. This study examines algal treatment of flowback water. Thirteen microalgae strains consisting of cyanobacteria and green algae were examined. Wastewater quality before and after algae treatment and volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents of the biomass grown in flowback water were examined. The experimental results demonstrated that microalgae can grow in flowback water...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202338/cranial-trauma-in-handgun-executions-experimental-data-using-polyurethane-proxies
#4
Seth C Taylor, Elena F Kranioti
Gun violence is a global phenomenon with regional variation in frequency and severity. Handguns are often used in violent deaths such as suicides and homicides. Hence, ballistic trauma is a critical subject of forensic investigations. Trauma patterns are fundamental evidence for the reconstruction of the incident and for the determination of the manner of death. This study investigated the differences in trauma patterns with a series of experiments using six different calibers (.22 LR, .38 Special, .380 ACP, 9×19mm, ...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180405/hydraulic-fracturing-near-domestic-groundwater-wells
#5
Scott Jasechko, Debra Perrone
Hydraulic fracturing operations are generating considerable discussion about their potential to contaminate aquifers tapped by domestic groundwater wells. Groundwater wells located closer to hydraulically fractured wells are more likely to be exposed to contaminants derived from on-site spills and well-bore failures, should they occur. Nevertheless, the proximity of hydraulic fracturing operations to domestic groundwater wells is unknown. Here, we analyze the distance between domestic groundwater wells (public and self-supply) constructed between 2000 and 2014 and hydraulically fractured wells stimulated in 2014 in 14 states...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172473/chemical-degradation-of-polyacrylamide-during-hydraulic-fracturing
#6
Boya Xiong, Zachary Miller, Selina Roman-White, Travis L Tasker, Benjamin Farina, Bethany Piechowicz, Prachi Joshi, Liang Zhu, Christopher A Gorski, William D Burgos, Andrew L Zydney, Manish Kumar
Polyacrylamide (PAM) based friction reducers are a primary ingredient of slickwater hydraulic fracturing fluids. Little is known regarding the fate of these polymers under downhole conditions, which could have important environmental impacts including strategies for reuse or treatment of flowback water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical degradation of high molecular weight PAM, including the effects of shale, oxygen, temperature, pressure, and salinity. Data were obtained with a slickwater fracturing fluid exposed to both a shale sample collected from a Marcellus shale outcrop and to Marcellus core samples at high pressures/temperatures (HPT) simulating downhole conditions...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167601/tectonic-evolution-and-paleokarstification-of-carbonate-rocks-in-the-paleozoic-tarim-basin
#7
Xuhui Xu, Qianglu Chen, Chenglin Chu, Guorong Li, Cunge Liu, Zheng Shi
Thick carbonate rocks were developed in the depression of the Tarim craton during the Cambrian-Middle Ordovician periods. The compressional tectonic movement during the Middle Caledonian-Hercynian created the paleouplifts, which became the base for the paleokarst in the Ordovician carbonate rocks. Based on the large quantity of seismic, drilling, and geological outcrop data, this study analyzed the paleokarst development in relation to the multi-stage tectonic movements in the Paleozoic Era and different stages of karstification and hypothesized paleogeomorphology and paleokarst water system of those stages...
2017: Carbonates and Evaporites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156284/temporal-characterization-and-statistical-analysis-of-flowback-and-produced-waters-and-their-potential-for-reuse
#8
Karl Oetjen, Kevin E Chan, Kristoffer Gulmark, Jan H Christensen, Jens Blotevogel, Thomas Borch, John R Spear, Tzahi Y Cath, Christopher P Higgins
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149752/hazard-assessment-of-hydraulic-fracturing-chemicals-using-an-indexing-method
#9
Guangji Hu, Tianyi Liu, James Hager, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
The rapid expansion of unconventional natural gas production has triggered considerable public concerns, particularly regarding environmental and human health (EHH) risks posed by various chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. There is a need to assess the potential EHH hazards of additives used in real-world HF operations. In this study, HF additive and fracturing fluid data was acquired, and EHH hazards were assessed using an indexing approach. The indexing system analyzed chemical toxicological data of different ingredients contained within additives and produced an aggregated EHH safety index for each additive, along with an indicator describing the completeness of the chemical toxicological data...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#10
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140292/anisotropic-failure-strength-of-shale-with-increasing-confinement-behaviors-factors-and-mechanism
#11
Cheng Cheng, Xiao Li, Haitao Qian
Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses...
November 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132208/organic-chemical-characterization-and-mass-balance-of-a-hydraulically-fractured-well-from-fracturing-fluid-to-produced-water-over-405-days
#12
James S Rosenblum, E Michael Thurman, Imma Ferrer, George R Aiken, Karl G Linden
A long-term field study (405 days) of a hydraulically fractured well from the Niobrara Formation in the Denver-Julesburg Basin was completed. Characterization of organic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and their changes through time, from the pre-injected fracturing fluid to the produced water, was conducted. The characterization consisted of a mass balance by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), volatile organic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and nonvolatile organic analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122370/effectiveness-of-the-graded-motor-imagery-to-improve-hand-function-in-patients-with-distal-radius-fracture-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Burcu Dilek, Cigdem Ayhan, Gozde Yagci, Yavuz Yakut
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. INTRODUCTION: Pain management is essential in the early stages of the rehabilitation of distal radius fractures (DRFx). Pain intensity at the acute stage is considered important for determining the individual recovery process, given that higher pain intensity and persistent pain duration negatively affect the function and cortical activity of pain response. Graded motor imagery (GMI) and its components are recent pain management strategies, established on a neuroscience basis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122312/gestational-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-in-northeastern-british-columbia-canada-a-pilot-study
#14
Élyse Caron-Beaudoin, Naomi Valter, Jonathan Chevrier, Pierre Ayotte, Katherine Frohlich, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Northeastern British Columbia (Canada) is an area of intense hydraulic fracturing for unconventional natural gas exploitation. There have been multiple reports of air and water contamination by volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of gas wells. Although these chemicals are known developmental toxicants, no biomonitoring effort has been carried out in the region. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gestational exposure to benzene and toluene in the Peace River Valley, Northeastern British Columbia (Canada)...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113095/dynamic-fracture-behavior-of-steel-fiber-reinforced-self-compacting-concretes-sfrsccs
#15
Xiaoxin Zhang, Gonzalo Ruiz, Manuel Tarifa, David Cendón, Francisco Gálvez, Waleed H Alhazmi
Three-point bending tests on notched beams of three types of steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) have been performed by using both a servo-hydraulic machine and a drop-weight impact instrument. The lo ading rates had a range of six orders of magnitude from 2.20 × 10(-3) mm/s (quasi-static) to 2.66 × 10³ mm/s. These SFRSCCs had the same matrix, but various types of steel fiber (straight and hooked-end) and contents (volume ratios), 0.51%, 0.77% and 1.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the fracture energy and the flexural strength increase as the loading rate increases...
November 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110455/natural-attenuation-of-nonionic-surfactants-used-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-degradation-rates-pathways-and-mechanisms
#16
Katie M Heyob, Jens Blotevogel, Michael Brooker, Morgan V Evans, John J Lenhart, Justin Wright, Regina Lamendella, Thomas Borch, Paula J Mouser
Hydraulic fracturing fluids are injected into shales to extend fracture networks that enhance oil and natural gas production from unconventional reservoirs. Here we evaluated the biodegradability of three widely used nonionic polyglycol ether surfactants (alkyl ethoxylates (AEOs), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and polypropylene glycols (PPGs)) that function as weatherizers, emulsifiers, wetting agents, and corrosion inhibitors in injected fluids. Under anaerobic conditions, we observed complete removal of AEOs and NPEOs from solution within 3 weeks regardless of whether surfactants were part of a chemical mixture or amended as individual additives...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091067/the-emerging-role-of-4d-synchrotron-x-ray-micro-tomography-for-climate-and-fossil-energy-studies-five-experiments-showing-the-present-capabilities-at%C3%A2-beamline-8-3-2-at-the-advanced-light-source
#17
Marco Voltolini, Abdelmoula Haboub, Shan Dou, Tae Hyuk Kwon, Alastair A MacDowell, Dilworth Y Parkinson, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin
Continuous improvements at X-ray imaging beamlines at synchrotron light sources have made dynamic synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography (SXR-µCT) experiments more routinely available to users, with a rapid increase in demand given its tremendous potential in very diverse areas. In this work a survey of five different four-dimensional SXR-µCT experiments is presented, examining five different parameters linked to the evolution of the investigated system, and tackling problems in different areas in earth sciences...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083486/trace-element-behavior-in-methane-rich-and-methane-free-groundwater-in-north-and-east-texas
#18
Roxana Darvari, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Bridget R Scanlon, Patrick Mickler, Kristine Uhlman
There is concern about adverse impacts of natural gas (primarily methane) production on groundwater quality; however, data on trace element concentrations are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the distribution of trace elements in groundwater samples with and without dissolved methane in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale (Hood and Parker counties, 207 samples) and the Haynesville Shale (Panola County, 42 samples). Both shales have been subjected to intensive hydraulic fracturing for gas production...
October 30, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053946/measurement-of-area-and-personal-breathing-zone-concentrations-of-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-during-oil-and-gas-extraction-operations-including-hydraulic-fracturing
#19
Eric J Esswein, Marissa Alexander-Scott, John Snawder, Michael Breitenstein
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing) and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four year period from 2008-2012 The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m(3); measurements ranged from 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053936/evaluation-of-an-improved-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#20
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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