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Hydraulic fracturing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425455/the-effect-of-hydraulic-flowback-and-produced-water-on-gill-morphology-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-response-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#1
Tamzin A Blewett, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Perrine L M Delompré, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing fluid are complex mixtures containing high concentrations of salts (up to 330,000 ppm), organic, and metal contaminants. However, little data exist on the potential mechanisms of toxicity of these flowback and produced wastewaters (FPW) on aquatic biota. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to either control, FPW (2.5 or 7.5%), FPW that had been treated with activated charcoal (AC), or a custom salt-matched control (SW; replicating only the salt content of FPW) for 48 hours. Gill histology revealed decreases in interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) and mean lamellar length in all treatments (FPW, AC and SW) compared to control, indicative of hyperosmotic stress...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422971/comparison-of-chemical-use-between-hydraulic-fracturing-acidizing-and-routine-oil-and-gas-development
#2
William T Stringfellow, Mary Kay Camarillo, Jeremy K Domen, Seth B C Shonkoff
The potential hazards and risks associated with well-stimulation in unconventional oil and gas development (hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, and matrix acidizing) have been investigated and evaluated and federal and state regulations requiring chemical disclosure for well-stimulation have been implemented as part of an overall risk management strategy for unconventional oil and gas development. Similar evaluations for chemicals used in other routine oil and gas development activities, such as maintenance acidizing, gravel packing, and well drilling, have not been previously conducted, in part due to a lack of reliable information concerning on-field chemical-use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403606/halogenated-organic-compounds-identified-in-hydraulic-fracturing-wastewaters-using-ultrahigh-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#3
Jenna L Luek, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Paula J Mouser, William Tyler Petty, Susan D Richardson, Michael Gonsior
Large volumes of water return to the surface following hydraulic fracturing of deep shale formations to retrieve oil and natural gas. Current understanding of the specific organic constituents in these hydraulic fracturing wastewaters is limited to hydrocarbons and a fraction of known chemical additives. In this study, we analyzed hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) as a nontargeted technique to assign unambiguous molecular formulas to singly charged molecular ions...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399557/radiological-results-and-clinical-patient-outcome-after-implantation-of-a-hydraulic-expandable-vertebral-body-replacement-following-traumatic-vertebral-fractures-in-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-a-3-year-follow-up
#4
Michael Kreinest, Dorothee Schmahl, Paul A Grützner, Stefan Matschke
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective monocentric study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was the analysis of patient outcome and radiological results 3 years after implantation of a hydraulic expandable vertebral body replacement (VBR) system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Around 70% to 90% of all traumatic spinal fractures are located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Dorso-ventral stabilization is a frequently used procedure in traumatic vertebral body fracture treatment...
April 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389120/reference-equations-for-handgrip-strength-normative-values-in-young-adult-and-middle-aged-subjects
#5
Jordão Lopes, Samantha Torres Grams, Edy Floriano da Silva, Luana Adriano de Medeiros, Christina May Moran de Brito, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369113/a-pilot-study-to-assess-residential-noise-exposure-near-natural-gas-compressor-stations
#6
Meleah D Boyle, Sutyajeet Soneja, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Laura Dalemarre, Amy R Sapkota, Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Sacoby Wilson, Donald Milton, Amir Sapkota
BACKGROUND: U.S. natural gas production increased 40% from 2000 to 2015. This growth is largely related to technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. Environmental exposures upon impacted communities are a significant public health concern. Noise associated with natural gas compressor stations has been identified as a major concern for nearby residents, though limited studies exist. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a pilot study to characterize noise levels in 11 homes located in Doddridge County, West Virginia, and determined whether these levels differed based on time of day, indoors vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329412/measuring-flow-rate-in-crystalline-bedrock-wells-using-the-dissolved-oxygen-alteration-method
#7
Sarah A Vitale, Gary A Robbins
Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time...
March 22, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306517/biomechanical-analysis-of-stiffness-and-fracture-displacement-after-using-pmma-augmented-sacroiliac-screw-fixation-for-sacrum-fractures
#8
Andreas Höch, Richard Schimpf, Niels Hammer, Stefan Schleifenbaum, Michael Werner, Christoph Josten, Jörg Böhme
Cement augmentation of pedicle screws is the gold standard for the stabilization of osteoporotic fractures of the spine. In-screw cement augmentation, in which cement is injected through the cannula, is another option for fracture stabilization of fragility fractures of the sacrum. However, biomechanical superiority of this technique compared to conventional sacroiliac screw fixation has not been tested. The present study compares the stability of cement-augmented and non-cement-augmented sacroiliac screw fixation in osteoporotic sacrum fractures under cyclic loading...
March 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302780/draft-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-sp-bdal1-reconstructed-from-a-bakken-shale-hydraulic-fracturing-produced-water-storage-tank-metagenome
#9
Daniel Lipus, Daniel Ross, Kyle Bibby, Djuna Gulliver
We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284138/perceived-risks-of-produced-water-management-and-naturally-occurring-radioactive-material-content-in-north-dakota
#10
Luisa Torres, Om Prakash Yadav, Eakalak Khan
Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278314/biomechanic-factors-associated-with-orbital-floor-fractures
#11
Sagar Patel, Christopher Andrecovich, Michael Silverman, Liying Zhang, Mahdii Shkoukani
Importance: Orbital floor fractures are commonly seen in clinical practice, yet the etiology underlying the mechanism of fracture is not well understood. Current research focuses on the buckling theory and hydraulic theory, which implicate trauma to the orbital rim and the globe, respectively. Objective: To elucidate and define the biomechanical factors involved in an orbital floor fracture. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 10 orbits from 5 heads (3 male and 2 female) were used for this study...
March 9, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273951/vein-networks-in-hydrothermal-systems-provide-constraints-for-the-monitoring-of-active-volcanoes
#12
Luigi Cucci, Francesca Di Luccio, Alessandra Esposito, Guido Ventura
Vein networks affect the hydrothermal systems of many volcanoes, and variations in their arrangement may precede hydrothermal and volcanic eruptions. However, the long-term evolution of vein networks is often unknown because data are lacking. We analyze two gypsum-filled vein networks affecting the hydrothermal field of the active Lipari volcanic Island (Italy) to reconstruct the dynamics of the hydrothermal processes. The older network (E1) consists of sub-vertical, N-S striking veins; the younger network (E2) consists of veins without a preferred strike and dip...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273539/nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-for-metal-metalloid-removal-from-model-hydraulic-fracturing-wastewater
#13
Yuqing Sun, Cheng Lei, Eakalak Khan, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Daohui Lin, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was tested for the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), and As(V) in model saline wastewaters from hydraulic fracturing. Increasing ionic strength (I) from 0.35 to 4.10 M (Day-1 to Day-90 wastewaters) increased Cu(II) removal (25.4-80.0%), inhibited Zn(II) removal (58.7-42.9%), slightly increased and then reduced Cr(VI) removal (65.7-44.1%), and almost unaffected As(V) removal (66.7-75.1%) by 8-h reaction with nZVI at 1-2 g L(-1). The removal kinetics conformed to pseudo-second-order model, and increasing I decreased the surface area-normalized rate coefficient (ksa) of Cu(II) and Cr(VI), probably because agglomeration of nZVI in saline wastewaters restricted diffusion of metal(loid)s to active surface sites...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258287/-trisegmental-fusion-by-vertebral-body-replacement-outcome-following-traumatic-multisegmental-fractures-of-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine
#14
Michael Kreinest, Dorothee Schmahl, Paul A Grützner, Stefan Matschke
BACKGROUND: Around 5% of all trauma patients suffer from spinal trauma. Spinal fractures are mainly located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. For multisegmental vertebral fractures categorized as instable, combined dorsal instrumentation and ventral stabilization is recommended. Numerous vertebral body replacement systems are available for ventral stabilization. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to analyze radiological results following the implantation of a hydraulic expandable vertebral body replacement and the evaluation of patients' outcome three years after implantation...
March 3, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248422/methane-occurrences-in-aquifers-overlying-the-barnett-shale-play-with-a-focus-on-parker-county-texas
#15
Jean-Philippe Nicot, Patrick Mickler, Toti Larson, M Clara Castro, Roxana Darvari, Kristine Uhlman, Ruth Costley
Clusters of elevated methane concentrations in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale play have been the focus of recent national attention as they relate to impacts of hydraulic fracturing. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial extent of high dissolved methane previously observed on the western edge of the play (Parker County) and to evaluate its most likely source. A total of 509 well water samples from 12 counties (14,500 km(2) ) were analyzed for methane, major ions, and carbon isotopes. Most samples were collected from the regional Trinity Aquifer and show only low levels of dissolved methane (85% of 457 unique locations <0...
March 1, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238366/modeling-potential-occupational-inhalation-exposures-and-associated-risks-of-toxic-organics-from-chemical-storage-tanks-used-in-hydraulic-fracturing-using-aermod
#16
Huan Chen, Kimberly E Carter
Various toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids may influence the inherent health risks associated with these operations. This study investigated the possible occupational inhalation exposures and potential risks related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical storage tanks and flowback pits used in hydraulic fracturing. Potential risks were evaluated based on radial distances between 5 m and 180 m from the wells for 23 contaminants with known inhalation reference concentration (RfC) or inhalation unit risks (IUR)...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229951/chemical-and-toxicological-characterizations-of-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#17
Yuhe He, Shannon L Flynn, Erik J Folkerts, Yifeng Zhang, Dongliang Ruan, Daniel S Alessi, Jonathan W Martin, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics...
February 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220696/unconventional-oil-and-gas-spills-risks-mitigation-priorities-and-state-reporting-requirements
#18
Lauren A Patterson, Katherine E Konschnik, Hannah Wiseman, Joseph Fargione, Kelly O Maloney, Joseph Kiesecker, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Sally Entrekin, Anne Trainor, James E Saiers
Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2-16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m(3) in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m(3) in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m(3). Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213127/quantitation-of-lead-210-210-pb-using-lead-203-203-pb-as-a-massless-yield-tracer
#19
D May, A N Nelson, M K Schultz
Determination of Pb-210 ((210)Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of (210)Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159795/predominance-and-metabolic-potential-of-halanaerobium-spp-in-produced-water-from-hydraulically-fractured-marcellus-shale-wells
#20
Daniel Lipus, Amit Vikram, Daniel Ross, Daniel Bain, Djuna Gulliver, Richard Hammack, Kyle Bibby
Microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across all 42 produced water samples...
April 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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