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Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Igor Filipčić, Ivona Šimunović Filipčić, Tomislav Gajšak, Željko Milovac, Strahimir Sučić, Ena Ivezić, Sandra Zečević Penić, Ivana Orgulan, Damir Šebo, Vjekoslav Jeleč, Žarko Bajić
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). At present, no randomized controlled trials (RCT) have compared the efficacy and safety of rTMS delivered by the figure-8-coil and the H1-coil. We describe an industry-independent, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, single-center study protocol assessing the differences in efficacy and safety of rTMS for patients diagnosed with MDD with the H1-coil and figure-8-coil as an add-on to stable pharmacotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Tim Michael Feenstra, Chris Dickhoff, Jaap Deunk
PURPOSE: Tube thoracostomy is frequently used in thoracic trauma patients. However, there is no consensus on whether low pressure suction or water seal is the optimal method of tube management. Against this background, we performed a systematic review of studies comparing suction and water seal management of chest tubes placed for traumatic chest injuries in adults. Evaluated outcomes are duration of chest tube treatment, length of stay in hospital, incidence of persistent air leak, clotted hemothorax, and the need for (re-)interventions...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Przemyslaw Rys, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Katarzyna Cyganek, Maciej T Malecki
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) in the general type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) population. RCT data on T1DM management in pregnancy remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of both RCTs and non-RCTs evaluating CSII versus MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CSII with MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Pablo Antonio Ureña-Torres, Mario Cozzolino, Jordi Bover
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the most frequent and deleterious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). SHPT is also one of the principal components of the now called CKD-mineral and bone disorders (MBD) syndrome. It is usually prevented and treated by vitamin D derivatives. However, the rationale for the prescription of vitamin D sterols in those patients is still a matter of hotly debates, mainly because of unsatisfactory results from numerous observational and not well-controlled studies...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Salvador Vargas-Salfate, Dario Paez, James H Liu, Felicia Pratto, Homero Gil de Zúñiga
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Myung Han Hyun, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chan Uk Lee, Young Kul Jung, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun
According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate to advanced (BCLC stage-B/C) stage HCC to determine the current evidence. Through database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (1 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 propensity-score matching non-randomized comparative trials [NRCT], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE...
March 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tanya van de Water, Jaco Rossouw, Alberta S J van der Watt, Elna Yadin, Soraya Seedat
This qualitative investigation, nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT), describes the experiences of adolescent participants accessing psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a school-based setting. Supervised nurses provided the psychotherapeutic interventions. Twelve participants who took part in the RCT were invited, and 10 agreed to share their experiences through recorded face-to-face, semistructured, in-depth interviews and treatment-specific focus groups. Basic thematic analysis was applied using Atlas...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Jun Ma, Bin Chen, Dong Li, Yue Zhang, Zhaoxia Ying
Port-wine stain (PWS) birthmark is a congenital microvascular malformation of the skin. A 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser can achieve a deeper treatment, but the weak absorption by blood limits its clinical application. Multiple laser pulses (MLPs) are a potential solution to enhance the curative effect of a Nd:YAG laser. To reduce the pulse number (pn ) required for the thermal destruction of the blood vessel, the effect of glucose in conjunction with MLP was investigated. In vivo experiments were performed on a dorsal skin chamber model...
March 14, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Adisa Kursumovic, Jenny C Kienzler, Gerrit J Bouma, Richard Bostelmann, Michael Heggeness, Claudius Thome, Larry E Miller, Martin Barth
STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the morphology and clinical relevance of vertebral endplate changes (VEPC) following limited lumbar discectomy with or without implantation of a bone-anchored annular closure device (ACD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implantation of an ACD following limited lumbar discectomy has shown promise in reducing the risk of recurrent herniation in patients with large annular defects...
March 13, 2018: Spine
Bente T Jensen, Susanne V Lauridsen, Jørgen B Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whether prehabilitation in radical cystectomy adds to the effort of reducing postoperative morbidity and impairments in the survivorship phase has until recently received limited attention. This narrative review aims to summarize the current evidence base on prehabilitaion interventions focusing on the efficacy of procedure-specific interventions and the influence on postoperative outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the oncological risk, there is a relative short window to intervene and proactively optimize the patient before radical cystectomy...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Mohamed Barkat, Iain Roy, Stavros A Antoniou, Francesco Torella, George A Antoniou
We aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate outcomes of treatment strategies for asymptomatic carotid disease. We searched electronic bibliographic sources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL) to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) reporting comparative outcomes of carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid stenting (CAS) and best medical therapy (BMT) in asymptomatic carotid disease. We performed pairwise meta-analysis applying random or fixed-effects models and reported the results as the odds ratio (OR) or risk difference (RD) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Debbie L Croyden, Helen A Vidgen, Emma Esdaile, Emely Hernandez, Anthea Magarey, Carly J Moores, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: PEACH™QLD translated the PEACH™ Program, designed to manage overweight/obesity in primary school-aged children, from efficacious RCT and small scale community trial to a larger state-wide program. This paper describes the lessons learnt when upscaling to universal health coverage. METHODS: The 6-month, family-focussed program was delivered in Queensland, Australia from 2013 to 2016. Its implementation was planned by researchers who developed the program and conducted the RCT, and experienced project managers and practitioners across the health continuum...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Marco Ceresoli, Apollonia Verrengia, Giulia Montori, Luisa Busci, Federico Coccolini, Luca Ansaloni, Luigi Frigerio
OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been proposed as a treatment in ovarian cancer. A recently published RCT demonstrated that HIPEC prolongs disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate oncologic results of cytoreductive surgery+HIPEC compared with cytoreductive surgery alone in advanced primary ovarian cancer with a particular attention to the pattern of recurrence. METHODS: This is a retrospective case control study with a propensity score (PS) matching of the patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Cristiano Tomasi, Mauro Donati, Denis Cecchinato, Isacco Szathvary, Enrico Corrà, Jan Lindhe
OBJECTIVE: To examine if (i) characteristics of the fresh extraction socket site influenced subsequent dimensional alterations and (ii) placement of deproteinized bovine mineral in the socket affected volumetric change during healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty seven subjects and 28 extraction sites were included. Immediately after the removal of the tooth and after 6 months of healing, stone and virtual models of the jaw were produced. A cone beam computerized tomography scan was obtained immediately after extraction and the thickness of the buccal bone wall at the extraction site was measured...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Guowei Li, Meha Bhatt, Mei Wang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Lehana Thabane
Evidence from a well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is generally considered to be the gold standard that can inform clinical practice and guide decision-making. However, several deficiencies in the reporting of RCTs have frequently been identified, including incomplete, selective, and biased or inconsistent reporting. Such suboptimal reporting may lead to irreproducible results, substantial waste of resources, impaired study validity, erosion of public trust in science, and a high risk of research misconduct...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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