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Yue-Ying Li, Yong-Hua Zhao
Autophagy refers to the process in which the cellular lysosome degrades the cell's own damaged organelles and related macromolecule substances. It plays important roles in the homeostasis of organs, cell survival, and stable development. Previous studies indicate that the process of cardiopathology is closely associated with autophagy and some of Chinese medicines (active compounds and formulae) are found to have beneficial effects on injured cardiomyocytes via the modulation of autophagy. This review highlights the efficacy of the action of Chinese medicine on the regulation of myocardial autophagy and summarizes the related molecular and signal mechanisms...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Lea M D Delbridge, Kimberley M Mellor, David J Taylor, Roberta A Gottlieb
Autophagy is a ubiquitous cellular catabolic process responsive to energy stress. Research over the past decade has revealed that cardiomyocyte autophagy is a prominent homeostatic pathway, important in adaptation to altered myocardial metabolic demand. The cellular machinery of autophagy involves targeted direction of macromolecules and organelles for lysosomal degradation. Activation of autophagy has been identified as cardioprotective in some settings (that is, ischaemia and ischaemic preconditioning). In other situations, sustained autophagy has been linked with cardiopathology (for example, sustained pressure overload and heart failure)...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Robert A H van de Ven, Daniel Santos, Marcia C Haigis
Advancing age is the major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases and is accompanied by changes in metabolic processes and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial sirtuins (SIRT3-5) are part of the sirtuin family of NAD+ -dependent deacylases and ADP-ribosyl transferases. The dependence on NAD+ links sirtuin enzymatic activity to the metabolic state of the cell, poising them as stress sensors. Recent insights have revealed that SIRT3-5 orchestrate stress responses through coordinated regulation of substrate clusters rather than of a few key metabolic enzymes...
April 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Raquel Bravo-Escobar, Alicia González-Represas, Adela María Gómez-González, Angel Montiel-Trujillo, Rafael Aguilar-Jimenez, Rosa Carrasco-Ruíz, Pablo Salinas-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented the feasibility of home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes in low-risk patients with ischemic heart disease, but a similar solution needs to be found for patients at moderate cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness and safety of a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme of mixed surveillance in patients with ischemic cardiopathology at moderate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A randomised, controlled clinical trial was designed wherein 28 patients with stable coronary artery disease at moderate cardiovascular risk, who met the selection criteria for this study, participated...
February 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
What is the central question of this study? The central question of this study is to understand whether dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates physiologic, histological, and biochemical indices of cardiac pathology. What is the main finding and its importance? Novel findings from this investigation, in comparison to prior published studies, suggest that mouse strain-dependent cardiac outcomes in performance and remodelling exist. Unlike Mdx/Utrn-/+ mice, mdx mice receiving lifelong quercetin treatment did not exhibit improvements cardiac function...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas S Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Rajesh Amin, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is associated with progressive cardiac pathology; however, the SIRT1/PGC1-α activator quercetin may cardioprotect dystrophic hearts. We tested the extent to which long-term 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice. At 2 mo, Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice were fed quercetin-enriched (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)-Q) or control diet (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)) for 8 mo. Control C57BL/10 (C57) animals were fed a control diet for 10 mo. Cardiac function was quantified by MRI at 2 and 10 mo...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Christopher S Wood, Rita J Valentino, Susan K Wood
Repeated exposure to psychosocial stress is a robust sympathomimetic stressor and as such has adverse effects on cardiovascular health. While the neurocircuitry involved remains unclear, the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system suggest that it is poised to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability. A major theme throughout is to review studies that shed light on the role that the LC may play in individual differences in vulnerability to social stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
April 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Luca Roncati, Teresa Pusiol, Francesco Piscioli, Giuseppe Barbolini, Antonio Maiorana, Anna Lavezzi
PURPOSE: Sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) represents one of the main open issues in the scientific and social setting of the modern medicine, and our efforts have aimed to understand its possible causes and risk factors. METHODS: A 43-case series of consecutive unexplained fetal deaths coming from Northeast Italy, collected in a 5-year period (2011-2015), has been submitted to an in-depth investigation, based on neuropathological and cardiopathological examinations, immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), genetic characterization for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms, and toxicological environmental analyses...
2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Susan K Wood, Rita J Valentino
Chronic exposure to psychosocial stress has adverse effects on cardiovascular health, however the stress-sensitive neurocircuitry involved remains to be elucidated. The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system position it to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on cardiovascular dysfunction produced by social stress and a major theme highlighted is that differences in coping strategy determine individual differences in social stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability...
March 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nafiseh Sadat Alamolhodaei, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis...
November 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jennifer Marton, Danica Albert, Sean A Wiltshire, Robin Park, Arthur Bergen, Salman Qureshi, Danielle Malo, Yan Burelle, Silvia M Vidal
Coxsackievirus type B3 (CVB3) is a cardiotropic enterovirus. Infection causes cardiomyocyte necrosis and myocardial inflammation. The damaged tissue that results is replaced with fibrotic or calcified tissue, which can lead to permanently altered cardiac function. The extent of pathogenesis among individuals exposed to CVB3 is dictated by a combination of host genetics, viral virulence, and the environment. Here, we aimed to identify genes that modulate cardiopathology following CVB3 infection. 129S1 mice infected with CVB3 developed increased cardiac pathology compared to 129X1 substrain mice despite no difference in viral burden...
2015: PloS One
Carlos Valiente-Barroso, Jesús M Alvarado-Izquierdo, Emilio García García
The aim of this study is to analyze the potential impact of factors (clinical and demographic variables and comorbidities) associated with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) on certain mental processes related to cognitive impairment, with special attention to the analysis of parameters that define processing speed and executive function. Neuropsychological examination of elderly Spanish patients (N = 59, 33 females, M age 70.98 years) diagnosed with DM, in addition to application of an ad hoc questionnaire to collect information on comorbidities and other relevant demographic variables...
2015: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Randolph S Faustino, Saranya P Wyles, Jody Groenendyk, Marek Michalak, Andre Terzic, Carmen Perez-Terzic
BACKGROUND: Pathological cardiac development is precipitated by dysregulation of calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident calcium binding chaperone and critical contributor to cardiogenesis and embryonic viability. However, pleiotropic phenotype derangements induced by calreticulin deficiency challenge the identification of specific downstream transcriptome elements that direct proper cardiac formation. Here, differential transcriptome navigation was used to diagnose high priority calreticulin domain-specific gene expression changes and decrypt complex cardiac-specific molecular responses elicited by discrete functional regions of calreticulin...
2015: BMC Systems Biology
James R Bell, Antonia J A Raaijmakers, Claire L Curl, Melissa E Reichelt, Tristan W Harding, Aier Bei, Dominic C H Ng, Jeffrey R Erickson, Martin Vila Petroff, Stephen B Harrap, Lea M D Delbridge
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-related arrhythmic incidence is generally lower in females (vs males), though risk is selectively increased in women with underlying cardiopathology. Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in ischemia/reperfusion arrhythmias, yet the role of CaMKII in the ischemic female heart has not been determined. The aim of this study was to define the role and molecular mechanism of CaMKII activation in reperfusion arrhythmias in male/female hearts...
February 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Robert L Conder, Alanna A Conder
The study of heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an essential component of cardiovascular health, as well as a physiological mechanism by which one can increase the interactive communication between the cardiac and the neurocognitive systems (i.e., the body and the brain). It is well-established that lack of HRV implies cardiopathology, morbidity, reduced quality-of-life, and precipitous mortality. On the positive, optimal HRV has been associated with good cardiovascular health, autonomic nervous system (ANS) control, emotional regulation, and enhanced neurocognitive processing...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuan Wang, Nicole M Bishop, Douglas J Taatjes, Sonoko Narisawa, José Luis Millán, Bradley M Palmer
We have previously reported that Zn(2+) infused into the coronary arteries of isolated rat hearts leads to the potent dephosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) as well as a noticeable but less potent dephosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor 2. We hypothesized in the present study that a Zn(2+)-activated phosphatase is located in the vicinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) where PLB and ryanodine receptor 2 reside. We report here the novel finding of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a zinc-dependent enzyme, localized to the SR in the cardiac sarcomere of mouse myocardium...
September 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Karin Klingel, Cornelia Fabritius, Martina Sauter, Katrin Göldner, Diana Stauch, Reinhard Kandolf, Nicole Ettischer, Sabine Gahlen, Tanja Schönberger, Susanne Ebner, Andrew P Makrigiannis, Simon Bélanger, Andreas Diefenbach, Bojan Polić, Johann Pratschke, Katja Kotsch
In enterovirus-induced cardiomyopathy, information regarding the detailed impact of natural killer (NK) cells on the outcome of the disease is limited. We therefore hypothesized that NK cells and certain NK cell receptors determine the different outcome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. Here, we demonstrate in murine models that resistance to chronic CVB3 myocarditis in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice is characterized by significantly more mature CD11b(high) NK cells, the presence of NKG2D on NK cells, and enhanced NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity compared to CVB3-susceptible A...
October 2014: Journal of Pathology
A V Tsybulskiĭ, A M Popov, A A Artiukhov, O N Krivoshapko, É P Kozlovskaia, L N Bogdanovich, S P Kryzhanovskiĭ, Iu G Blinov
The effects of the small doses of the preparation Gistochrome, containing natural polyhydroxynaphtoquinoine echinochrom A from flat sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis, on blood biochemical parameters have been studied in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Gistochrome administration influenced the LPO-antioxidant protection system, indicating reinforcement of antioxidant protection mechanisms. Gistochrome modulated the immune status and the plasma cytokine profile. Thus, Gistochrome may be recommended as means of additional therapy for patients with cardiovascular diseases for correcting the metabolic, immunological and redox impairments...
January 2014: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Francisco J Esquivel-Hernández, F Bernardo Pliego-Rivero, Gustavo G Mendieta-Alcántara, Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Gloria A Otero-Ojeda
UNLABELLED: Within the field of pediatric heart disease, congenital cardiopathology is the most important issue due to the fact that in these patients a delay of neurodevelopment is the most frequent morbidity. The major aim of this work was to determine the impact of severe congenital cardiopathology (SCC) on the central nervous system (CNS) through the study of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the assessment of neurodevelopment. POPULATION AND METHODS: Children under 3 years old, 41 of them presenting SCC and 15 healthy controls (C) were studied...
November 2013: Gaceta Médica de México
Thomas V A Murray, Aminah Ahmad, Alison C Brewer
During heart development, the progression from a pluripotent, undifferentiated embryonic stem cell to a functional cardiomyocyte in the adult mammalian heart is characterised by profound changes in gene expression, cell structure, proliferative capacity and metabolism. Whilst the precise causal relationships between these processes are not fully understood, it is clear that the availability and cellular ability to utilise oxygen are critical effectors of cardiomyocyte differentiation and function during development...
April 2014: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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