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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079370/substituted-polyesters-by-thiol-ene-modification-rapid-diversification-for-therapeutic-protein-stabilization
#1
Emma M Pelegri-O'Day, Samantha J Paluck, Heather D Maynard
Many proteins, especially those used as therapeutics, are unstable to storage and shipping temperatures, leading to increased costs in research and industry. Therefore, the design and synthesis of novel stabilizers is an important area of investigation. Herein we report new degradable polymers that stabilize proteins to environmental stressors such as refrigeration and elevated temperature. Specifically, polycaprolactones with different pendant groups were synthesized and surveyed for their ability to stabilize an important therapeutic protein to storage and shipping conditions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075574/visualization-of-mycobacterial-membrane-dynamics-in-live-cells
#2
Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose-fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein-trehalose analogs that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072431/expression-patterns-of-three-genes-under-short-and-long-term-cold-exposure-in-thitarodes-pui-lepidoptera-hepialidae-a-host-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#3
Q Min, S Y Cheng, J F Xi, J Ma, T R Xin, B Xia, Z W Zou
:   BACKGROUND: Thitarodes larvae are the host of the caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Low temperature is the main environmental limitation for larvae growth. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the cold adaption process in T. pui larvae, the expression patterns of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TpTPS), heat shock protein 70 (TpHSP70), and heat shock protein 90 (TpHSP90) were investigated upon short and long-term exposure to 0°C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 6th instar T...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069587/trehalose-6-phosphate-signal-is-closely-related-to-sorbitol-in-apple-fruit-malus-domestica-borkh-cv-gala
#4
Wen Zhang, John E Lunn, Regina Feil, Yufei Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Hongxia Tao, Yanping Guo, Zhengyang Zhao
Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple fruit (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068606/trehalose-does-not-improve-neuronal-survival-on-exposure-to-alpha-synuclein-pre-formed-fibrils
#5
Matthew Redmann, Willayat Y Wani, Laura Volpicelli-Daley, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by intracellular inclusions comprised primarily of alpha-synuclein (αSyn) that can also be transmitted from neuron to neuron. Several lines of evidence suggest that these inclusions cause neurodegeneration. Thus exploring strategies to improve neuronal survival in neurons with αSyn aggregates is critical. Previously, exposure to αSyn pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) has been shown to induce aggregation of endogenous αSyn resulting in cell death that is exacerbated by either starvation or inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, both of which are able to induce autophagy, an intracellular protein degradation pathway...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063960/effect-of-trehalose-as-an-additive-to-dimethyl-sulfoxide-solutions-on-ice-formation-cellular-viability-and-metabolism
#6
Jason Solocinski, Quinn Osgood, Mian Wang, Aaron Connolly, Michael A Menze, Nilay Chakraborty
Cryopreservation is the only established method for long-term preservation of cells and cellular material. This technique involves preservation of cells and cellular components in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 °C). The organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) is one of the most commonly utilized CPAs and has been used with various levels of success depending on the type of cells. In recent years, to improve cryogenic outcomes, the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose has been used as an additive to Me2SO-based freezing solutions...
January 4, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045942/knock-down-of-whitefly-gut-gene-expression-and-mortality-by-orally-delivered-gut-gene-specific-dsrnas
#7
Meenal Vyas, Amir Raza, Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Muhammad Aleem Ashraf, Shahid Mansoor, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Judith K Brown
Control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) agricultural pest and plant virus vector relies on the use of chemical insecticides. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent innate immune response in eukaryotes, including insects, which results in degradation of the corresponding transcript following its recognition by a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that shares 100% sequence homology. In this study, six whitefly 'gut' genes were selected from an in silico-annotated transcriptome library constructed from the whitefly alimentary canal or 'gut' of the B biotype of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044441/trehalose-glycopolymer-enhances-both-solution-stability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-therapeutic-protein
#8
Yang Liu, Juneyoung Lee, Kathryn M Mansfield, Jeong Hoon Ko, Sahar Sallam, Chrys Wesdemiotis, Heather D Maynard
Biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been successfully conjugated to therapeutic proteins to enhance their pharmacokinetics. However, many of these polymers, including PEG, only improve the in vivo lifetimes and do not protect proteins against inactivation during storage and transportation. Herein, we report a polymer with trehalose side chains (PolyProtek) that is capable of improving both the external stability and the in vivo plasma half-life of a therapeutic protein. Insulin was employed as a model biologic, and high performance liquid chromatography and dynamic light scattering confirmed that addition of trehalose glycopolymer as an excipient or covalent conjugation prevented thermal or agitation-induced aggregation of insulin...
January 3, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036246/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#9
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate M. smegmatis, PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032758/synthesis-and-electron-spin-relaxation-of-tetracarboxylate-pyrroline-nitroxides
#10
Shengdian Huang, Joseph T Paletta, Hanan Elajaili, Kirby Huber, Maren Pink, Suchada Rajca, Gareth R Eaton, Sandra S Eaton, Andrzej Rajca
We report the design, synthesis, and electron spin relaxation properties of hydrophilic tetracarboxylate ester pyrroline nitroxides 1 and 2, which serve as models in the search for new spin labels for DEER distance measurement at room temperature. The nitroxides are designed to have the methyl groups further away from the N-O spin site to decrease the inequivalent couplings of the unpaired electron to the methyl protons that shorten Tm at T > 70 K in currently used labels. The key step in the synthesis of 1 and 2 is the reaction of the dianion of pyrrole-1,2,5-tricarboxylic acid tert-butyl ester dimethyl ester with electrophiles such as methyl chloroformate and methyl bromoacetate...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025505/chitosan-based-nano-embedded-microparticles-impact-of-nanogel-composition-on-physicochemical-properties
#11
Paromita Islam, Jorrit J Water, Adam Bohr, Jukka Rantanen
Chitosan-based nanogels have been widely applied as drug delivery vehicles. Spray-drying of said nanogels allows for the preparation of dry powder nano-embedded microparticles. In this work, chitosan-based nanogels composed of chitosan, alginate, and/or sodium tri-penta phosphate were investigated, particularly with respect to the impact of composition on the resulting physicochemical properties. Different compositions were obtained as nanogels with sizes ranging from 203 to 561 nm. The addition of alginate and exclusion of sodium tri-penta phosphate led to an increase in nanogel size...
December 22, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019688/cell-culture-media-supplementation-of-infrequently-used-sugars-for-the-targeted-shifting-of-protein-glycosylation-profiles
#12
Patrick Hossler, Christopher Racicot, Christopher Chumsae, Sean McDermott, Keith Cochran
Mammalian cells in culture rely on sources of carbohydrates to supply the energy requirements for proliferation. In addition, carbohydrates provide a large source of the carbon supply for supporting various other metabolic activities, including the intermediates involved in the protein glycosylation pathway. Glucose and galactose, in particular, are commonly used sugars in culture media for these purposes. However, there exists a very large repertoire of other sugars in nature, and many that have been chemically synthesized...
December 26, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018432/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-viability-and-differentiating-features-for-orthopaedic-reparative-applications-banking-of-adipose-tissue
#13
Ilaria Roato, Daniela Alotto, Dimas Carolina Belisario, Stefania Casarin, Mara Fumagalli, Irene Cambieri, Raimondo Piana, Maurizio Stella, Riccardo Ferracini, Carlotta Castagnoli
Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of articular cartilage also due to reduced chondrogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from patients. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs (ATD-MSCs), representing an effective tool for reparative medicine, particularly for treatment of osteoarthritis, due to their chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capability. The treatment of symptomatic knee arthritis with ATD-MSCs proved effective with a single infusion, but multiple infusions could be also more efficacious...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011302/structure-activity-relationships-in-carbohydrates-revealed-by-their-hydration
#14
Laura Maugeri, Sebastian Busch, Sylvia E McLain, Luis Carlos Pardo, Fabio Bruni, Maria Antonietta Ricci
One of the more intriguing aspects of carbohydrate chemistry is that despite having very similar molecular structures, sugars have very different properties. For instance, there is a sensible difference in sweet taste between glucose and trehalose, even though trehalose is a disaccharide that comprised two glucose units, suggesting a different ability of these two carbohydrates to bind to sweet receptors. Here we have looked at the hydration of specific sites and at the three-dimensional configuration of water molecules around three carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose), combining neutron diffraction data with computer modelling...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008820/streptococcus-caviae-sp-nov-isolated-from-guinea-pig-faecal-samples
#15
Susakul Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Loes J Hilderink, John van der Oost, Willem M de Vos, Caroline M Plugge
A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain are oval-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, stain Gram-positive and facultative anaerobic. The strain grows between 25 - 40oC (optimum is 37oC) and pH 4.5 - 9.5 (optimum is 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996018/survival-strategies-of-citrus-rootstocks-subjected-to-drought
#16
Dayse Drielly Souza Santana-Vieira, Luciano Freschi, Lucas Aragão da Hora Almeida, Diogo Henrique Santos de Moraes, Diana Matos Neves, Liziane Marques Dos Santos, Fabiana Zanelato Bertolde, Walter Dos Santos Soares Filho, Maurício Antonio Coelho Filho, Abelmon da Silva Gesteira
Two citrus rootstocks, Rangpur lime (RL) and Sunki Maravilha mandarin (SM), were analyzed either ungrafted or grafted with their reciprocal graft combinations or with shoot scions of two commercial citrus varieties: Valencia orange (VO) and Tahiti acid lime (TAL). All graft combinations were subjected to distinct watering regimes: well-watered, severe drought and rehydration. Growth and water relation parameters, gas exchange as well as sugar and hormone profiles were determined. Data indicated that RL adopted a dehydration avoidance strategy and maintained growth, whereas SM adopted a dehydration tolerance strategy focused on plant survival...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992562/two-subclasses-of-differentially-expressed-tps1-genes-and-biochemically-active-tps1-proteins-may-contribute-to-sugar-signalling-in-kiwifruit-actinidia-chinensis
#17
Charlotte Voogd, Lara A Brian, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. Four class I TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1) genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. The transcript with highest sequence homology to Arabidopsis TPS1, designated TPS1.1a was the most highly abundant TPS1 transcript in all examined kiwifruit tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992192/heparin-enhances-transfection-in-concert-with-a-trehalose-based-polycation-with-challenging-cell-types
#18
William S Boyle, Kyle Senger, Jakub Tolar, Theresa M Reineke
Improving the delivery of nucleic acids to diverse tissue types in culture is important for translating genome editing for regenerative cell therapies. Herein, we examine the effect of transfection media additives, such as the sulfated glycosaminoglycan heparin, in dramatically increasing pDNA delivery efficiency and transgene expression in a wide variety of cell types. Polyplexes formed by combining pDNA and Tr4, a cationic glycopolymer containing repeated trehalose and pentaethylenetetramine groups, were treated with low concentrations of heparin prior to in vitro transfection with plasmid DNA...
December 19, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989018/effect-of-different-lubricant-eye-gels-on-tear-film-thickness-as-measured-with-ultrahigh-resolution-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Piotr A Wozniak, Doreen Schmidl, Ahmed M Bata, Klemens Fondi, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Carina Baar, Kim I Room, Johannes Nepp, Isabella Baumgartner, Alina Popa-Cherecheanu, Gerhard Garhöfer, René M Werkmeister, Leopold Schmetterer
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of a single drop of different lubricant eye gels on tear film thickness (TFT) as measured with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in patients with mild-to-moderate dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: The study followed a randomized, single-masked, observer-blinded parallel group design. Patients received a single dose of either unpreserved trehalose 3% + hyaluronic acid 0.15% (TH), hyaluronic acid 0.2% (HA) or polyethylene glycol 0...
December 18, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987472/seed-priming-improves-chilling-tolerance-in-chickpea-by-modulating-germination-metabolism-trehalose-accumulation-and-carbon-assimilation
#20
Muhammad Farooq, Mubshar Hussain, Ahmad Nawaz, Dong-Jin Lee, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Chilling stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting chickpea productivity worldwide. This study evaluated the potential role of seed priming in improving resistance to chilling stress in chickpea (cv. Punjab, 2008). The priming treatments involved soaking seeds of chickpea cultivar Punjab 2008 in either water for 8 h (on-farm priming), aerated water (hydropriming) for 18 h, or CaCl2 solution (ψs -1.25 MPa; osmopriming) for 18 h. Primed and untreated seeds were grown either at 18/15 °C (control) or 13/10 °C (chilling stress)...
December 9, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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