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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048873/insights-into-mycobacteria-interactions-with-the-host-innate-immune-system-from-a-novel-array-of-synthetic-mycobacterial-glycans
#1
Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Huu-Anh Tran, Ke Shen, Jörn Saupe, Li Xia, Md Faiaz Ahmed, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Pratap Subhashrao Patil, Ashish Tripathi, Shang-Cheng Hung, Maureen E Taylor, Todd L Lowary, Kurt Drickamer
An array of homogenous glycans representing all the major carbohydrate structures present in the cell wall of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria has been probed with a panel of glycan-binding receptors expressed on cells of the mammalian innate immune system. The results provide an overview of interactions between mycobacterial glycans and receptors that mediate uptake and survival in macrophages, dendritic cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. A subset of the wide variety of glycan structures present on mycobacterial surfaces interact with cells of the innate immune system through the receptors tested...
October 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047017/effect-of-arginine-on-the-aggregation-of-protein-in-freeze-dried-formulations-containing-sugars-and-polyol-1-formulation-development
#2
Ellen Hackl, Joseph Darkwah, Geoff Smith, Irina Ermolina
L-arginine was introduced into protein-based freeze-dried formulations to study the ability of arginine to reduce/prevent from protein aggregation during manufacturing, storage and reconstitution of lyophilized protein-based pharmaceuticals. As L-arginine is known to be very hygroscopic, additional excipients which could provide a moisture buffering capacity need to be introduced into the formulation. In the first part of our study-excipient formulation development-the screening of a number of sugars/polyols has been done in order to select the best combination of excipients that, in a complex with L-arginine, can (i) produce freeze-dried cakes with elegant appearance, adequate mechanical properties and reconstitution times, and (ii) resist/minimise the moisture sorption...
October 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045036/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-parthanatos-in-human-sh-sy5y-cells-via-improvement-of-intracellular-ros
#3
Hai-Feng Wang, Zong-Qi Wang, Ye Ding, Mei-Hua Piao, Chun-Sheng Feng, Guang-Fan Chi, Yi-Nan Luo, Peng-Fei Ge
AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal death caused by ischemic insults via activation of apoptosis, but it still remains unclear whether ER stress participates in regulation of parthanatos, a new type of programmed cell death characterized by PARP-1 overactivation and intracellular accumulation of PAR polymer. METHODS: we used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and human SH-SY5Y cells to simulate neuronal damage caused by ischemia...
October 16, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037980/improved-stability-of-live-attenuated-vaccine-gdha-derivative-pasteurella-multocida-b-2-by-freeze-drying-method-for-use-as-animal-vaccine
#4
Siti Nur Hazwani Oslan, Murni Halim, Nurfahanah Amirah Ramle, Mohd Zamri Saad, Joo Shun Tan, Mohd Rizal Kapri, Arbakariya B Ariff
The efficacy of attenuated strain of gdhA derivative Pasteurella multocida B:2 mutant as a live vaccine to control haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) disease in cattle and buffaloes has been demonstrated. In order to use P. multocida B:2 mutant as a commercial product, it is essential to optimise its formulation for high viability and stability of the live cells. The effectiveness of freeze-drying process using different protective agent formulations for improving cells viability was explored. Sugar and nitrogen compounds were used as protective agents in freeze-drying and the capability of these compounds in maintaining the viability of mutant P...
October 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034914/local-water-sensing-water-exchange-in-bacterial-photosynthetic-reaction-centers-embedded-in-a-trehalose-glass-studied-using-multiresonance-epr
#5
Anna Nalepa, Marco Malferrari, Wolfgang Lubitz, Giovanni Venturoli, Klaus Möbius, Anton Savitsky
Using isotope labeled water (D2O and H2(17)O) and pulsed W-band (94 GHz) high-field multiresonance EPR spectroscopies, such as ELDOR-detected NMR and ENDOR, the biologically important question of detection and quantification of local water in proteins is addressed. A bacterial reaction center (bRC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 embedded into a trehalose glass matrix is used as a model system. The bRC hosts the two native radical cofactor ions (primary electron donor) and (primary electron acceptor) as well as an artificial nitroxide spin label site-specifically attached to the surface of the H-protein domain...
October 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033849/study-on-the-effect-of-wing-bud-chitin-metabolism-and-its-developmental-network-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-by-knockdown-of-tre-gene
#6
Lu Zhang, Ling-Yu Qiu, Hui-Li Yang, Hui-Juan Wang, Min Zhou, Shi-Gui Wang, Bin Tang
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most serious pests of rice, and there is so far no effective way to manage this pest. However, RNA interference not only can be used to study gene function, but also provide potential opportunities for novel pest management. The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin. Hence, the regulating role of trehalase (TRE) genes on wing bud formation has been studied by RNAi. In this paper, the activity levels of TRE and the contents of the two sugars trehalose and glucose were negatively correlated indicating the potential role of TRE in the molting process...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031849/investigation-of-factors-affecting-the-stability-of-lysozyme-spray-dried-from-ethanol-water-solutions
#7
Shuying Ji, Peter Waaben Thulstrup, Huiling Mu, Steen Honoré Hansen, Marco van de Weert, Jukka Rantanen, Mingshi Yang
Formulation composition and processing conditions can be adjusted to enhance the structural integrity as well as the bioactivity of proteins in the spray drying process. In this study, lysozyme was chosen as a model pharmaceutical protein to study these aspects when spray drying from water-ethanol mixtures. The effect of formulation additives (trehalose, Tween 20 and phosphate-buffered saline) and processing conditions (inlet temperature and storage time of lysozyme in the feed solution before the spray drying process) on the protein bioactivity was investigated...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029702/lysyl-trna-synthetase-krs-acts-a-virulence-factor-of-beauveria-bassiana-by-its-vital-role-in-conidial-germination-and-dimorphic-transition
#8
Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029081/rapid-cold-hardening-of-a-subtropical-species-maruca-vitrata-lepidoptera-crambidae-accompanies-hypertrehalosemia-by-upregulating-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase
#9
Yonggyun Kim, Dae-Weon Lee, Jin Kyo Jung
A subtropical insect, Maruca vitrata (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is invasive to temperate zones, in which low temperatures during winter would be a serious challenge for colonization. This study assessed cold tolerance and cold-hardening of M. vitrata to understand its overwintering mechanism. Supercooling capacity was confirmed in all developmental stages exhibiting body freezing points at lower than -10°C, in which supercooling points (SCPs) were significantly different among developmental stages, with eggs having the lowest SCP (at -22...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027447/-influence-of-expressing-irre-from-deinococcus-radiodurans-on-osmotic-stress-tolerance-of-succinate-producing-escherichia-coli
#10
Xinggui Zhu, Mingke Wu, Jiangfeng Ma, Youjun Gao, Meili Chen, Min Jiang
Hyper-osmotic stress is one of the key factors that decrease the efficiency of biological succinic acid production. To increase the osmotic stress tolerance of succinate-producing Escherichia coli, we studied the influence of IrrE, an exogenous global regulator, on cell osmotic stress resistance. Fermentation results showed that cell growth and succinic acid production by the recombinant increased under different Na+ concentrations. Meanwhile, the maximum dry cell mass, glucose consumption and succinic acid concentration increased 15...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022917/trehalose-protects-against-cadmium-induced-cytotoxicity-in-primary-rat-proximal-tubular-cells-via-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-restoring-autophagic-flux
#11
Xin-Yu Wang, Heng Yang, Min-Ge Wang, Du-Bao Yang, Zhen-Yong Wang, Lin Wang
Autophagy has an important renoprotective function and we recently found that autophagy inhibition is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of trehalose (Tre), a novel autophagy activator, against Cd-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells. First, data showed that Tre treatment significantly decreased Cd-induced apoptotic cell death of rPT cells via inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, evidenced by morphological analysis, flow cytometric and immunoblot assays...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022740/long-term-room-temperature-storage-of-dry-ribonucleic-acid-for-use-in-rna-seq-analysis
#12
Qiyuan Li, Xian Wang, Xiaopan Liu, Qiuyan Liao, Jianbo Sun, Xuheng He, Ting Yang, Jiefang Yin, Jia Jia, Xue Li, Marthe Colotte, Jacques Bonnet
RNA is an essential biological material for research in genomics and translational medicine. As such, its storage for biobanking is an important field of study. Traditionally, long-term storage in the cold (generally freezers or liquid nitrogen) is used to maintain high-quality (in terms of quantity and integrity) RNA. Room temperature (RT) preservation provides an alternative to the cold, which is plagued by serious problems (mainly cost and safety), for RNA long-term storage. In this study, we evaluated the performance of several RT storage procedures, including the RNAshell(®) from Imagene, where the RNA is dried and kept protected from the atmosphere, and the vacuum drying of RNA with additives such as the Imagene stabilization solution and a home-made trehalose solution...
October 12, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018921/genetics-of-trehalose-biosynthesis-in-desert-derived-aureobasidium-melanogenum-and-role-of-trehalose-in-the-adaptation-of-the-yeast-to-extreme-environments
#13
Hong Jiang, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhe Chi, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
Melanin plays an important role in the stress adaptation of Aureobasidium melanogenum XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert. A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1 gene) was cloned from K5, characterized, and then deleted to determine the role of trehalose in the stress adaptation of the albino mutant K5. No stress response element and heat shock element were found in the promoter of the TPS1 gene. Deletion of the TPS1 gene in the albino mutant rendered a strain DT43 unable to synthesize any trehalose, but DT43 still could grow in glucose, suggesting that its hexokinase was insensitive to inhibition by trehalose-6-phosphate...
October 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986319/enhancing-the-viability-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-after-spray-drying-and-during-storage
#14
Géraldine Broeckx, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tim Henkens, Shari Kiekens, Marianne F L van den Broek, Sarah Lebeer, Filip Kiekens
Increasing knowledge about the human microbiome has led to a growing awareness of the potential of applying probiotics to improve our health. The pharmaceutical industry shows an emerging interest in pharmaceutical formulations containing these beneficial microbes, the so-called pharmabiotics. An important manufacturing step is the drying of the probiotics, as this can increase the stability and shelf life of the finished pharmabiotic product. Unfortunately, drying also puts stress on microbial cells, thus causing a decrease in viability...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986135/impact-of-supplementation-of-semen-extender-with-antioxidants-on-the-quality-of-chilled-or-cryopreserved-arabian-stallion-spermatozoa
#15
sAbdelRaouf M Ghallab, Abdallah M Shahat, Aya M Fadl, Mohamed M Ayoub, Adel R Moawad
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0...
October 4, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981769/increasing-crop-yield-and-resilience-with-trehalose-6-phosphate-targeting-a-feast-famine-mechanism-in-cereals-for-better-source-sink-optimization
#16
Matthew J Paul, Maria Oszvald, Claudia Jesus, Charukesi Rajulu, Cara A Griffiths, Christine Raines
Food security is a pressing global issue. New approaches are required to break through a yield ceiling that has developed in recent years for the major crops. As important as increasing yield potential is the protection of yield from abiotic stresses in an increasingly variable and unpredictable climate. Current strategies to improve yield include conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), mutagenesis, creation of hybrids, genetic modification (GM), emerging genome-editing technologies, and chemical approaches...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981320/oocyte-cryopreservation-based-in-sheep-the-current-status-and-future-perspective
#17
Guobo Quan, Guoquan Wu, Qionghua Hong
The establishment of a cryopreservation procedure for sheep oocytes will enhance the development of long-term conservation of sheep female genetic resources and the advancement of sheep embryonic biotechnology. However, higher cytoplasmic lipid content and complex subcellular structures affect the relatively higher sensitivity of oocytes to chilling and freezing stresses. Currently, the reports related to sheep oocyte cryopreservation lag behind bovine or pig studies. A standardized freezing procedure has not been established...
October 5, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981117/trehalose-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-er-stress-via-selective-autophagy-stimulation-and-autophagic-flux-restoration-in-osteoarthritis-development
#18
Qian Tang, Gang Zheng, Zhenhua Feng, Yu Chen, Yiting Lou, Chenggui Wang, Xiaolei Zhang, Yu Zhang, Huazi Xu, Ping Shang, Haixiao Liu
Oxidative stress-related apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles in the development of osteoarthritis (OA), a progressive cartilage degenerative disease with multifactorial etiologies. Here, we determined autophagic flux changes and apoptosis in human OA and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated chondrocytes. In addition, we explored the potential protective effects of trehalose, a novel Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)-independent autophagic inducer, in TBHP-treated mouse chondrocytes and a destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) mouse OA model...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981090/is-trehalose-an-autophagic-inducer-unraveling-the-roles-of-non-reducing-disaccharides-on-autophagic-flux-and-alpha-synuclein-aggregation
#19
Ye-Seul Yoon, Eun-Duk Cho, Woo Jung Ahn, Kyung Won Lee, Seung-Jae Lee, He-Jin Lee
Autophagy is a pivotal intracellular process by which cellular macromolecules are degraded upon various stimuli. A failure in the degradation of autophagic substrates such as impaired organelles and protein aggregates leads to their accumulations, which are characteristics of many neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmacological activation of autophagy has thus been considered a prospective therapeutic approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Among a number of autophagy-inducing agents, trehalose has received attention for its beneficial effects in different disease models of neurodegeneration...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976590/mycobacterial-cord-factor-enhances-migration-of-neutrophil-like-hl-60-cells-by-prolonging-akt-phosphorylation
#20
Wook-Bin Lee, Ji-Jing Yan, Ji-Seon Kang, Seok Chung, Lark Kyun Kim
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), or cord factor, is a crucial stimulus of immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Although TDM has immuno-stimulatory properties, including adjuvant activity and the ability to induce granuloma formation, the mechanisms underlying this activity remain unknown. We hypothesized that TDM stimulates transendothelial migration of neutrophils, which are the first immune cells to infiltrate the tissue upon infection. Here, we show that TDM enhances N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis and transendothelial movement by prolonging AKT phosphorylation in human neutrophils...
October 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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