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Nicholas E Rothfuss, Aleksandra Marsh, Grazia Rovelli, Markus D Petters, Jonathan Philip Reid
Responding to changes in the surrounding environment, aerosol particles can grow by water condensation changing rapidly in composition and changing dramatically in viscosity. The timescale for growth is important to establish for particles undergoing hydration processes in the atmosphere or during inhalation. Using an electrodynamic balance, we report direct measurements at -7.5, 0 and 20 o C of timescales for hygroscopic condensational growth on a range of model hygroscopic aerosol systems. These extend from viscous aerosol particles containing a single saccharide solute (sucrose, glucose, raffinose or trehalose) and a starting viscosity equivalent to a glass of ~1012 Pas, to non-viscous (~10-2 Pa·s) tetraethylene glycol particles...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Udita Brahmachari, Zhanjun Guo, Sara E Konecny, Emmanuela N C Obi, Bridgette A Barry
Photosystem II oxidizes water at a Mn4 CaO5 cluster. Oxygen evolution is accompanied by proton release through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. The mechanism of this proton-transfer reaction is not known, but the reaction is dependent on chloride. Here, vibrational spectroscopy defines the functional properties of the proton-transfer network using chloride, bromide, and nitrate as perturbative agents. As assessed by peptide C═O frequencies, bromide substitution yields a spectral Stark shift because of its increase in ionic radius...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Fabio Bruni, Camilla Di Mino, Silvia Imberti, Sylvia E McLain, Natasha Hazel Rhys, Maria Antonietta Ricci
Neutron diffraction experiments have been performed to investigate and compare the structure of the hydration shell of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose and mannose. It is found that, in spite of their differences with respect to many thermodynamical quantities, bio-protective properties against environmental stresses and taste; the influence of these monosaccharides on the bulk water solvent structure is virtually identical. Conversely, these sugars interact with the neighboring water molecules by forming H-bonds of different length and strength...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Parisa Lotfi, Dennis Y Tse, Alberto di Ronza, Michelle L Seymour, Giuseppe Martano, Jonathan D Cooper, Fred A Pereira, Maria Passafaro, Samuel M Wu, Marco Sardiello
The accumulation of undegraded molecular material leads to progressive neurodegeneration in a number of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) that are caused by functional deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. To determine whether inducing macroautophagy/autophagy via small-molecule therapy would be effective for neuropathic LSDs due to enzyme deficiency, we treated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB), a storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme NAGLU (alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase [Sanfilippo disease IIIB]), with the autophagy-inducing compound trehalose...
June 19, 2018: Autophagy
Benjamin Roenneke, Natalie Rosenfeldt, Sami M Derya, Jens F Novak, Kay Marin, Reinhard Krämer, Gerd M Seibold
BACKGROUND: α-D-Glucosylglycerol (αGG) has beneficial functions as a moisturizing agent in cosmetics and potential as a health food material, and therapeutic agent. αGG serves as compatible solute in various halotolerant cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which synthesizes αGG in a two-step reaction: The enzymatic condensation of ADP-glucose and glycerol 3-phosphate by GG-phosphate synthase (GGPS) is followed by the dephosphorylation of the intermediate by the GG-phosphate phosphatase (GGPP)...
June 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Danielle C Brito, Sheyla F S Domingues, Ana Paula R Rodrigues, José R Figueiredo, Regiane R Santos, Júlio C Pieczarka
We aimed to evaluate the effect of three extracellular cryoprotectants on the morphology of vitrified feline preantral follicles. Feline ovarian fragments (0.5 × 2 × 2 mm) collected from five domestic adult cats subjected to ovariohysterectomy for routine castration were vitrified with ethylene glycol (EG) 40% combined or not with sucrose (0.1 or 0.5 M), trehalose (0.1 or 0.5 M), or raffinose (0.1 M). After vitrification using the solid-surface method and warming of the tissues, cryoprotectants were washed out of the ovarian tissues, which were fixed for histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Cryobiology
He-Jin Lee, Ye-Seul Yoon, Seung-Jae Lee
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide with two glucose molecules linked through an α, α-1,1-glucosidic bond. Trehalose has received attention for the past few decades for its role in neuroprotection especially in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson and Huntington diseases. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of trehalose remains elusive. The prevailing hypothesis is that trehalose protects neurons by inducing autophagy, thereby clearing protein aggregates...
June 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A Sela
Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
A Papacchini, M R Telaretti Leggieri, L Zucchini, M A Ortenzi, F Ridi, D Giomi, A Salvini
Allyl saccharide/vinyl copolymers were synthesized using renewable feedstocks (α,α'-trehalose and d-glucose) to obtain 'green monomers'. Properly designed synthetic procedures were used to obtain copolymers with high purity and without protection/deprotection steps in agreement with the principles of green chemistry and industrial sustainability. The use of saccharide derivatives as monomers allowed products to be obtained that showed high affinity and compatibility for the cellulosic substrates, like paper or wood, and that were suitable for applications like adhesion or consolidation in the field of cultural heritage...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yunhe Zhao, Qiuhong Wang, Jinfeng Ding, Yao Wang, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the major pest affecting Chinese chive production. Chlorfenapyr is a halogenated pyrrole-based pro-insecticide that is currently used to control insects and mites on a variety of crops. In the present study, fourth-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga were exposed to chlorfenapyr at LC1 , LC20 and LC50 concentrations. The developmental duration of the treated larvae was not significantly different, but fecundity was significantly increased in the LC1 and LC20 treatment groups compared with the control group...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jung-Eun Park, Eun Ji Lee, Jung Kwan Kim, Youngsup Song, Jang Hyun Choi, Min-Ji Kang
Triglyceride homeostasis is a key process of normal development and is essential for the maintenance of energy metabolism. Dysregulation of this process leads to metabolic disorders such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. Here, we report a novel function of the Drosophila flightless-I (fliI) gene in lipid metabolism. Drosophila fliI mutants were resistant to starvation and showed increased levels of triglycerides in the fat body and intestine, whereas fliI overexpression decreased triglyceride levels. These flies suffered from metabolic stress indicated by increased levels of trehalose in hemolymph and enhanced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)...
June 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Julian H Gitter, Raimund Geidobler, Ingo Presser, Gerhard Winter
Microwave-assisted freeze-drying is a rapid drying process well-known in food technology. However, little is known about its application to biologicals. In this study, we investigated the applicability and feasibility of this technology to different monoclonal antibody formulations and the influence on the resulting product properties. Moreover, one of our main objectives was to study if significant reductions in drying times could be achieved. Additionally, the effect of the drying process on the accelerated stability of a sucrose-based antibody formulation at 40 °C and 25 °C over 12 weeks was investigated...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shuangming Li, Yong Yang, Qiang Zhang, Ningfang Liu, Qingguo Xu, Longxing Hu
Low temperature is one of the important limiting factors for growing season and geographical distribution of plants. Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd) is one of the widely used warm-season turfgrass that is distribute in many parts of the world. Zoysaigrass native to high latitude may have evolved higher cold tolerance than the ones native to low latitude. The objective of this study was to investigate the cold stress response in zoysiagrass native to diverse latitude at phenotypic, physiological and metabolic levels...
2018: PloS One
Gerardo Retamal-Morales, Thomas Heine, Judith S Tischler, Beate Erler, Janosch A D Gröning, Stefan R Kaschabek, Michael Schlömann, Gloria Levicán, Dirk Tischler
Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules with relevance in biotechnology due to their structural diversity, low toxicity and biodegradability. The genus Rhodococcus has extensively been studied because of its capacity to produce trehalose-containing surfactants as well as trehalose lipids as potential pathogenic factor. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis B7g isolated with toluene from fuel-contaminated soil. The genome comprises 7,175,690 bp in 121 contigs, a G + C content of 62,4% and 7,153 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), and it contains genes for trehalose biosynthesis and surfactant production...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Ayca Yildiz-Peköz, Ozlem Akbal, S Hande Tekarslan, A Olcay Sagirli, Lütfiye Mulazimoglu, Deniz Morina, Erdal Cevher
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a bacterial lower respiratory tract infection that has a high morbidity rate. The gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of nosocomial infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias and is mainly treated by carbapenems. Doripenem is a carbapenem drug, which has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to develop doripenem-loaded chitosan microparticles for pulmonary administration to provide more efficient treatment for pneumonia...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Mahendravarman Mohanraj, Ponarulselvam Sekar, Horng-Huei Liou, Shwu-Fen Chang, Wan-Wan Lin
Microglial activation has long been recognized as a hallmark of neuroinflammation. Recently, the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against several neurodegenerative disorders. Trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) is a synthetic analogue of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, also known as the mycobacterial cord factor) and is a new adjuvant of tuberculosis subunit vaccine currently in clinical trials. Both TDM and TDB can activate macrophages and dendritic cells through binding to C-type lectin receptor Mincle; however, its action mechanism in microglia and their relationship with neuroinflammation are still unknown...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Stuart D Portbury, Dominic J Hare, David P Bishop, David I Finkelstein, Philip A Doble, Paul A Adlard
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a clinical consequence of brain injury that can result in neuropathological outcomes that are exacerbated with age. Here, we present laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging data showing modulation of brain Zn levels by the disaccharide trehalose in aged mice following a controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury. In this proof-of-concept study, trehalose induced an increase in brain zinc levels, providing important preliminary data for larger studies using this simple carbohydrate as a modulator of this essential micronutrient in traumatic brain injury...
June 6, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Shuichi Miyamoto, Kenji Atsuyama, Keisuke Ekino, Takashi Shin
The isolation of useful microbes is one of the traditional approaches for the lead generation in drug discovery. As an effective technique for microbe isolation, we recently developed a multidimensional diffusion-based gradient culture system of microbes. In order to enhance the utility of the system, it is favorable to have diffusion coefficients of nutrients such as sugars in the culture medium beforehand. We have, therefore, built a simple and convenient experimental system that uses agar-gel to observe diffusion...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ratnika Sethi, Shantanu S Iyer, Eshita Das, Ipsita Roy
Heat shock response (HSR) is an important element of cellular homeostasis. In yeast, HSR comprises of the heat shock proteins (Hsps) and the osmolytes trehalose and glycerol. The respective roles of trehalose and Hsp104 in regulating protein aggregation remain ambiguous. We report that trehalose and Hsp104 are important during the early stages of protein aggregation, i.e. when the process is still reversible. This corroborates the earlier reported role of trehalose being an inhibitor of protein folding. Under in vitro conditions, trehalose is able to restore the GdHCl-induced loss of ATPase activity of recombinant Hsp104 to almost its original level...
May 30, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Xue Cai, Ines Seitl, Wanmeng Mu, Tao Zhang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Bo Jiang
A combined approach of sequence-based screening from metagenomic soil DNA and subsequent in silico screening was established to identify novel trehalose synthases (TS, EC Metagenomic DNA was isolated from diverse soil samples and used as template for PCR-based screening targeted against conserved regions of trehalose synthases. This resulted in four metagenomic TS-like fragments with broad sequence diversity (41-67% identity to each other). The encoded open reading frames were used as templates for further in silico screening...
August 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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