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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432632/tryptophan-fluorescence-yields-and-lifetimes-as-a-probe-of-conformational-changes-in-human-glucokinase
#1
Bogumil Zelent, Chris Bialas, Ignacy Gryczynski, Pan Chen, Rahul Chib, Karina Lewerissa, Maria G Corradini, Richard D Ludescher, Jane M Vanderkooi, Franz M Matschinsky
Five variants of glucokinase (ATP-D-hexose-6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) including wild type and single Trp mutants with the Trp residue at positions 65, 99, 167 and 257 were prepared. The fluorescence of Trp in all locations studied showed intensity changes when glucose bound, indicating that conformational change occurs globally over the entire protein. While the fluorescence quantum yield changes upon glucose binding, the enzyme's absorption spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetimes change very little...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431320/trehalose-supplementation-reduces-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammatory-signaling-in-old-mice
#2
Michael J Pagliassotti, Andrea L Estrada, William M Hudson, Yuren Wei, Dong Wang, Douglas R Seals, Melanie L Zigler, Thomas J LaRocca
The accumulation of damaged proteins can perturb cellular homeostasis and provoke aging and cellular damage. Quality control systems, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), inflammatory signaling and protein degradation, mitigate the residence time of damaged proteins. In the present study, we have examined the UPR and inflammatory signaling in the liver of young (~6 months) and old (~28 months) mice (n=8/group), and the ability of trehalose, a compound linked to increased protein stability and autophagy, to counteract age-induced effects on these systems...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429252/analysis-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-during-the-flowering-initiation-process-of-lilium%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-formolongi
#3
Yu-Fan Li, Ming-Fang Zhang, Meng Zhang, Gui-Xia Jia
The onset of flowering is critical for the reproductive development of plants. Lilium × formolongi is a lily hybrid that flowers within a year after sowing. We successfully identified four important stages during vegetative growth and flowering initiation of L. × formolongi under long day conditions. The plant tissues from the four stages were used in a genome-wide transcriptional analysis to investigate stage-specific changes of gene expression in L. × formolongi. In total, the sequence reads of the four RNA-sequencing libraries were assembled into 52,824 unigenes, of which 37,031 (70...
April 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429058/effects-of-genome-duplication-on-phenotypes-and-industrial-applications-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#4
Ke Zhang, Ya-Hong Fang, Ke-Hui Gao, Yang Sui, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Xue-Chang Wu
Polyploidy is common in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, but the physiological and phenotypic effects of ploidy changes have not been fully clarified. Here, isogenic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were constructed from a haploid strain, CEN.PK2-1C. Stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of the four euploid strains were compared. Each euploid strain had strengths and weaknesses in tolerance to certain stressors, and no single strain was tolerant of all stressors. The diploid had higher ethanol production than the other strains in normal fermentation medium, while the triploid strain showed the fastest fermentation rate in the presence of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysate...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428553/the-yeast-osmostress-response-is-carbon-source-dependent
#5
Roja Babazadeh, Petri-Jaan Lahtvee, Caroline B Adiels, Mattias Goksör, Jens B Nielsen, Stefan Hohmann
Adaptation to altered osmotic conditions is a fundamental property of living cells and has been studied in detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells accumulate glycerol as compatible solute, controlled at different levels by the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) response pathway. Up to now, essentially all osmostress studies in yeast have been performed with glucose as carbon and energy source, which is metabolised by glycolysis with glycerol as a by-product. Here we investigated the response of yeast to osmotic stress when yeast is respiring ethanol as carbon and energy source...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427940/characterization-of-the-rax1-gene-encoding-a-putative-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#6
Olumuyiwa Ayokunle Igbalajobi, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the major cause of life threatening invasive aspergillosis, and its small hydrophobic asexual spores (conidia) are the major infection agent. To better understand biology of A. fumigatus, we have characterized the rax1 gene encoding a putative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS). The deletion (Δ) of rax1 results in restricted colony growth and highly reduced number of conidia in A. fumigatus. Transcript levels of the three central activators of asexual development abaA, brlA, and wetA are significantly reduced in the Δrax1 mutant...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427825/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-yeast-adaptive-response-and-tolerance-to-stresses-encountered-during-ethanol-fermentation
#7
REVIEW
Choowong Auesukaree
During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells encounter various stresses including sugar substrates-induced high osmolarity, increased ethanol concentration, oxygen metabolism-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated temperature. To cope with these fermentation-associated stresses, appropriate adaptive responses are required to prevent stress-induced cellular dysfunctions and to acquire stress tolerances. This review will focus on the cellular effects of these stresses, molecular basis of the adaptive response to each stress, and the cellular mechanisms contributing to stress tolerance...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424671/functional-characterization-and-conditional-regulation-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-vibrio-fluvialis
#8
Yuanming Huang, Pengcheng Du, Meng Zhao, Wei Liu, Yu Du, Baowei Diao, Jie Li, Biao Kan, Weili Liang
Vibrio fluvialis is an emerging foodborne pathogen of increasing public health concern. The mechanism(s) that contribute to the bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are known to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity by exerting toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. In this study, we characterized the genetic organization and prevalence of two T6SS gene clusters (VflT6SS1 and VflT6SS2) in V. fluvialis. VflT6SS2 harbors three "orphan" hcp-vgrG modules and was more prevalent than VflT6SS1 in our isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424668/free-trehalose-accumulation-in-dormant-mycobacterium-smegmatis-cells-and-its-breakdown-in-early-resuscitation-phase
#9
Margarita O Shleeva, Kseniya A Trutneva, Galina R Demina, Alexander I Zinin, Galina M Sorokoumova, Polina K Laptinskaya, Ekaterina S Shumkova, Arseny S Kaprelyants
Under gradual acidification of growth medium resulting in the formation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis, a significant accumulation of free trehalose in dormant cells was observed. According to (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy up to 64% of total organic substances in the dormant cell extract was represented by trehalose whilst the trehalose content in an extract of active cells taken from early stationary phase was not more than 15%. Trehalose biosynthesis during transition to the dormant state is provided by activation of genes involved in the OtsA-OtsB and TreY-TreZ pathways (according to RT-PCR)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412040/ros-formation-is-a-differential-contributory-factor-to-the-fungicidal-action-of-amphotericin-b-and-micafungin-in-candida-albicans
#10
José P Guirao-Abad, Ruth Sánchez-Fresneda, Begoña Alburquerque, José A Hernández, Juan-Carlos Argüelles
The hypothetical role played by the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the fungicidal action carried out by Amphotericin B (AmB) and Micafungin (MF) was examined in Candida albicans, which remains the most prevalent fungal pathogen. The clinical MICs for MF and AmB were 0.016 and 0.12μg/ml, respectively. Whereas AmB (0.5-1.0×MIC) induced a marked production of intracellular ROS accompanied by a high degree of cell killing in the C. albicans SC5314 strain, the fungicidal effect of MF was still operative, but ROS generation was slight...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403831/the-role-of-tre6p-and-snrk1-in-maize-early-kernel-development-and-events-leading-to-stress-induced-kernel-abortion
#11
Samuel W Bledsoe, Clémence Henry, Cara A Griffiths, Matthew J Paul, Regina Feil, John E Lunn, Mark Stitt, L Mark Lagrimini
BACKGROUND: Drought stress during flowering is a major contributor to yield loss in maize. Genetic and biotechnological improvement in yield sustainability requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning yield loss. Sucrose starvation has been proposed as the cause for kernel abortion; however, potential targets for genetic improvement have not been identified. Field and greenhouse drought studies with maize are expensive and it can be difficult to reproduce results; therefore, an in vitro kernel culture method is presented as a proxy for drought stress occurring at the time of flowering in maize (3 days after pollination)...
April 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401430/bilateral-effects-of-excipients-on-protein-stability-preferential-interaction-type-of-excipient-and-surface-aromatic-hydrophobicity-of-protein
#12
Lili Wen, Xianxian Zheng, Xinyue Wang, Hairong Lan, Zongning Yin
PURPOSE: Understanding the mechanism of protein-excipient interaction and illuminating the influencing factors on protein stability are key steps in the rational design of protein formulations. The objective of this study was to assess effects of preferential interaction type of excipient and surface aromatic hydrophobicity of protein on protein solution stability. METHODS: The preferential interaction between excipient and aromatic hydrophobic area of protein was investigated by solubility and fluorescence studies of amino acid derivatives in excipient solutions...
April 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396490/trehalose-metabolism-genes-of-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-in-hypertonic-osmotic-pressure-survival
#13
Qiaoli Chen, Danlei Li, Feng Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation caused by hypertonic osmotic pressure by entering a state of suspended animation known as osmobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi can be induced to enter osmobiosis by soaking in osmolytes. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress. In A. besseyi two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes (TPS) encode enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis and a putative trehalase genes (TRE) encodes enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and then characterized based on its transcriptome...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393919/association-of-c-type-lectin-mincle-with-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri%C3%AE-%C3%AE-subunits-leads-to-functional-activation-of-rbl-2h3-cells-through-syk
#14
Chisato Honjoh, Kazuyasu Chihara, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Shota Yamauchi, Kenji Takeuchi, Yuji Kato, Yukio Hida, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Kiyonao Sada
Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) interacts with the γ-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIγ) and activates Syk by recognizing its specific ligand, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, a glycolipid produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been suggested that mast cells participate in the immune defense against pathogenic microbes including M. tuberculosis, although the functions are still uncertain. In this study, we examined the Mincle-mediated signaling pathway and cellular responses using RBL-2H3 cells...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392158/chemical-intervention-new-tools-to-dissect-metabolic-signaling
#15
Matthew Ramon, Filip Rolland
The metabolic intermediate trehalose-6-P (T6P) has emerged as a key regulator of plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. A recent publication reported a new chemical intervention strategy, providing a powerful tool to dissect T6P-mediated metabolic signaling.
April 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389541/thermal-resistance-and-gene-expression-of-both-desiccation-adapted-and-rehydrated-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-in-aged-broiler-litter
#16
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal resistance and gene expression of both desiccation-adapted and rehydrated Salmonellaenterica Typhimurium in aged broiler litter. S. Typhimurium was desiccation-adapted in aged broiler litter with 20% moisture content (aw: 0.81) for 1, 2, 3, 12, or 24 h at room temperature and then rehydrated for 3 h. As analyzed by qRT-PCR, rpoS, proV, dnaK, and grpE genes were up-regulated (P<0.05) under desiccation stress and could be induced after 1 h but less than 2 h...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386168/differences-between-flocculating-yeast-and-regular-industrial-yeast-in-transcription-and-metabolite-profiling-during-ethanol-fermentation
#18
Lili Li, Xiaoning Wang, Xudong Jiao, Song Qin
Objectives: To improve ethanolic fermentation performance of self-flocculating yeast, difference between a flocculating yeast strain and a regular industrial yeast strain was analyzed by transcriptional and metabolic approaches. Results: The number of down-regulated (industrial yeast YIC10 vs. flocculating yeast GIM2.71) and up-regulated genes were 4503 and 228, respectively. It is the economic regulation for YIC10 that non-essential genes were down-regulated, and cells put more "energy" into growth and ethanol production...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384255/trehalose-dimycolate-interferes-with-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagosome-maturation-through-mincle-shp-1-and-fc%C3%AE-riib-signalling
#19
Emmanuel C Patin, Anna C Geffken, Sam Willcocks, Christoph Leschczyk, Albert Haas, Falk Nimmerjahn, Roland Lang, Theresa H Ward, Ulrich E Schaible
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), contains an abundant cell wall glycolipid and a crucial virulence factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). TDM causes delay of phagosome maturation and thus promotes survival of mycobacteria inside host macrophages by a not fully understood mechanism. TDM signals through the Monocyte-INducible C-type LEctin (Mincle), a recently identified pattern recognition receptor. Here we show that recruitment of Mincle by TDM coupled to immunoglobulin (Ig)G-opsonised beads during Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis interferes with phagosome maturation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382021/an-endohyphal-bacterium-chitinophaga-bacteroidetes-alters-carbon-source-use-by-fusarium-keratoplasticum-f-solani-species-complex-nectriaceae
#20
Justin P Shaffer, Jana M U'Ren, Rachel E Gallery, David A Baltrus, A Elizabeth Arnold
Bacterial endosymbionts occur in diverse fungi, including members of many lineages of Ascomycota that inhabit living plants. These endosymbiotic bacteria (endohyphal bacteria, EHB) often can be removed from living fungi by antibiotic treatment, providing an opportunity to assess their effects on functional traits of their fungal hosts. We examined the effects of an endohyphal bacterium (Chitinophaga sp., Bacteroidetes) on substrate use by its host, a seed-associated strain of the fungus Fusarium keratoplasticum, by comparing growth between naturally infected and cured fungal strains across 95 carbon sources with a Biolog® phenotypic microarray...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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