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Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Wenjing Qu, Na Li, Rui Yu, Wenbao Zuo, Tingting Fu, Wenling Fei, Yanhui Hou, Yanhua Liu, Jianhong Yang
The cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6,9-dibehenate (DDA/TDB) liposome is as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines, with remarkable immunostimulatory activity. The mucosal administration of vaccines is a potential strategy for inducing earlier and stronger mucosal immune responses to infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed whether the intranasal administration of cationic DDA/TDB liposomes combined with influenza antigen A (H3N2) can be used as a highly efficacious vaccine to induce mucosal and systemic antibody responses...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Shang Chen, Yue Zhou, Lichun Zhou, Yanhui Guan, Yu Zhang, Xiuzhen Han
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the hallmark of late-staged wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key component in the development and progression of wet AMD. DMBT, 6,6'-bis(2,3-dimethoxybenzoyl)-α,α-D-trehalose, had been proved that it could suppress tumor angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting production of VEGF. But the effects of DMBT on CNV were not known. This study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of DMBT on CNV in vitro and in vivo...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Bin Tang, Su Wang, Shi-Gui Wang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jia-Yong Zhang, Shuai-Ying Cui
The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is widely distributed among various organisms. It plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy, being the major blood sugar in insects. In addition, it helps countering abiotic stresses. Trehalose synthesis in insects and other invertebrates is thought to occur via the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) pathways. In many insects, the TPP gene has not been identified, whereas multiple TPS genes that encode proteins harboring TPS/OtsA and TPP/OtsB conserved domains have been found and cloned in the same species...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
O G Katsai, O A Ruban, Y M Krasnopolskyi
This study investigates the development of a method for obtaining cytochrome C-containing liposomes (LS-Cyt), and evaluates their stability and specific activity. LS-Cyt were intended for the therapy of ophthalmic diseases. LS-Cyt were prepared by high pressure homogenization technique and lyophilized to obtain freeze-dried LS-Cyt. It was proposed to use anionic phospholipid- dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG-Na) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a nanoparticulate composition. Were investigated various concentrations of lactose and trehalose as cryoprotectants...
December 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Maria Oszvald, Lucia F Primavesi, Cara A Griffiths, Jonathan Cohn, Shib Basu, Michael L Nuccio, Matthew J Paul
Transgenic maize expressing a rice trehalose phosphate phosphatase (TPP1) controlled by a rice MADS6 promoter active over the 2- to 3-week flowering period are higher yielding than wild type with or without drought during flowering. To better understand the mechanistic basis of the yield increase, we characterise gene expression and metabolite profiles in developing female reproductive tissue comprising florets, node, pith and shank and in leaves over the flowering period with and without drought. Using the β-glucuronidase reporter the MADS6 promoter activity was most closely linked to vasculature, particularly phloem companion cells in florets and pith consistent with largest decreases in trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) levels (2-3 fold) in pith and florets...
February 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jacqueline Horn, Wolfgang Friess
The collapse temperature (Tc) and the glass transition temperature of freeze-concentrated solutions (Tg') as well as the crystallization behavior of excipients are important physicochemical characteristics which guide the cycle development in freeze-drying. The most frequently used methods to determine these values are differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and freeze-drying microscopy (FDM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the optical fiber system (OFS) unit as alternative tool for the analysis of Tc, Tg' and crystallization events...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
D C C Brito, S F S Domingues, A P R Rodrigues, C Maside, F O Lunardi, X Wu, J R Figueiredo, J C Pieczarka, R R Santos
We aimed to evaluate the effect of two vitrification methods on the morphology and functionality of vitrified feline preantral follicles. Feline ovarian tissue was vitrified with EG + trehalose combined or not with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), using two different techniques (open or closed systems). Morphology, developmental capacity and mRNA expression of markers for follicle survival and quality were assessed before and after in vitro culture (IVC). Both vitrification and culture media were serum-free. Vitrification of feline ovarian tissue from five adult domestic cats was performed with EG + trehalose combined or not with DMSO...
January 31, 2018: Theriogenology
Alejandro Nieto-Orellana, David Coghlan, Malcolm Rothery, Franco H Falcone, Cynthia Bosquillon, Nick Childerhouse, Giuseppe Mantovani, Snow Stolnik
Pulmonary delivery of protein therapeutics has considerable clinical potential for treating both local and systemic diseases. However, poor protein conformational stability, immunogenicity and protein degradation by proteolytic enzymes in the lung are major challenges to overcome for the development of effective therapeutics. To address these, a family of structurally related copolymers comprising polyethylene glycol, mPEG2k, and poly(glutamic acid) with linear A-B (mPEG2k-lin-GA) and miktoarm A-B3 (mPEG2k-mik-(GA)3) macromolecular architectures was investigated as potential protein stabilisers...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Damien Laporte, Laure Jimenez, Laëtitia Gouleme, Isabelle Sagot
Quiescence exit swiftness is crucial not only for micro-organisms in competition for an environmental niche, such as yeast, but also for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in multicellular species. Here we explore the effect of replicative and chronological age on Saccharomyces cerevisiae quiescence exit efficiency. Our study reveals that this step strongly relies on the cell volume in quiescence but is not influenced by cell replicative age, at least for cells that have undergone less than 10 divisions...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Cell
Wenming Zhang, Junru Zhu, Xinggui Zhu, Meng Song, Ting Zhang, Fengxue Xin, Weiliang Dong, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Jiang
Poor high salt stress resistance remained as a main hurdle limiting the efficient bio-based succinic acid production. In this study, the metabolically engineered E. coli not only showed improvement of high salt stress tolerance through expression of a global regulator IrrE, but also could use seawater for succinic acid fermentation. The recombinant strain showed an increased 1.20-fold of cell growth rate and 1.24-fold of succinic acid production. Expression levels of genes related glucose uptake and succinic acid synthesis were up-regulated, and more glycerol and trehalose were accumulated...
January 26, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Peter P Knox, Vladimir V Gorokhov, Boris N Korvatovskiy, Eugene P Lukashev, Sergey N Goryachev, Vladimir Z Paschenko, Andrew B Rubin
The temperature dependencies of the rate of dark recombination of separated charges between the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll and the primary quinone acceptor (QA) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rb. sphaeroides) were investigated. Measurements were performed in water-glycerol and trehalose environments after freezing to -180 °C in the dark and under actinic light with subsequent heating. Simultaneously, the RC tryptophanyl fluorescence lifetime in the spectral range between 323 and 348 nm was measured under these conditions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
M G Simões, A Hugo, P Alves, P F Pérez, A Gómez-Zavaglia, P N Simões
Liposomes are exceptional carriers for therapeutic drug delivery. However, they generally suffer from poor cell penetration, low half-life in bloodstream and loss of functionality during storage. To overcome these problems some strategies can be applied, such as functionalization with polymers and the use of protective molecules during dehydration processes. This work reports a complete study about the stability, including freeze-drying in the presence of trehalose, storage and internalization into HEp-2 cells, of stable formulations of pH sensitive polymer-liposome complexes (PLC) composed of soybean lecithin and crosslinked/non-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) with a cholesterol end-group (CHO-PAA)...
January 23, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Anmol S Adhav, Surabhi R Kokane, Rakesh S Joshi
Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of trehalose and plays a crucial role in insect metabolism. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment suggested that H. armigera trehalase-1 (HaTre-1) is closely related to other soluble trehalases with conserved signature features and functional sites. We have expressed and purified recombinant HaTre-1 having Vmax ~0.16 mM/min and Km ~1.34 mM. Inhibition kinetics and Microscale thermophoresis illustrated competitive inhibition of HaTre-1 by Validamycin A having Ki ~3 nM and KD ~542 nM, respectively...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marija Drikic, Jeroen De Buck
In health care, biosensors are envisioned as universal diagnostic devices with AAAA characteristics (i.e. available for anything, anywhere, anytime, to anyone). Despite numerous attempts to develop such a diagnostic device, none have managed to fulfill all 4 criteria and be commercialized. Glucometers, the most successful class of biosensor currently marketed monitor blood glucose concentrations. Their performance in clinical samples, including sensitivity and specificity, has been optimized and they are small and relatively inexpensive...
February 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Arnold Duralliu, Paul Matejtschuk, Daryl R Williams
Maintaining low moisture content is seen as crucial to sustaining long term stability in freeze dried (FD) cakes as higher moisture could lead to cake collapse, degradation and loss in biological potency. Using a combination of gravimetric data and video images captured from a Dynamic Vapour Sorption instrument the onset humidity Collapse Point (RHcp), the humidity Onset Crystallisation (RHc) and Onset Glass Transition (RHg) points for a series of freeze dried cakes at 10, 25 and 40°C have been determined...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Lei Rao, Florence E Feeherry, Sonali Ghosh, Xiaojun Liao, Xiuping Lin, Pengfei Zhang, Yongqing Li, Christopher J Doona, Peter Setlow
The effect of water activity (aw), as lowered by different dietary humectants, on the germination of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus spores with germinants that act by different mechanisms has been investigated and compared. Germination of spores of these species by all of the germinants investigated was inhibited as aw decreased, with the general order of efficacy for these non-ionic humectants being sucrose > trehalose > glycerol. The effect of lowering aw on germination by germinant receptor (GR)-dependent germinants was not appreciably altered by varying germinant concentrations, was generally not much more effective with spores lacking coats or an outer membrane, and was less pronounced with heat-activated spores...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Trent D Evans, Se-Jin Jeong, Xiangyu Zhang, Babak Razani
In the atherosclerotic plaque, macrophages are the key catabolic workhorse responsible for clearing lipid and dead cell debris. To survive the highly proinflammatory and lipotoxic plaque environment, macrophages must adopt strategies for maintaining tight homeostasis and self-renewal. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a pro-survival cellular pathway wherein damaged or excess cellular cargoes are encapsulated by a double-membrane compartment and delivered to the lysosome for hydrolysis. Previously, macrophage-specific autophagy deficiency has been shown to be atherogenic through several complementary mechanisms including hyperactivation of the inflammasome, defective efferocytosis, accumulation of cytotoxic protein aggregates, and impaired lipid degradation...
February 2, 2018: Autophagy
Frances Paola Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Front-line tuberculosis (TB) drugs have been characterized extensively in vitro and in vivo with respect to gene expression and cell viability. However, little work has been devoted to understanding their effects on cell envelope physiology, one of the main targets of this clinical regimen. Here, we use metabolic labeling methods to visualize the effects of TB drugs on cell envelope dynamics in mycobacterial species. We developed a new fluorophore-trehalose conjugate to visualize trehalose monomycolates of the mycomembrane with super-resolution microscopy...
February 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xiaochen Zhang, Quan Yu, Yan-An Wang, Jun Zhao
Introduction: To induce sufficient new bone formation, high doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) are applied in regenerative medicine that often induce serious side effects. Therefore, improved treatment strategies are required. Here, we investigate whether the delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized in the presence of trehalose reduced the dose of BMP-2 required for bone regeneration. Materials and methods: A new growth factor delivery system was fabricated using BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes by lyophilization with trehalose (TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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