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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632387/poly-trehalose-nanoparticle-prevents-amyloid-aggregation-and-suppress-polyglutamine-aggregation-in-huntington-s-disease-model-mouse
#1
Koushik Debnath, Nibedita Pradhan, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Nihar R Jana, Nikhil R Jana
Prevention and therapeutic strategy of various neurodegenerative disease focus on inhibiting protein fibrillation, clearing of aggregated protein plaques from brain and lowering of protein aggregate-induced toxicity. We have designed poly(trehalose) nanoparticle that can inhibit amyloid/polyglutamine aggregation under extra-/intra-cellular condition, reduce such aggregation-derived cytotoxicity and prevents polyglutamine aggregation in Huntington's disease (HD) model mouse brain. Nanoparticle has 20-30 nm hydrodynamic size, composed of 6 nm iron oxide core and zwitterionic polymer shell with covalently linked trehalose of ~5-12 wt %...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631750/atherosclerosis-trehalose-induces-macrophage-autophagy-lysosomal-biogenesis
#2
Karina Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629498/rodentibacter-gen-nov-including-rodentibacter-pneumotropicus-comb-nov-rodentibacter-heylii-sp-nov-rodentibacter-myodis-sp-nov-rodentibacter-ratti-sp-nov-rodentibacter-heidelbergensis-sp-nov-rodentibacter-trehalosifermentans-sp-nov-rodentibacter-rarus-sp-nov
#3
Sadhana Adhikary, Werner Nicklas, Magne Bisgaard, Ron Boot, Peter Kuhnert, Torsten Waberschek, Bent Aalbæk, Bozena Korczak, Henrik Christensen
Rodentibacter gen. nov. is proposed based on isolation and phenotypic characterization of strains, predominantly from rodents. The strains showed 86 % or higher rpoB gene sequence similarity and indicated a genus-level relationship within Pasteurellaceae. The strains compared at 16S rRNA gene sequence level showed 93.8 % or higher similarity, and their genus-level relationship within Pasteurellaceae was confirmed by phenotypic analysis. The type species Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov. is reclassified from [Pasteurella] pneumotropica with type strain NCTC 8141T (=CCUG 12398T)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#4
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626094/-effect-of-trehalose-on-survival-rate-for-%C3%A2-fat-cells-after-cryopreservation
#5
Ying Deng, Shaoqian Liu, Hongju Xie, Fangfang Tang, Ming Li, Nian Chen
To explore effects of trehalose as a cryopreserve agent on survival rate of fatty tissue after cryopreservation.
 Methods: The liposuction was used on the abdomen of adult female. After centrifugation and purification, adipose was randomized into the following three groups, the trehalose group, the fetal bovine serum (FBS)+10%DMSO group and the physiological saline group. The specimens were cryopreserved at -196 ℃ for 3 months and then the HE staining, glucose transfer method and CK method were used to detect the cell survival rate in each group...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624416/influence-of-a-small-amount-of-glycerol-on-the-trehalose-bioprotective-action-analyzed-in-situ-during-freeze-drying-of-lyzozyme-formulations-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#6
Tatiana Starciuc, Yannick Guinet, Laurent Paccou, Alain Hedoux
Micro-Raman spectroscopy gives the original opportunity to monitor simultaneously the operating process and the protein structure from in-situ investigations along the three stages of the freeze-drying (FD) process. This opportunity was used for determining how a small amount of glycerol enhances the bioprotective efficiency of trehalose during freeze-drying of lysozyme formulations. Three lysozyme formulations were analyzed: lysozyme dissolved in D2O (wt% 1:9), in Trehalose-D2O mixture (wt% 1:1:8) and in the Trehalose-Glycerol-D2O mixture (wt% 1:1:0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623254/high-throughput-mass-spectrometry-analysis-revealed-a-role-for-glucosamine-in-potentiating-recovery-following-desiccation-stress-in-chironomus
#7
Leena Thorat, Dasharath Oulkar, Kaushik Banerjee, Sushama M Gaikwad, Bimalendu B Nath
Desiccation tolerance is an essential survival trait, especially in tropical aquatic organisms that are vulnerable to severe challenges posed by hydroperiodicity patterns in their habitats, characterized by dehydration-rehydration cycles. Here, we report a novel role for glucosamine as a desiccation stress-responsive metabolite in the underexplored tropical aquatic midge, Chironomus ramosus. Using high- throughput liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) analysis, biochemical assays and gene expression studies, we confirmed that glucosamine was essential during the recovery phase in C...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619669/sex-pheromone-in-the-moth-heliothis-virescens-is-produced-as-a-mixture-of-two-pools-de-novo-and-via-precursor-storage-in-glycerolipids
#8
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson, Jérôme Casas
Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U-(13)C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP)...
June 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619620/development-of-a-solid-dosage-platform-for-the-oral-delivery-of-bilayer-vesicles
#9
Jitinder S Wilkhu, Sarah E Mcneil, David E Anderson, Marc Kirchmeier, Yvonne Perrie
Within this work, we develop vesicles incorporating sub-unit antigens as solid dosage forms suitable for the oral delivery of vaccines. Using a combination of trehalose, dextran and mannitol, freeze-dried oral disintegrating tablets were formed which upon rehydration release bilayer vesicles incorporating antigen. Initial studies focused on the optimisation of the freeze-dry cycle and subsequently excipient content was optimised by testing tablet hardness, disintegration time and moisture content. The use of 10% mannitol and 10% dextran produced durable tablets which offered strong resistance to mechanical damage yet appropriate disintegration times and dispersed to release niosomes-entrapping antigen...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615866/virulence-assay-and-role-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-ts110-as-biocontrol-agent-against-the-larval-stages-of-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis
#10
Tuhin Subhra Ghosh, Soumendranath Chatterjee, Syed Afrin Azmi, Abhijit Mazumdar, Tushar Kanti Dangar
The bacterial isolate Bacillus thuringiensis TS110 was isolated from the rice field soil of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. Bioassay test of the bacteria TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was carried out. Cut leaf assay, potted plant assay and field assay were done. During filed assay, it has been observed that the LC50 (×10(7)) values of TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of C. medinalis were 3.77, 5.29, 4.83 and 4.93, 4.42, 4.72 in dry and wet season, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606937/effects-of-starvation-on-the-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-harmonia-axyridis-pallas
#11
Zuo-Kun Shi, Su Wang, Shi-Gui Wang, Lu Zhang, Yan-Xia Xu, Xiao-Jun Guo, Fan Zhang, Bin Tang
Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main 'blood' sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased...
June 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605892/improvement-of-thermal-stability-of-bcg-vaccine
#12
Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh Sefidi, Homan Kaghazian, Gholam Ali Moradli, Seyed Mehdi Hassanzadeh
BAckground: Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentration were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran...
June 13, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599643/regulation-of-the-reserve-carbohydrate-metabolism-by-alkaline-ph-and-calcium-in-neurospora-crassa-reveals-a-possible-cross-regulation-of-both-signaling-pathways
#13
Stela Virgilio, Fernanda Barbosa Cupertino, Daniela Luz Ambrosio, Maria Célia Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism...
June 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599251/trehalose-enhances-the-antitumor-potential-of-methotrexate-against-mice-bearing-ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma
#14
Mohammed A El-Magd, Abeer Khamis, Samah K Nasr Eldeen, Wafaa M Ibrahim, Afrah F Salama
Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used as a standard chemotherapy for many cancers, however its usage required high doses thereby leading to severe adverse effects. In a trial to find a suitable neoadjuvant therapy to decrease MTX dosage without lowering its chemotherapeutic efficacy, we investigated the antitumor effect of trehalose (TRE) on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and checked whether TRE can enhance the antitumor potential of MTX. Treatment with TRE induced anti-tumor effects against EAC as reveled by a remarkable decrease in body weight, tumor volume, count of viable tumor cells, expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 as well as by a significant increase in mean survival time, life span and expression of the apoptotic gene caspase-3...
June 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597045/biocontrol-activity-of-a-cold-adapted-yeast-from-tibet-against-gray-mold-in-cherry-tomato-and-its-action-mechanism
#15
Hao Hu, Michael E Wisniewski, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Xiaodong Zheng
Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase...
July 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#16
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in D. melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
June 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595152/an-unexplored-remarkable-pnipam-osmolyte-interaction-study-an-integrated-experimental-and-simulation-approach
#17
Payal Narang, Suresh B Vepuri, Pannuru Venkatesu, Mahmoud E Soliman
We investigate the aggregation and collapse of water soluble amphiphilic polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), in aqueous solution containing variable amount of trehalose, sucrose and sorbitol. The effect of these osmolytes on the coil to globular transition of the PNIPAM is studied by the use of comprehensive biophysical techniques like UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The polarization induced by these additives promotes the collapsed state of PNIPAM at much lower temperature as compared to the pure PNIPAM in aqueous solution...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592952/development-of-a-biofungicide-using-a-mycoparasitic-fungus-simplicillium-lamellicola-bcp-and-its-control-efficacy-against-gray-mold-diseases-of-tomato-and-ginseng
#18
Teak Soo Shin, Nan Hee Yu, Jaeho Lee, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Chul Soo Shin
To develop a commercial product using the mycoparasitic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP, the scaleup of conidia production from a 5-l jar to a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor, optimization of the freeze-drying of the fermentation broth, and preparation of a wettable powder-type formulation were performed. Then, its disease control efficacy was evaluated against gray mold diseases of tomato and ginseng plants in field conditions. The final conidial yields of S. lamellicola BCP were 3.3 × 10(9) conidia/ml for a 5-l jar, 3...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589926/exploiting-macrophage-autophagy-lysosomal-biogenesis-as-a-therapy-for-atherosclerosis
#19
Ismail Sergin, Trent D Evans, Xiangyu Zhang, Somashubhra Bhattacharya, Carl J Stokes, Eric Song, Sahl Ali, Babak Dehestani, Karyn B Holloway, Paul S Micevych, Ali Javaheri, Jan R Crowley, Andrea Ballabio, Joel D Schilling, Slava Epelman, Conrad C Weihl, Abhinav Diwan, Daping Fan, Mohamed A Zayed, Babak Razani
Macrophages specialize in removing lipids and debris present in the atherosclerotic plaque. However, plaque progression renders macrophages unable to degrade exogenous atherogenic material and endogenous cargo including dysfunctional proteins and organelles. Here we show that a decline in the autophagy-lysosome system contributes to this as evidenced by a derangement in key autophagy markers in both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques. By augmenting macrophage TFEB, the master transcriptional regulator of autophagy-lysosomal biogenesis, we can reverse the autophagy dysfunction of plaques, enhance aggrephagy of p62-enriched protein aggregates and blunt macrophage apoptosis and pro-inflammatory IL-1β levels, leading to reduced atherosclerosis...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575477/regulation-of-gene-expressions-in-the-remobilization-of-carbon-reserve-in-straws-of-rice-at-grain-filling
#20
Guan-Qun Wang, Shuai-Shuai Hao, Bei Gao, Mo-Xian Chen, Ying-Gao Liu, Jian-Chang Yang, Neng-Hui Ye, Jian-Hua Zhang
Carbon reserves in rice straws before flowering contribute to a significant portion of grain filling. However, the molecular mechanism of carbon reserve remobilization from straws (stem and sheath) to grains remains unclear. In this study, super rice LYP9 and conventional rice 9311 showed different carbon reserves remobilization behaviors. The transcriptomic profiles of straws of LYP9 and 9311 were analyzed at three stages of grain filling. Among the differentially expressed genes (DGs), 5733 genes were uniquely up- or down-regulated at 30 days after anthesis (DAA) between LYP9 and 9311 in comparison to 681 at 10 DAA and 495 at 20 DAA, respectively, suggesting that the gene expression profile of LYP9 was much different than that of 9311 at late stage of grain filling...
May 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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