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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328221/chemical-synthesis-of-biosurfactant-succinoyl-trehalose-lipids
#1
Santanu Jana, Sumana Mondal, Suvarn S Kulkarni
Herein, we report, for the first time, a strategy to differentiate O4/O4' positions of 1,1'-α,α-trehalose via regioselective protection or site-selective functionalization and its application in the first chemical synthesis of succinoyl trehalose lipids. The biosurfactant glycolipids were obtained in 11-12 steps starting from trehalose in time span of 8-10 days and 11-12% overall yields.
March 22, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#2
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326634/influence-of-partial-or-total-replacement-of-glycerol-by-alternative-cryoprotectants-in-ghent-freezing-extender-on-post-thaw-sperm-quality-in-stallions
#3
R A De Oliveira, S Budik, C Aurich
Although glycerol is the cryoprotectant most commonly used in stallions, it has also a considerable toxicity for equine sperm. It was the aim of this study to analyse the quality of frozen-thawed stallion semen after complete or partial replacement of glycerol in the freezing extender by alternative cryoprotectants. We hypothesized that partial or total replacement of glycerol by cryoprotectants occurring in cold-resistant frog, insect or plant species results in similar or better semen quality after freezing-thawing...
March 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317721/cryoprotective-roles-of-trehalose-and-alginate-oligosaccharides-during-frozen-storage-of-peeled-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#4
Bin Zhang, Hai-Xiao Wu, Hui-Cheng Yang, Xing-Wei Xiang, Hai-Bo Li, Shang-Gui Deng
Cryoprotective saccharides are widely accepted additives that reduce thawing loss, maintain texture, and retard protein denaturation in the frozen seafood. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of trehalose and alginate oligosaccharides on cryoprotection of frozen shrimp, primarily focusing on the interactions between myosin and saccharide molecules using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis. The results indicated that soaking in the trehalose and alginate oligosaccharides solutions markedly reduced thawing and cooking losses in frozen shrimp, with respective values decreasing to 6...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306513/tardigrades-use-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-to-survive-desiccation
#5
Thomas C Boothby, Hugo Tapia, Alexandra H Brozena, Samantha Piszkiewicz, Austin E Smith, Ilaria Giovannini, Lorena Rebecchi, Gary J Pielak, Doug Koshland, Bob Goldstein
Tardigrades are microscopic animals that survive a remarkable array of stresses, including desiccation. How tardigrades survive desiccation has remained a mystery for more than 250 years. Trehalose, a disaccharide essential for several organisms to survive drying, is detected at low levels or not at all in some tardigrade species, indicating that tardigrades possess potentially novel mechanisms for surviving desiccation. Here we show that tardigrade-specific intrinsically disordered proteins (TDPs) are essential for desiccation tolerance...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300505/mid-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis-of-saccharides-in-aqueous-solutions-with-sodium-chloride
#6
Mikihito Kanou, Takaharu Kameoka, Ken-Ichiro Suehara, Atsushi Hashimoto
The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl...
April 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299593/trehalose-and-magnesium-chloride-exert-a-common-anti-amyloidogenic-effect-towards-hen-egg-white-lysozyme
#7
Rupsa Chatterjee, Vidyalatha Kolli, Nandini Sarkar
Many degenerative disorder such as Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Huntingtons disease, etc are caused due to the deposition of amyloid fibrils, formed due to the ordered aggregation of misfolded/unfolded proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins aggregate mostly through hydrophobic interactions which are unexposed in native state, but become exposed upon unfolding. To counteract amyloid related diseases, inhibition of the protein self assembly into fibril is a potential therapeutic strategy. The study aims at investigating the effect of selected compounds, namely trehalose and magnesium chloride hexahydrate towards inhibition and disaggregation of amyloid fibrils using Hen Egg White Lysozyme as a model...
March 16, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#8
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298096/characterization-of-the-hydrogen-bond-network-of-water-around-sucrose-and-trehalose-microwave-and-terahertz-spectroscopic-study
#9
Keiichiro Shiraga, Aya Adachi, Masahito Nakamura, Takuro Tajima, Katsuhiro Ajito, Yuichi Ogawa
Modification of the water hydrogen bond network imposed by disaccharides is known to serve as a bioprotective agent in living organisms, though its comprehensive understanding is still yet to be reached. In this study, aiming to characterize the dynamical slowing down and destructuring effect of disaccharides, we performed broadband dielectric spectroscopy, ranging from 0.5 GHz to 12 THz, of sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions. The destructuring effect was examined in two ways (the hydrogen bond fragmentation and disordering) and our result showed that both sucrose and trehalose exhibit an obvious destructuring effect with a similar strength, by fragmenting hydrogen bonds and distorting the tetrahedral-like structure of water...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295916/trehalose-activates-autophagy-and-decreases-proteasome-inhibitor-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-oxidative-stress-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-hepatocytes
#10
Yuichi Honma, Miyuki Sato-Morita, Yuka Katsuki, Hitomi Mihara, Ryoko Baba, Masaru Harada
Endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with the pathophysiology of various liver diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the accumulation of abnormal proteins and leads to oxidative stress, cytoplasmic inclusion body formation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Autophagy is a bulk degradation pathway for long-lived cytoplasmic proteins or damaged organelles and is also a major degradation pathway for many aggregate-prone and disease-causing proteins. We previously reported that rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, activated autophagy and decreased proteasome inhibitor-mediated ubiquitinated protein accumulation, cytoplasmic inclusion body formation and apoptosis in hepatocytes...
March 11, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295748/role-of-the-sln1-phosphorelay-pathway-in-the-response-to-hyperosmotic-stress-in-the-yeast-kluyveromyces-lactis
#11
Miriam Rodríguez-González, Laura Kawasaki, Nancy Velázquez-Zavala, Eunice Domínguez-Martín, Abraham Trejo-Medecigo, Natalia Martagón, Emilio Espinoza-Simón, Araceli Vázquez-Ibarra, Laura Ongay-Larios, Dimitris Georgellis, Eulàlia de Nadal, Francesc Posas, Roberto Coria
The Kluyveromyces lactis SLN1 phosphorelay system includes the osmosensor histidine kinase Sln1, the phosphotransfer protein Ypd1 and the response regulator Ssk1. Here we show that K. lactis has a functional phosphorelay system. In vitro assays, using a heterolougus histidine kinase, show that the phosphate group is accepted by KlYpd1 and transfer to KlSsk1. Upon hyperosmotic stress the phosphorelay is inactivated, KlYpd1 is dephosphorylated in a KlSln1 dependent manner, and only the version of KlSsk1 that lacks the phosphate group interacts with the MAPKKK KlSsk2...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290513/a-potential-and-novel-type-transgenic-corn-plant-for-control-of-the-corn-borer
#12
Zhen Yue, Xiangrui Li, Enyan Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Zhangwu Zhao
The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5(th) instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289905/expression-profile-of-desiccation-tolerance-factors-in-intertidal-seaweed-species-during-the-tidal-cycle
#13
Camila Fierro, Camilo López-Cristoffanini, Andrés Meynard, Carlos Lovazzano, Francisco Castañeda, Eduardo Guajardo, Loretto Contreras-Porcia
The transcriptional modulation of desiccation tolerance factors in P. orbicularis explains its successful recuperation after water deficit. Differential responses to air exposure clarify seaweed distribution along intertidal rocky zones. Desiccation-tolerant seaweed species, such as Pyropia orbicularis, can tolerate near 96% water loss during air exposure. To understand the phenotypic plasticity of P. orbicularis to desiccation, several tolerance factors were assessed by RT-qPCR, Western-blot analysis, and enzymatic assays during the natural desiccation-rehydration cycle...
March 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289081/light-modulates-metabolic-pathways-and-other-novel-physiological-traits-in-the-human-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
Gabriela L Müller, Marisel Tuttobene, Matías Altilio, Maitena Martinez Amezaga, Meaghan Nguyen, P Pamela Cribb, Larisa E Cybulski, María Soledad Ramírez, Silvia Altabe, María Alejandra Mussi
Light sensing in chemotrophic bacteria has been relatively recently ascertained. In the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, light modulates motility, biofilm formation and virulence through the BLUF photoreceptor BlsA. In addition, light can induce reduction in susceptibility to certain antibiotics such as minocycline and tigecycline in a photoreceptor-independent manner. In this work we identified new traits whose expression are modulated by light in this pathogen, which comprise not only important determinants related to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, but also metabolic pathways, which represents a novel concept for chemotrophic bacteria...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287534/rapid-one-step-enzymatic-synthesis-and-all-aqueous-purification-of-trehalose-analogues
#15
Lisa M Meints, Anne W Poston, Brent F Piligian, Claire D Olson, Katherine S Badger, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Chemically modified versions of trehalose, or trehalose analogues, have applications in biology, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical science, among other fields. For instance, trehalose analogues bearing detectable tags have been used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may have applications as tuberculosis diagnostic imaging agents. Hydrolytically stable versions of trehalose are also being pursued due to their potential for use as non-caloric sweeteners and bioprotective agents. Despite the appeal of this class of compounds for various applications, their potential remains unfulfilled due to the lack of a robust route for their production...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285140/analysis-of-the-potency-of-various-low-molecular-weight-chemical-chaperones-to-prevent-protein-aggregation
#16
Chandak Upagupta, Rachel E Carlisle, Jeffrey G Dickhout
Newly translated proteins must undergo proper folding to ensure their function. To enter a low energy state, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are associated with many degenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have shown the use of low molecular weight chemical chaperones to be an effective method of reducing protein aggregation in various cell types. This study demonstrates a novel non-biased assay to assess the molecular efficacy of these compounds at preventing protein misfolding and/or aggregation...
March 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278368/dynamic-metabolic-responses-of-brown-planthoppers-towards-susceptible-and-resistant-rice-plants
#17
Caixiang Liu, Ba Du, Fuhua Hao, Hehua Lei, Qianfen Wan, Guangcun He, Yulan Wang, Huiru Tang
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice-growing regions and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH-resistant plants, we systematically analyzed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC-FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty acids using real-time PCR...
March 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276784/nanostructured-lipid-carriers-loaded-with-simvastatin-effect-of-peg-glycerides-on-characterization-stability-cellular-uptake-efficiency-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity
#18
Sally Safwat, Rania A H Ishak, Rania M Hathout, Nahed D Mortada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of PEG/glycerides of different HLB; oleoyl macrogol-6-glycerides (Labrafil(®) M 1944 CS) and caprylocaproylmacrogol-8-glycerides (Labrasol(®)), compared to Labrafac lipophile(®) as PEG-free glyceride in the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). PEG/glycerides are suggested to perform a dual function; as the oily component, and as the PEG-containing substrate required for producing the PEGylated carriers without physical or chemical synthesis...
March 1, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276783/application-of-cyclodextrins-in-antibody-microparticles-potentials-for-antibody-protection-in-spray-drying
#19
Vahid Ramezani, Alireza Vatanara, Mohammad Seyedabadi, Mohsen Nabi Meibodi, Hamed Fanaei
OBJECTIVES: Dry powder formulations are extensively used to improve the stability of antibodies. Spray drying is one of important methods for protein drying. This study investigated the effects of trehalose, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and beta cyclodextrin (BCD) on the stability and particle properties of spray-dried IgG. METHODS: D-optimal design was employed for both experimental design and analysis and optimization of the variables. The size and aerodynamic behavior of particles were determined using laser light scattering and glass twin impinger, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276613/cura-annonae-chemically-boosting-crop-yields-through-metabolic-feeding-of-a-plant-signaling-precursor
#20
David J Vocadlo
The cream of the crop: With the world facing a projected shortfall of crops by 2050, new approaches are needed to boost crop yields. Metabolic feeding of plants with photocaged trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) can increase levels of the signaling metabolite Tre6P in the plant. Reprogramming of cellular metabolism by Tre6P stimulates a program of plant growth and enhanced crop yields, while boosting starch content.
March 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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