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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633405/addressing-the-key-communication-barriers-between-microbiology-laboratories-and-clinical-units-a-qualitative-study
#1
Brita Skodvin, Karina Aase, Anita Løvås Brekken, Esmita Charani, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Ingrid Smith
Background: Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623923/making-hiv-testing-work-at-the-point-of-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study-of-diagnostic-practices
#2
Nora Engel, Malika Davids, Nadine Blankvoort, Keertan Dheda, Nitika Pant Pai, Madhukar Pai
BACKGROUND: Point of care testing promises to reduce delays in diagnosing and initiating treatment for infectious diseases such as Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). In South Africa, decentralized HIV testing with rapid tests offers important lessons for point of care testing programs. Yet, little is known about the strategies of providers and clients to make HIV testing successful in settings short of equipment, human resources and space. We aimed at examining these strategies. METHODS: This paper is based on a larger qualitative study of diagnostic practices across major diseases and actors in homes, clinics, communities, hospitals and laboratories in South Africa...
June 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619227/efficacy-and-safety-of-praziquantel-in-preschool-aged-and-school-aged-children-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-a-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-dose-ranging-phase-2-trial
#3
Jean T Coulibaly, Gordana Panic, Kigbafori D Silué, Jana Kovač, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Praziquantel has been the drug of choice for schistosomiasis control for more than 40 years, yet surprisingly, the optimal dose for children younger than 4 years is not known. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of escalating praziquantel dosages in preschool-aged children (PSAC). METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, parallel-group, single-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial in PSAC (2-5 years) and school-aged children (SAC; aged 6-15 years) as a comparator group in southern Côte d'Ivoire...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585233/progress-in-the-blood-supply-of-afghanistan
#4
William J Riley, Terri Konstenius McCullough, Ahmad Masoud Rhamani, Jeffrey McCullough
BACKGROUND: The blood supply system in Afghanistan was badly damaged by years of conflict. In 2009, the Afghanistan National Blood Safety and Transfusion Service (ANBSTS) was established. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: For 6 years, we collaborated to assist with policy and infrastructure development; blood bank operations; blood collection, testing, and component production; transfusion practices; and training of technicians, nurses, midwives, and physicians. RESULTS: Policies were established, infrastructure was strengthened, and capable staff was acquired and trained...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579890/the-first-multiplication-atom-bond-connectivity-index-of-molecular-structures-in-drugs
#5
Wei Gao, Yiqiao Wang, Weifan Wang, Li Shi
In the field of medicine, there are a large number of new drugs synthesis every year. Before entering the clinical stage, it needs a lot of work on drug testing of the various properties. Due to the lack of a large number of laboratory technician, laboratory equipment and reagents, the drug testing of many biochemical properties are not completed. Theoretical medicine provides a theoretical way for medical researchers to obtain the pharmaceutical properties of compounds by calculation tricks. In this paper, the first multiplication atom-bond connectivity index of several common drugs structure are studied, and the accurate expressions are determined...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559163/a-cost-saving-strategy-for-processing-isolated-uropathogens-in-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections
#6
Juan Manuel Sánchez-Calvo, José Luís de Francisco, Eva Torres-Martos, Juan Carlos Alados Arboledas, Maria Dolores López Prieto
Outpatient urine samples are among the most commonly processed in a microbiology laboratory, which involves a high economic burden. The aim of this study was compare cost and efficiency to process uropathogens between MicroScan system (2010-2011) versus a chromogenic medium and the disk diffusion method (2013-2014). In the first period, a total 9918 bacterial populations were isolated from urine samples. Annual estimated costs during 2010 and 2011 for processing were EUR 53,818 and EUR 57,306, respectively (EUR 111,124 total)...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540850/return-of-experience-on-the-initial-audit-of-cofrac-and-projects-for-the-release-of-results-of-emergency-biological-tests
#7
Philippe Hoffmann
Legislation and ISO 15189 international standard provide that the clinical laboratories shall organize the communication of the biological assay results, especially with the establishment of a list of critical assays, whose results shall be reported during doctor's on call period but also through restricting result transmission to biologically validated results. Actually continuous validation and immediate procession of the medical records belonging to patients in emergency situation are not always possible, because of the biologist's workload and the other activities he is responsible for...
June 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529048/laboratory-based-performance-evaluation-of-pima-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count-point-of-care-by-lay-counselors-in-kenya
#8
Clement Zeh, Charles E Rose, Seth Inzaule, Mitesh A Desai, Fredrick Otieno, Felix Humwa, Benta Akoth, Paul Omolo, Robert T Chen, Yenew Kebede, Taraz Samandari
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. METHODS: In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527280/-performance-of-led-fluorescence-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-acid-fast-bacilli-from-respiratory-samples-in-peripheral-laboratories-in-argentina
#9
María Imaz, Sonia Allassia, Mónica Aranibar, Alba Gunia, Susana Poggi, Ana Togneri, Lidia Wolff, Group Of Implementation Of Fluorescence
INTRODUCTION: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for tuberculosis diagnosis, but its accuracy in HIV-infected patients remains controversial, and only some few studies have explored procedural factors that may affect its performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of LED-FM for tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with and without HIV infection using a newer, less expensive LED lamp...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508922/adaptation-and-optimization-of-a-fluorescence-based-assay-for-in-vivo-antimalarial-drug-screening
#10
Maria H Arias, Eric Deharo, Alexis Valentin, Giovanny Garavito
The in vivo efficacy of potential antimalarials is usually evaluated by direct microscopic determination of the parasitaemia of Plasmodium-infected mice on Giemsa-stained blood smears. This process is time-consuming, requires experienced technicians and is not automatable. Therefore, we optimized a SYBR Green I (SYBRG I) fluorescence-based assay to fluorometers commonly available in many research laboratories. This technique was originally developed to assess parasitaemia in humans by cytometry. We defined optimal conditions with Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, standard lysis buffer (Tris, EDTA, saponin and Triton), whole blood cells and 2 h staining incubation with SYBRG I 2X...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496253/survey-on-the-use-of-cad-cam-technology-by-uk-and-irish-dental-technicians
#11
E Blackwell, M Nesbit, H Petridis
Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dental technicians' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The aim of this cross sectional survey was to identify the extent digital technology has infiltrated the workplace and to investigate the factors affecting the use of CAD-CAM technology by dental laboratory technicians within Ireland and the UK.Materials and methods A web-based questionnaire was composed (Opinio, Object Planet Inc...
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491303/self-evaluation-of-tobacco-exposure-by-allied-health-students-in-a-community-college-setting
#12
Fiona Geiser, Meredith Much, Karen Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco education is among the initiatives encouraged for health professionals to help them appreciate the significance of addressing tobacco use among their patients. In this pilot study, a nicotine biomarker (cotinine) study was introduced to an applied microbiology course required of all allied health students. Participants assessed their own smoking status in the previous 24 h using a two-dimensional experimental design of a questionnaire and rapid urinary cotinine immunoassay...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490345/post-2015-why-delay-to-seek-healthcare-perceptions-and-field-experiences-from-tb-healthcare-providers-in-northern-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#13
Nathan B W Chimbatata, Chang-Ming Zhou, Chikondi M Chimbatata, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: Malawi is a low-income country with high Tuberculosis (TB) burden. TB diagnosis delay and untimely initiation of treatment is still a major problem in Malawi which could increase the risk of tuberculosis transmission in the communities. This study investigated factors related to the diagnostic delay of tuberculosis from TB healthcare providers in the northern region of Malawi. METHODS: Nine focus group discussions were conducted with 57 participants in total...
May 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478985/a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-comparing-the-use-of-displacement-cords-an-aluminum-chloride-paste-and-a-combination-of-paste-and-cords-for-tissue-displacement
#14
Erna R Einarsdottir, Niklaus P Lang, Thor Aspelund, Bjarni E Pjetursson
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Gingival recession after soft tissue displacement for impression making in fixed prosthodontics may pose a problem for treatment success in the esthetic areas of the mouth. Knowledge about the soft tissue reaction of common gingival displacement methods is limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate changes in the marginal soft tissue height with 3 different gingival tissue displacement techniques for definitive impression making of natural teeth...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467309/automated-antinuclear-immunofluorescence-antibody-analysis-is-a-reliable-approach-in-routine-clinical-laboratories
#15
Bing Zheng, Enling Li, Haoming Zhu, Jingbo Lu, Xinming Shi, Jie Zhang, Min Li
BACKGROUND: Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays are recommended as the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). This study aimed to investigate the reliability of an automated system. METHODS: We compared 3745 serum samples using NOVA View archived images with manual analysis via microscopy. A custom cutoff value was established to distinguish ANA titers and was validated in two clinical laboratories. The automatic ANA pattern recognition system was evaluated, and all ANA-positive sera were subjected to two commercial ANA IIF kits to compare the consistency of the pattern interpretation results...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462405/monolithic-zirconia-reconstructions-supported-by-teeth-and-implants-1-to-3-year-results-of-a-case-series
#16
Andreas Worni, Joannis Katsoulis, Lumni Kolgeci, Mathias Worni, Regina Mericske-Stern
OBJECTIVE: Today, only scarce information is available on monolithic zirconia reconstructions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of monolithic zirconia for tooth- and implant-borne reconstructions. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Monolithic zirconia single crowns (SCs) and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) supported by implants or teeth were included in this study. Implant placement and prosthetic treatment were done in the same clinical setting. One technician performed all laboratory work using the same CAD/CAM workflow (DentalDesigner, Ceramill Motion 2, Amann Girrbach)...
April 28, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448206/mycoplasma-pulmonis-of-rodents-as-a-possible-human-pathogen
#17
Tomasz Piasecki, Klaudia Chrzastek, Urszula Kasprzykowska
Mycoplasma pulmonis is a naturally occurring respiratory pathogen in rodents. To date, this pathogen was not isolated from humans. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and seropositivity to M. pulmonis in humans who have had direct contact with rats. Moreover, the prevalence of M. pulmonis in pet and laboratory rats was assessed. Overall, 131 and 235 oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from human individuals and rats, respectively. In humans, M. pulmonis was detected by PCR in 21 of 86 pet rat keepers (24...
April 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409856/pleural-malignant-mesothelioma-in-dental-laboratory-technicians-a-case-series
#18
Carolina Mensi, Francesco Ciullo, Gino Pietro Barbieri, Luciano Riboldi, Anna Somigliana, Giulio Rasperini, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Dario Consonni
Asbestos was used in dentistry as a binder in periodontal dressings and as lining material for casting rings and crucible. However, until now, only one case of malignant mesothelioma with occupational exposure to asbestos in dental practice has been reported. We present 4 pleural mesotheliomas out of 5344 cases identified in Lombardy, Italy, in 2000-2014. Three men had been working as dental laboratory technicians, with asbestos exposure for 10, 34, and 4 years, and one woman had been helping her husband for 30 years in manufacturing dental prostheses...
May 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397029/introduction-to-moral-and-other-laboratories
#19
EDITORIAL
Teresa Kuan, Lone Grøn
"Moral (and other) laboratories" is a special issue that draws on Cheryl Mattingly's notion of the "moral laboratory" to explore the uncanny interface between laboratory ethnography and moral anthropology, and to examine the relationship between experience and experiment. We ask whether laboratory work may provoke new insights about experimental practices in other social spaces such as homes, clinics, and neighborhoods, and conversely, whether the study of morality may provoke new insights about laboratory practices as they unfold in the day-to-day interactions between test tubes, animals, apparatuses, scientists, and technicians...
April 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381724/current-status-of-regulatory-science-education-in-faculties-of-pharmaceutical-science-in-japan
#20
REVIEW
Masahiro Tohkin
 I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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