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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815426/identification-and-red-blood-cell-automated-counting-from-blood-smear-images-using-computer-aided-system
#1
Vasundhara Acharya, Preetham Kumar
Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically...
August 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804839/platelet-function-analyzed-by-light-transmission-aggregometry
#2
Anne-Mette Hvas, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Analysis of platelet function is widely used for diagnostic work-up in patients with increased bleeding tendency. During the last decades, platelet function testing has also been introduced for evaluation of antiplatelet therapy, but this is still recommended for research purposes only. Platelet function can also be assessed for hyper-aggregability, but this is less often evaluated. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was introduced in the early 1960s and has since been considered the gold standard. This optical detection system is based on changes in turbidity measured as a change in light transmission, which is proportional to the extent of platelet aggregation induced by addition of an agonist...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762894/how-patients-navigate-the-diagnostic-ecosystem-in-a-fragmented-health-system-a-qualitative-study-from-india
#3
Vijayashree Yellapa, Narayanan Devadasan, Anja Krumeich, Nitika Pant Pai, Caroline Vadnais, Madhukar Pai, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Depending on a country's diagnostic infrastructure, patients and providers play different roles in ensuring that correct and timely diagnosis is made. However, little is known about the work done by patients in accessing diagnostic services and completing the 'test and treat' loop. OBJECTIVE: To address this knowledge gap, we traced the diagnostic journeys of patients with tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and typhoid, and examined the work they had to do to arrive at a diagnosis...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750083/health-care-workers-perceptions-of-point-of-care-testing-in-a-low-income-country-a-qualitative-study-in-southwestern-uganda
#4
Reza Rasti, Deborah Nanjebe, Jonas Karlström, Charles Muchunguzi, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Jesper Gantelius, Andreas Mårtensson, Lourdes Rivas, Francesc Galban, Philippa Reuterswärd, Helene Andersson Svahn, Helle M Alvesson, Yap Boum, Tobias Alfvén
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) tests have become increasingly available and more widely used in recent years. They have been of particular importance to low-income settings, enabling them with clinical capacities that had previously been limited. POC testing programs hold a great potential for significant improvement in low-income health systems. However, as most POC tests are developed in high-income countries, disengagement between developers and end-users inhibit their full potential...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748063/field-application-of-the-micro-biological-survey-method-for-the-assessment-of-the-microbiological-safety-of-different-water-sources-in-horn-of-africa-and-the-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-moringa-oleifera-in-drinking-water-purification
#5
Francesca Losito, Alyexandra Arienzo, Daniela Somma, Lorenza Murgia, Ottavia Stalio, Paolo Zuppi, Elisabetta Rossi, Giovanni Antonini
Water monitoring requires expensive instrumentations and skilled technicians. In developing Countries as Africa, the severe economic restrictions and lack of technology make water safety monitoring approaches applied in developed Countries, still not sustainable. The need to develop new methods that are suitable, affordable, and sustainable in the African context is urgent. The simple, economic and rapid Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method does not require an equipped laboratory nor special instruments and skilled technicians, but it can be very useful for routine water analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745647/utilization-of-capsules-for-negative-staining-of-viral-samples-within-biocontainment
#6
Candace D Blancett, Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. Most biological materials do not contain dense elements capable of scattering electrons to create an image; therefore, a negative stain, which places dense heavy metal salts around the sample, is required. In order to visualize viruses in suspension under the TEM they must be applied to small grids coated with a transparent surface only nanometers thick. Due to their small size and fragility, these grids are difficult to handle and easily moved by air currents...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725128/quality-of-communication-between-dentists-and-dental-laboratory-technicians-for-fixed-prosthodontics-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#7
Huda Tulbah, Eman AlHamdan, Amal AlQahtani, Asma AlShahrani, Mona AlShaye
The fabrication of a clinically acceptable dental prosthesis requires proper communication between the dentist and the dental technician. Prosthodontic educators have been concerned with this interaction and communication. Fixed prosthodontics laboratories revealed that the technicians are often dissatisfied with the information provided in work authorizations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of communication between dentists and laboratory technicians via work authorizations for fixed prosthodontics in both governmental and private dental laboratories in Riyadh area from the technician's perspective...
July 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692574/technician-consistency-in-specular-microscopy-measurements-a-real-world-retrospective-analysis-of-a-united-states-eye-bank
#8
Gabriel M Rand, Ji Won Kwon, Patrick K Gore, Mitchell D McCartney, Roy S Chuck
PURPOSE: To quantify consistency of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements among technicians in a single US eye bank operating under typical operating conditions. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of 51 microscopy technicians using a semiautomated counting method on 35,067 eyes from July 2007 to May 2015, technician- and date-related marginal ECD effects were calculated using linear regression models. ECD variance was correlated with the number of specular microscopy technicians...
July 7, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678955/a-forensic-identification-case-and-dpid-can-it-be-a-useful-tool
#9
Cristhiane Leão de Queiroz, Ellen Marie Bostock, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Marco Aurélio Guimarães, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
Objective: The aim of this study was to show DPid as an important tool of potential application to solve cases with dental prosthesis, such as the forensic case reported, in which a skull, denture and dental records were received for analysis. Material and Methods: Human identification is still challenging in various circumstances and Dental Prosthetics Identification (DPid) stores the patient's name and prosthesis information and provides access through an embedded code in dental prosthesis or an identification card...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658800/a-post-marketing-surveillance-study-to-evaluate-performance-of-the-eximo%C3%A2-blood-glucose-monitoring-system
#10
Sonia R Chandnani, C D Ramakrishna, Bhargav A Dave, Pankaj S Kothavade, Ashok S Thakkar
INTRODUCTION: The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. AIM: To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653418/syphilis-testing-practices-in-the-americas
#11
Thuy T Trinh, Mary L Kamb, Minh Luu, D Cal Ham, Freddy Perez
OBJECTIVE: To present the findings of the Pan American Health Organization's 2014 survey on syphilis testing policies and practices in the Americas. METHODS: Representatives of national/regional reference and large, lower-level laboratories from 35 member-states were invited to participate. A semi-structured, electronically administered questionnaire collected data on syphilis tests, algorithms, equipment/commodities, challenges faced, and basic quality assurance (QA) strategies employed (i...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633405/addressing-the-key-communication-barriers-between-microbiology-laboratories-and-clinical-units-a-qualitative-study
#12
Brita Skodvin, Karina Aase, Anita Løvås Brekken, Esmita Charani, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Ingrid Smith
Background: Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623923/making-hiv-testing-work-at-the-point-of-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study-of-diagnostic-practices
#13
Nora Engel, Malika Davids, Nadine Blankvoort, Keertan Dheda, Nitika Pant Pai, Madhukar Pai
BACKGROUND: Point of care testing promises to reduce delays in diagnosing and initiating treatment for infectious diseases such as Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). In South Africa, decentralized HIV testing with rapid tests offers important lessons for point of care testing programs. Yet, little is known about the strategies of providers and clients to make HIV testing successful in settings short of equipment, human resources and space. We aimed at examining these strategies. METHODS: This paper is based on a larger qualitative study of diagnostic practices across major diseases and actors in homes, clinics, communities, hospitals and laboratories in South Africa...
June 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619227/efficacy-and-safety-of-praziquantel-in-preschool-aged-and-school-aged-children-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-a-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-dose-ranging-phase-2-trial
#14
Jean T Coulibaly, Gordana Panic, Kigbafori D Silué, Jana Kovač, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Praziquantel has been the drug of choice for schistosomiasis control for more than 40 years, yet surprisingly, the optimal dose for children younger than 4 years is not known. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of escalating praziquantel dosages in preschool-aged children (PSAC). METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, parallel-group, single-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial in PSAC (2-5 years) and school-aged children (SAC; aged 6-15 years) as a comparator group in southern Côte d'Ivoire...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585233/progress-in-the-blood-supply-of-afghanistan
#15
William J Riley, Terri Konstenius McCullough, Ahmad Masoud Rhamani, Jeffrey McCullough
BACKGROUND: The blood supply system in Afghanistan was badly damaged by years of conflict. In 2009, the Afghanistan National Blood Safety and Transfusion Service (ANBSTS) was established. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: For 6 years, we collaborated to assist with policy and infrastructure development; blood bank operations; blood collection, testing, and component production; transfusion practices; and training of technicians, nurses, midwives, and physicians. RESULTS: Policies were established, infrastructure was strengthened, and capable staff was acquired and trained...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579890/the-first-multiplication-atom-bond-connectivity-index-of-molecular-structures-in-drugs
#16
Wei Gao, Yiqiao Wang, Weifan Wang, Li Shi
In the field of medicine, there are a large number of new drugs synthesis every year. Before entering the clinical stage, it needs a lot of work on drug testing of the various properties. Due to the lack of a large number of laboratory technician, laboratory equipment and reagents, the drug testing of many biochemical properties are not completed. Theoretical medicine provides a theoretical way for medical researchers to obtain the pharmaceutical properties of compounds by calculation tricks. In this paper, the first multiplication atom-bond connectivity index of several common drugs structure are studied, and the accurate expressions are determined...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559163/a-cost-saving-strategy-for-processing-isolated-uropathogens-in-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Juan Manuel Sánchez-Calvo, José Luís de Francisco, Eva Torres-Martos, Juan Carlos Alados Arboledas, Maria Dolores López Prieto
Outpatient urine samples are among the most commonly processed in a microbiology laboratory, which involves a high economic burden. The aim of this study was compare cost and efficiency to process uropathogens between MicroScan system (2010-2011) versus a chromogenic medium and the disk diffusion method (2013-2014). In the first period, a total 9918 bacterial populations were isolated from urine samples. Annual estimated costs during 2010 and 2011 for processing were EUR 53,818 and EUR 57,306, respectively (EUR 111,124 total)...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540850/return-of-experience-on-the-initial-audit-of-cofrac-and-projects-for-the-release-of-results-of-emergency-biological-tests
#18
Philippe Hoffmann
Legislation and ISO 15189 international standard provide that the clinical laboratories shall organize the communication of the biological assay results, especially with the establishment of a list of critical assays, whose results shall be reported during doctor's on call period but also through restricting result transmission to biologically validated results. Actually continuous validation and immediate procession of the medical records belonging to patients in emergency situation are not always possible, because of the biologist's workload and the other activities he is responsible for...
June 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529048/laboratory-based-performance-evaluation-of-pima-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count-point-of-care-by-lay-counselors-in-kenya
#19
Clement Zeh, Charles E Rose, Seth Inzaule, Mitesh A Desai, Fredrick Otieno, Felix Humwa, Benta Akoth, Paul Omolo, Robert T Chen, Yenew Kebede, Taraz Samandari
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. METHODS: In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians...
September 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527280/-performance-of-led-fluorescence-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-acid-fast-bacilli-from-respiratory-samples-in-peripheral-laboratories-in-argentina
#20
María Imaz, Sonia Allassia, Mónica Aranibar, Alba Gunia, Susana Poggi, Ana Togneri, Lidia Wolff, Group Of Implementation Of Fluorescence
INTRODUCTION: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for tuberculosis diagnosis, but its accuracy in HIV-infected patients remains controversial, and only some few studies have explored procedural factors that may affect its performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of LED-FM for tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with and without HIV infection using a newer, less expensive LED lamp...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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