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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#1
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433962/ten-minute-snapshots-a-team-approach-to-teaching-postgraduates-about-professional-dilemmas
#2
Prabha S Chandra, G Ragesh, Santosh K Chaturvedi
As medical professionals, most of us face professional dilemmas that catch us unawares and are not discussed in medical training. One often learns about these dilemmas on one's own and deals with them with a common sense approach, rather than reflection. The professional dilemmas may concern receiving gifts from patients, handling issues of confidentiality or dealing with personal questions. There is seldom any formal instruction in competencies related to professionalism, especially in India. We adopted a team approach to provide training in these issues to postgraduate trainees in mental health and to engage them in discussion, using team feedback on snapshots of real-life professional situations, which were simulated through role play...
April 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433731/effectiveness-of-a-role-play-simulation-program-involving-the-sbar-technique-a-quasi-experimental-study
#3
Mi Yu, Kyung Ja Kang
BACKGROUND: Accurate, skilled communication in handover is of high priority in maintaining patients' safety. Nursing students have few chances to practice nurse-to-doctor handover in clinical training, and some have little knowledge of what constitutes effective handover or lack confidence in conveying information. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a role-play simulation program involving the Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation technique for nurse-to-doctor handover; implement the program; and analyze its effects on situation, background, assessment, recommendation communication, communication clarity, handover confidence, and education satisfaction in nursing students...
April 9, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432423/note-on-the-coefficient-of-variations-of-neuronal-spike-trains
#4
Johannes Lengler, Angelika Steger
It is known that many neurons in the brain show spike trains with a coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike times of approximately 1, thus resembling the properties of Poisson spike trains. Computational studies have been able to reproduce this phenomenon. However, the underlying models were too complex to be examined analytically. In this paper, we offer a simple model that shows the same effect but is accessible to an analytic treatment. The model is a random walk model with a reflecting barrier; we give explicit formulas for the CV in the regime of excess inhibition...
April 21, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432039/simulation-training-evaluating-the-instructor-s-contribution-to-a-wizard-of-oz-simulator-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-ultrasound-training
#5
Aric Katz, Ronnie Tepper, Avraham Shtub
BACKGROUND: Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow's graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking...
April 21, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431087/a-method-for-learning-a-sparse-classifier-in-the-presence-of-missing-data-for-high-dimensional-biological-datasets
#6
Kristen Severson, Brinda Monian, J Christopher Love, Richard D Braatz
Motivation: This work addresses two common issues in building classification models for biological or medical studies: learning a sparse model, where only a subset of a large number of possible predictors is used, and training in the presence of missing data. This work focuses on supervised generative binary classification models, specifically linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The parameters are determined using an expectation maximization algorithm to both address missing data and introduce priors to promote sparsity...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430266/machine-learning-approach-to-oam-beam-demultiplexing-via-convolutional-neural-networks
#7
Timothy Doster, Abbie T Watnik
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams allow for increased channel capacity in free-space optical communication. Conventionally, these OAM beams are multiplexed together at a transmitter and then propagated through the atmosphere to a receiver where, due to their orthogonality properties, they are demultiplexed. We propose a technique to demultiplex these OAM-carrying beams by capturing an image of the unique multiplexing intensity pattern and training a convolutional neural network (CNN) as a classifier. This CNN-based demultiplexing method allows for simplicity of operation as alignment is unnecessary, orthogonality constraints are loosened, and costly optical hardware is not required...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429722/use-of-a-visual-aid-in-addition-to-a-collector-bag-to-evaluate-postpartum-blood-loss-a-prospective-simulation-study
#8
M Brooks, G Legendre, S Brun, P-E Bouet, L Pereira Mendes, B Merlot, L Sentilhes
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the most common causes of mortality in obstetrics worldwide. The accuracy of estimated blood loss is a priority in determining appropriate treatment. Will the additional use of a visual aid improve physicians' accuracy in estimating blood loss compared to the use of a collector bag and baby scale alone? Simulation training sessions created three vaginal delivery scenarios for participants to estimate volumes of blood loss: firstly, using only a collector bag and a baby weight scale and secondly, adding a visual aid depicting known volumes of blood...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428604/in-vitro-cavity-and-crown-preparations-and-direct-restorations-a-comparison-of-performance-at-the-start-and-end-of-the-fd-programme
#9
F J T Burke, V Ravaghi, L Mackenzie, N Priest, H C Falcon
Aim To assess the performance and thereby the progress of the FDs when they carried out a number of simulated clinical exercises at the start and at the end of their FD year.Methods A standardised simulated clinical restorative dentistry training exercise was carried out by a group of 61 recently qualified dental graduates undertaking a 12 months' duration foundation training programme in England, at both the start and end of the programme. Participants completed a Class II cavity preparation and amalgam restoration, a Class IV composite resin restoration and two preparations for a porcelain-metal full crown...
April 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428540/temporal-dynamics-of-saccades-explained-by-a-self-paced-process
#10
Roy Amit, Dekel Abeles, Izhar Bar-Gad, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Sensory organs are thought to sample the environment rhythmically thereby providing periodic perceptual input. Whisking and sniffing are governed by oscillators which impose rhythms on the motor-control of sensory acquisition and consequently on sensory input. Saccadic eye movements are the main visual sampling mechanism in primates, and were suggested to constitute part of such a rhythmic exploration system. In this study we characterized saccadic rhythmicity, and examined whether it is consistent with autonomous oscillatory generator or with self-paced generation...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426969/chemogenetic-interrogation-of-a-brain-wide-fear-memory-network-in-mice
#11
Gisella Vetere, Justin W Kenney, Lina M Tran, Frances Xia, Patrick E Steadman, John Parkinson, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Behavior depends on coordinated activity across multiple brain regions. Within such networks, highly connected hub regions are assumed to disproportionately influence behavioral output, although this hypothesis has not been systematically evaluated. Previously, by mapping brain-wide expression of the activity-regulated gene c-fos, we identified a network of brain regions co-activated by fear memory. To test the hypothesis that hub regions are more important for network function, here, we simulated node deletion in silico in this behaviorally defined functional network...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425947/deep-count-fruit-counting-based-on-deep-simulated-learning
#12
Maryam Rahnemoonfar, Clay Sheppard
Recent years have witnessed significant advancement in computer vision research based on deep learning. Success of these tasks largely depends on the availability of a large amount of training samples. Labeling the training samples is an expensive process. In this paper, we present a simulated deep convolutional neural network for yield estimation. Knowing the exact number of fruits, flowers, and trees helps farmers to make better decisions on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425890/biomedical-simulation-evolution-concepts-challenges-and-future-trends
#13
Carla Sá-Couto, Luís Patrão, Francisco Maio-Matos, José Miguel Pêgo
Biomedical simulation is an effective educational complement for healthcare training, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It enables knowledge, skills and attitudes to be acquired in a safe, educationally orientated and efficient manner. In this context, simulation provides skills and experience that facilitate the transfer of cognitive, psychomotor and proper communication competences, thus changing behavior and attitudes, and ultimately improving patient safety. Beyond the impact on individual and team performance, simulation provides an opportunity to study organizational failures and improve system performance...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424804/acute-medicine-finishing-school-preparing-for-the-next-step
#14
Tehmeena Khan, Nicholas Murch
The transition from registrar to consultant in medicine is one that trainees feel ill prepared for and can be extremely stressful. We devised the concept of an Acute Medicine "Finishing School" for senior trainees in London training programmes and ran sessions on CV writing, a simulated consultant interview, consultant job planning, responding to complaints and an out of hospital emergency scenario. Our feedback survey indicated that our delegates' confidence levels in all of the above aspects increased following the sessions...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423811/connecting-the-links-narratives-simulations-and-serious-games-in-prehospital-training
#15
Ilona Heldal, Per Backlund, Mikael Johannesson, Mikael Lebram, Lars Lundberg
Due to rapid and substantial changes in the health sector, collaboration and supporting technologies get more into focus. Changes in education and training are also required. Simulations and serious games (SSG) are often advocated as promising technologies supporting training of many and in the same manner, or increasing the skills necessary to deal with new, dangerous, complex or unexpected situations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate and discuss resources needed for planning and performing collaborative contextual training scenarios...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#16
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422820/comparison-of-the-etview-single-lumen-and-macintosh-laryngoscopes-for-endotracheal-intubation-in-an-airway-manikin-with-immobilized-cervical-spine-by-novice-paramedics-a-randomized-crossover-manikin-trial
#17
Pawel Gawlowski, Jacek Smereka, Marcin Madziala, Barak Cohen, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak
CONTEXT: Management of the airway of a trauma victim is considered challenging. Various approaches have been described to achieve airway control in this setup; many of them include video-assited viewing of the larynx during intubation. ETView Single Lumen (SL) is a novice single-use endotracheal tube equiped with a video camera and a light source at its distal tip. Its use was previously described in seeral clinical and training setups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the VivaSight SL compared with classic direct laryngoscopy performed with a Macintosh blade in a manikin-simulated trauma setup presenting various degrees of airway challenge when performed by inexperienced physicians...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422779/the-utility-of-high-fidelity-simulation-for-training-critical-care-fellows-in-the-management-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-emergencies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Bishoy M Zakhary, Lily M Kam, Brian S Kaufman, Kevin J Felner
OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows...
April 18, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422647/eeg-based-affect-and-workload-recognition-in-a-virtual-driving-environment-for-asd-intervention
#19
Jing Fan, Joshua W Wade, Alexandra P Key, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
OBJECTIVE: To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. METHODS: Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422583/game-simulation-drill-design-alters-the-speed-profiles-of-wheelchair-rugby-players
#20
James M Rhodes, Barry S Mason, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: This study examined the speed profiles of elite wheelchair rugby (WCR) players during game-simulation training drills of differing player number and shot-clock regulations. A secondary aim was to determine whether the profiles were further influenced by players classification. METHODS: Eight elite WCR players (low-point n = 3; high-point n = 5) were monitored using a radio-frequency based, indoor tracking system during training sessions over a 5-month period...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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